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Mar. 7. Departure for the region of Tyre and Sidon.

9. Cure of the Syrophænician woman's daughter.
11. Our Lord again near Bethsaida in Philip's dominions.
14. Miracle of the Four Thousand.
15. Cure of the blind man at Bethsaida of Galilee.
17. Avowal of Peter near Cæsarea Philippi.
25. $ The TRANSFIGURATION, in the northern part of Galilee.
27. The Temple tribute paid at Capernaum.
29. Having been refused reception by the Samaritans, Christ enters

the Peræa. -31. Crosses the Jordan in the afternoon, and passes the Sabbath

near Jericho. Apr. 1. § Jesus visits Zaccheus at Jericho. 2. Sunday. Our Lord arrives at Bethany: the supper at the house

of Simon. 3. Monday. Public entry into Jerusalem : Voice in the Temple. 4. Tuesday. Miracle on the barren fig-tree : the Temple cleared. 5. Wednesday. The last day in the Temple : prophecy on the

Mount of Olives. 6. Thursday. Christ at Bethany: in the evening he goes to Jeru

salem. (The Paschal Supper.) 7. Friday. The CruciFIXION. 8. Saturday. The (Jewish) Sabbath. The sepulchre sealed, and

a guard set. 9. Sunday. Before sunrise our Saviour left the tomb; and, not

long after, was seen by Mary Magdalene. 18. Second visit to the apostles, Thomas being present. May.- Christ appears to the apostles, and perhaps at the same time to

the Five Hundred Brethren, on a mountain in Galilee. 18. The ASCENSION OF CHRIST, near Bethany. 27. The PENTECOST. The communication of the Holy Spirit to

the apostles.

(CHIEFLY TAKEN FROM ALLEN'S QUESTIONS, PART I.)

Money mentioned in the New Testament reduced to Federal Currency.

A Mite, (Leptum, Mark xii. 42, Luke xii. 59)
A Farthing, (Quadrans, Matt. v. 26, Mark xii. 42)
A Farthing, (Assarium, Matt. x. 29, Luke xii. 6)
A Penny, (Denarius, Matt. xx. 2, Mark xiv. 5).
A Piece of Silver, (Drachm, Luke xv. 8)
Tribute Money, (Didrachm, or half-shekel, Matt. xvii. 24)
A Piece of Silver, (Stater, or shekel, Matt. xxvi. 15)
A Pound, (Roman Mina, Luke xix. 13)
A Talent of Silver, (Matt. xxv. 15) about
A Talent of Gold, about

dolls. c. m.

12 4 15 140 140 280

560 13 888 1,500,000 24,000,000

Measures of Length mentioned in the New Testament.

A Cubit, (John xxi. 8) about
A Fathom, (Acts xxvii. 28) about
A Furlong, (Luke xxiv. 13, John xi. 18) about
A Jewish Mile, (Matt. v. 41) about
A Sabbath Day's Journey, (Acts i. 12) about
A Day's Journey, (Luke ii. 44)

miles. rds. ft. i.

116

74 44 37 292 150

000000 20 to 30 000/000

Measures of Capacity mentioned in the New Testament.

A Firkin, (Metretes, John ii. 6) probably about 75 gallons, though some

say 9 gallons.
A Measure, (Satum, Matt. xiii. 33) 1 peck, 4 quarts.
A Roman Bushel, (Modius, Matt. v. 15) 1 peck.
A Cor, (Corus, or homer, Luke xvi. 7) about 14 bushels.
A Pot, (Sextarius, Mark vii. 4) about it pint.
A Bath, (Batus, Luke xvi. 6) 75 gallons.
A Measure, (Chenix, Rev. vi. 6) about one quart.

Seasons of the Year in Palestine.

66

66

1. Seed Time, corresponding to our October and November. 2. Winter,

56 December and January. 3. Cold Season,

" February and March. 4. Harvest,

April and May. 5. Summer,

66 June and July. 6. Hot Season,

66 August and September.

66

66

TO THE

GOSPEL ACCORDING TO MATTHEW.

MATTHEW, or Levi, the son of Alpheus, was probably a native of Galilee. Little is recorded of him in the New Testament. He was called by our Lord to be one of his twelve apostles, as he sat at the receipt of custom in Capernaum, in the discharge of his duties as a publican, or taxgatherer. He iminediately left all, and followed the Messiah. Those who collected the Roman revenues in Palestine were held in great odium and ignominy by the Jews, and loaded with every opprobrious name. But Jesus hesitated not to mingle with this abhorred class, and even to choose one as his apostle, as if the better to demonstrate his reliance upon a power more than human, which could employ the foolish things of the world to confound the wise, and the weak things of the world to confound the things which are mighty.

The period of Matthew's discipleship and remaining life appears to have passed without note. Uncertain traditions existed in early times that he preached the Gospel in Parthia and Ethiopia, and fell as a martyr at Naddaber, in the latter country. But the single illustrious monument that remains of him is the following work. This towers simple and majestic over the ruins of time, and bears the name of the once despised publican down to the latest posterity.

His character, as we gather it from the brief data of history, and the style, structure, and spirit of his Gospel, was marked by decision, sterling honesty, and straight-forwardness. He showed his meekness in recording himself as one of a hated and ignominious calling; and his modesty in forbearing to state that the feast, which took place after he was called by Jesus, was due to his hospitality. The marks of his unswerving truth and honest independence are traceable throughout his work.

He is generally supposed to have written his Gospel before the others, and hence it has always been placed first. At what exact period it was composed is unknown. Some critics assign it to A. D. 38 or 41, while others, with more probability, conjecture it to have been written as late as A.D. 61 or 64. The great authority of Lardner is in favor of the last date.

Matthew is believed to have used the Hebrew language in the original composition of his Gospel ; or rather a mixed dialect termed Aramean, or Syro-Chaldaic, made up of Hebrew, Chaldaic, and Syriac, -our Saviour's vernacular tongue. According to Eusebius, it is stated by Papias, who lived about A. D. 100, that “ Matthew composed his history in the Hebrew dialect, and every one translated it as he could ; " and by Irenæus, A. D. 190, that “ Matthew, then among the Hebrews, published a Gospel in their own language; whilst Peter and Paul were preaching the Gospel,

xxiv INTRODUCTION TO THE GOSPEL OF MATTHEW.

and founding a church at Rome.” Eusebius himself says, that " Matthew, having first proclaimed the Gospel in Hebrew, when on the point of going to other nations, committed it to writing in his native tongue, and thus supplied the want of his presence to them by his writings.” No copy of this Gospel, however, is now extant in the Aramean, or Syro-Chaldaic language. All existing manuscripts are in Greek. The translator of the work from the original into Greek is unknown.

The Gospel of Matthew was written and circulated particularly in Palestine, and was designed by its author to exhibit Jesus to the Jews as their Messiah, who had been so long predicted, and so eagerly expected. Hence he often quotes from their sacred books in the way of illustration, and to show the fulfilment of ancient prophecies, thus enlisting in the cause of the Gospel their national feelings and religious associations. As he wrote for the Jews, he takes less pains than Mark, who wrote for the Latin Christians, to explain the manners, customs, opinions, ceremonies, and geography of the country.

The Gospel of Matthew," says Dr. Carpenter," from the Temptation to the Last Journey to Jerusalem, is essentially Galilean. During that interval, he gives no intimation of occurrences in any part of Palestine, but Galilee and its borders."

“ Great brevity in the relation of facts, and detail in the record of discourses, are two of the characteristics of St. Matthew's Gospel. His manner is calmly earnest throughout; and it has the impress of deep conviction and certain knowledge. He gives a clear, but compressed summary of the transactions which he relates ; entering but little into the circumstances of each ; yet tracing the main fact distinctly and forcibly. For this style of composition, his official duties had, it is probable, peculiarly qualified him ; that it is lis style is not to be disputed.”

The writer above quoted considers Matthew's order of events, in respect to chronological arrangement, as preferable to that of the other evange lists, though there are exceptions in some places. The devotion of thirty years, with more or less application, to the study of the Four Gospels, entitles his opinions to a candid attention.

The first two chapters of Matthew, the passage contained in chap xxvii. verses 3 – 10 inclusive, and the latter clause of verse 52 and the whole of verse 53, in the same chapter, are deemed by some critics, chiefly out of respect to the internal evidence as weighed in their judgments, to be interpolations. But the external evidence from manuscripts, versions, and the early fathers, was not of such a nature as to lead Griesbach to reject either of the passages from the text, or to place it under a mark of inferior authority. And his decisions, so far as that kind of testimony is concerned, have been admitted with great unanimity by almost all critics of every denomination.

THE

CHAPTER I.

The Genealogy and Birth of Jesus Christ. THE book of the generation of Jesus Christ, the son of 2 David, the son of Abraham. Abraham begat Isaac; and

1. The book of the generation. Joshua. Jesus is the Greek, and The table of the genealogy, or the Joshua is the Hebrew form of the catalogue of the ancestors. This is word. Joshua is called Jesus in probably not the title of the whole Acts vii. 45; Heb. iv. 8. — Christ. Gospel, but the heading of the first Anointed. The same in Greek as chapter, or, more likely, of the first Messiah in Hebrew. Dan. ix. 25. seventeen verses. See Gen. v. 1, Priests, Prophets, and Kings were xi. 10; Ruth iv. 18. The Jews anointed as a sign of induction into were very careful to preserve their their respective offices. Exodus xl. genealogies. Copies of them were 15; 1 Kings xix. 16. It was usukept at Jerusalem, and handed down al among the Orientals to give sighundreds of years. This was done, nificant names to their children. Our in addition to the desire common to Lord was a Saviour to the world, all men of knowing their ancestry, as he came to rescue and preserve in order to distinguish the tribes men from sin, and a Messiah, or and families from each other, to Christ, an Anointed one, to the secure the fulfilment of the laws Jews, as succeeding in some sense respecting marriage, and the rights to their Kings, Priests, and Prophof succession to offices and estates, ets, combining their offices in his and to afford the means of ascer- commission, and fulfilling the old taining in what tribe the Messiah prophecies. Son of David, fc. was born.

Priests who had not Descendant of David and Abraham. kept their lineage accurately were It was essential that the Messiah degraded from their office. Ezra should be able to trace his ancestry ii. 62 ; Neh. vii. 64. Eusebius, to these distinguished persons, so the earliest ecclesiastical historian, venerable to the Jewish mind. Matmentions, on the authority of Afri- thew was writing to Jewish concanus, a tradition that Herod the

verts, and he writes in accordance Great committed the Hebrew gene- with their feelings. It is generally alogies kept in the public archives supposed that he gives the descent to the flames, that he might con- of Joseph, the reputed father of ceal his ignoble extraction, but that Jesus. Whilst Luke, writing for they were restored either by recol- Gentiles, traces the pedigree of Jelection, or by private copies. The sus from Mary through her father public documents were utterly de- Heli, through Nathan, David, and stroyed in the sack of Jerusalem Abraham, back to Adam, the anand the dispersion of the nation by cestor of both Jews and Gentiles the Romans, A. D. 70. Other na- Luke iii. 23 – 38. Their lists are tions have prided themselves upon different, but not contradictory, their genealogies. The Welsh pre- They drew them no doubt from the tend to carry theirs back to Adam. same archives at Jerusalem. If - Jesus. Saviour ; the same as then the genealogies are inaccurate,

3

VOL. I.

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