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underwriters159,
226, 227, 230, 231, 277-279, 285, 2002 | 203.127144, 154, 157, 159, 162, 174,

, , 260, 329.
Insurance companies, Am. and for., New Lloyd's inspection policy, 73, 74, 127,
York, 285, 286.

139, 143, 154, 155, 172, 174, 218, 221,
Insurance companies, Am. and for., San 222, 329.
Francisco, 288–290.

Lloyd's Register, British, 72, 73, 80-85,
Insurance dependency, evils, 293, 294. 127, 139, 143, 155, 172, 174, 183, 188,
Insurance discrimination against United 189, 195, 200, 202, 221, 251, 304, 3:3.
States, 296, 301, 304.

Lloyd's requirements, 350.
Insurance reports, foreign, 296–308. Load-line question, 328-337, 439–456.
Insurance reports, New

York, 280. Loading rules, Brit. and Am., 242, 243,
Insurance reports, San Francisco, 286. 249, 297.
Insurance, wheat, discriminative, 228– London “ Times," lament, 113, 157;
230, 257, 261, 269.

boast, 157.
International conference, Geneva, 316. Longevity of vessels, 194, 197–199, 214,
International correspondence, load-line, 215.
329, 330.

Losses, Am., by discriminative freights,
International maritime conference, 238, 265–268, 415.
Washington, 329.

Losses before and during the war, 150,
Intervention, British, 143, 154, 174, 222, 163, 379.
225.

Losses from decline of marine, 425, 462-
Irish famine, 137.

466.
Iron ships least efficient, 245, 249. Losses of carriage, see“ tables of ton-
Iron ships, sail and steam, 58, 60, 69– nage," etc., 86, 305, 402-466.

71, 74, 83, 143, 144, 148, 151, 156, 159, Losses of a single year, 135, 367, 368.
175, 188, 189, 192, 201-218, 238–245, Losses of shipping per capita, see
257, 281.

“ tables of tonnage,

96, 365, 462-
Italian shipping policy, 388, 393, 404. 466.

Losses, running steamers, 342, 313.
Jefferson's appreciation of navigation, 1, Losses, ships and cargoes, 4 years, 252.
30-32, 41, 98.

Losses under tariff, 1852–33, 166, 365.
Jefferson's naval policy, 100, 101. Losses under tariff, 1846, 108, 368.
Jefferson's report, fisheries, 30, 41, 153, Louis XIV., of France, 5, 6, 104.
404.

Lynch committee on shipping decline,
Jettison of cargo, 241, 242.

153, 104, 433, 434.
John II., King of Portugal, 220.
Jones, J. D., statement, ins., 280-286, Madison, James, industrial protection,
291.

17, 32, 94.
Judgment, Am. shipowners, 254. Madison, James, slip-protection, 32, 93,

94.
Kentucky, free-ship politics, 213. Marcy, Wm. L., Sec'y of State, priva-
King, Senator of New York, 152.

teering, 87, 88.
Knowledge, little, is dangerous, 213. Marine Board, Treasury Department,

402.
Lake shipping, 190, 271, 315, 347–350, Marine Ins. business, United States,
421.

277–295.
Lake traffic management, 351.

Marine Ins. business, foreign, 296–309.
Lake vs. ocean steamers, 345–319. Marine Insurance power, 219, 277–279,
Last words of William Windom, 420- 293, 294, 306.
427.

Marine papers, 37, 306, 386.
Law, protective of lake traffic and Maritime pursuits, 26, 187, 371, 373.
coasting trade, 271, 272.

Maritime reciprocity, 56, 77, 102, 104,
Light-money tax, 98, 318, 323, 324, 365, 106, 109, 110, 112, 127, 138, 141, 157,
366.

179, 180, 364, 372.
Lindsay, W. S., London, shipping, 70. Maritime States, 37, 52, 276, 371, 372,
Livingston, W. A., “twenty-foot chan-

376.
nel," 271.

Mail subsidy bill, 456,459.
Liverpool Corn Exchange, 229, 230, Managers, transport lines, 345.
291.

Manning, Daniel, Sec'y of Treasury, 385.
Lives lost, shipwreck, 254, 257.

Materials for vessels, 119, 140, 143, 144,
Lloyds degrade our ships, 154, 174, 222. 188, 221, 222, 246, 276, 304, 311, 374,
Lloyds, discriminating policies, 60, 73-| 383, 384, 386, 390.

McCulloch, Hugh, Sec'y of Treasury, Navigation, Brit., acts of, 10, 46, 60, 63,
371, 381-385.

64, 369.
McDougall, Alexander, whalebacks, 349, Navigation and commerce, different
350, 443.

periods, 18, 43, 48.
McLane, Louis, Sec'y of Treasury, 363. Navigation laws, Am. and Brit., 56–61,
Means of peace and progress, 3, 9, 41, 177, 369, 370, 423.
96, 372, 373.

Navigation policy of England, 62.
Mercantile discrimination, Brit., 227- Navigation policy of United States, 41,
229, 297, 307.

423.
Mercantile interest, Am., 28, 152, 228, Navigation, progress of, 42, 43, 51.
229, 233, 270, 279, 372, 373.

Navigation and social improvement, 51.
Mercantile interest, Brit., 59, 60, 228, Navy Department, 403, 408, 410.
229, 233, 235, 297, 307.

Necessity for ships, 2, 39, 41, 44, 162,
Merchant Heets as navies, 44, 64, 89-91, 187, 276.
326.

New and old materials, French ins., 304.
Merchant shipping act, Brit., 70. New British protections, Lloyds, 127 ;
Merchants, stripped of protection, 132, subsidy, 130; subvention, 89.
151, 270, 363.

Non-intercourse act, 100, 101.
Meredith, Wm. M., Seo'y of Treasury, Northern Maritime Conference, 2d, 315.
368, 369.

Norsemen of Europe, 4.
Meredith's circular, 138, 139, 369. Number, ships in Cal. trade, 4 years,
Merits of Brit. and Am. shipbuilding, 234.

200, 213-217.
Methods of protecting shipping, 428–437. Object of Brit. wheat, ins. trust,"
Mistakes of Congress, 152,

163, 259, 263, 225.
269, 314, 319, 338, 391, 410, 411, 424, Objections to Am. shipbuilding, 46, 176.
435.

Obligatory ins., Portuguese, 220.
Models of ships, Brit., inferiority, 66, 68, Observations on models, 250, 251.
268.

Ocean mail service, act, 456,459.
Models of ships, observations on, 250, Office, Sec’y of Treasury, 361, 362.
251, 319.

Of freeboard rules, 443-445.
Modern Brit. shipping system, 59,70,157. Obio "tonnage,” 394, 395.
Monroe doctrine, dependent on sea Oldham, J. R., N. A. and E., 345.

“Olive branch " legislation, 171, 121,
Morrill, Lot M., Sec'y of Treasury, 363. 130.
Morton, Charles B., Comr. of Nav., 401. On the down grade, 128, 131, 133, 136,
Motion of trade, carrying, 238, 239. 137, 141, 151, 155, 162, 269.
Murray, Mungo, Brit., N. A., 67. Opening of Brit. W. I. trade, 125, 126.

Opening of Nicaragua Canal, 418.
National economy, shipping of our own, Opening of Suez Canal, 155.
9–24, 30–32, 268, 373, 378.

Opinion, Att’y Gen'l tonnage-tax law,
National interest in a marine, 1-8, 10, 86, 317, 318.

28, 44, 258, 270, 378, 405, 406. Opposition to Bureau of Navigation,
National interest in maritime pursuits, 401, 402.
26-41, 258, 272, 405.

Orders in Council, Brit., 97, 100.
National use of merchant shipping, 7, 12, Oregon, trade and transport, 273, 274.
19, 32, 41, 48, 52, 89, 90.

Oregonian, Portland paper, 78–80.
Nationality, Ins. capital, N. Y., 283-285. Organization of transportation, 338-340.
Nautical Magazine, 338.

66

power, 231.

Origin, free-port proviso, tonnage-tax
Nautical progress under protection, 96, law, 320.
98, 99.

Origin and progress, London Lloyds, 80–
Naval arts and national progress, 42–54,

85, 143.
378.

Original Brit. ship. system, protective,
Naval policy of England, 62, 89.

57, 58.
Naval power, 4, 31, 41, 43, 44, 47, 62, 65, Our early shipping policy, 93–124.

88, 91, 96, 98, 131, 176, 180, 270, 378, Our footing, running steamers, 352,
382, 405, 407.

353.
Naval protection, 4, 31, 91, 96, 98, 150, Our rights at sea, 1, 2, 53, 96, 98, 218,
372, 410.

269, 405, 406, 436.
Brit., 89–92, 405. Overloading, 242, 245, 249, 253, 254,
Naval weakness, 5, 8, 45, 47–50, 53, 63,

335, 440.
89, 100, 150, 327, 372.

Owning follows building, 183–185, 188.

Naval reserve,

66

Pacific coast com. and nav., 158, 162, Pretenses, tonnage-tax refunds, 322, 324.
232-276.

Prices, wooden ships (1869), 74.
Pacific Mail Steamship Co., 156. Principle of classification, Lloyd's, pro
Packet-ships, sail, 107, 112, 128, 129, tective, 221, 251, 334, 335.
133, 144.

Principle, freeboard rules, 441-443.
Pan-American commerce, 416, 419. Principle, freighting economy, 270, 338,
Pan-American conference, 314,

351.
Patriotic views, 28, 29, 152, 373, 382, Principle, Lord Bacon's, protective, 237.
387, 388, 425, 426.

Principles, just taxation, vessels, 324,
Patten, Capt. Jarvis, 1st Com'r of Nav., 325,
401.

Principles, ship-protection, 105, 120, 131,
Peace with England, 104, 105, 117, 121. 155, 404, 405, 411, 412, 428.
Performance of grain fleets, 268. Principles, transportation, 338-340.
Performance, 100 grain ships, Brit. and Prior chartering, 79, 80.
Am., 261, 262.

Problem of the Am. ship, 218, 263, 264,
Performance, sail fleets, 4 years, 232– 294.
264, 269.

Problem of transportation, 14, 18, 19,
Peril rate per ton, ships, 256–260.

40, 41,
Perils and dangers, Brit. flag, 253, 255, Producers pay bounty to foreign ton-
257-259.

nage, 269, 270.
Period of ruin, 1861 to 1891, 150, 151. Profit-time of vessels, 191, 216, 217.
Period of the war, 151, 152.

Property losses at sea, table, 255.
Petitions, against subsidies, 145. Proportionate economy of British flag,
Petitions, for navigation laws, 03.

259.
Petitions, for tonnage bill, 411.

Proportion of tonnage surviving to dif-
Petitions, none for maritime reci- ferent ages, 210, 215.
procity," 121.

Proportion of vessels surviving to dif-
Pett, Peter, Brit. N. A., 65.

ferent ages, 208, 214.
Phelps, T. G., collector, letter, 286. Protection by bounties, 131, 154, 245,
Pilotage, 380, 386, 437.

266, 269, 306, 327, 373, 379, 380, 404,
Place-hunters and spoil, 401, 402.

405, 411-413.
Policies, Ins.,

“ Havre," Protection by discriminating duties, 429.
“Nantes," Marseilles,” 300, 303, Protection by export bounties, 429, 430.
304.

Protection by Mr. Blaine's plan, 434,
Portuguese shipbuilding, navigation, 220. 435.
Postal-service bill, emasculated and Protection by shipbuilding premiums,
enacted, 340, 311, 393, 456–459.

433, 434.
Postal steamers, 385, 390–392, 407-410, Protection by subsidy, 142, 147, 154,
435.

325-327, 374, 385, 386, 391, 405, 406,
Postal-subsidy policy, Brit., 85-87, 130, 434, 456–459.
405.

Protection to merchants and shipowners,
Premium rates, cargoes, 281-283, 287, 94, 132, 263, 266, 272, 381, 385, 390,
288.

423.
Premium rates, hulls, 280, 281, 287, 288. Public interest in administration of law,
Premium rates, hulls and cargoes,

401.
France, 300-305.

Puget Sound lumber export, table, 274.
President John Q. Adams's message, 118, Puget Sound shipyard, 227.
119.

Puncture in balloon of free ships, 215.
President Adams's message reviewed,
119-121.

Qualifications, Commissioners of Navi-
President Cleveland's message, tonnage

gation, 400, 401.
dues, 317, 318.

Question of cheapness, “free ships,"
President Grant's testimony favoring a

215.
marine (1870), 7.

Question of a Bureau of Navigation,
President Harrison, rehabilitation, 427. 398, 399.
President Ivins, Brazil mail line, 343, Question of a department of commerce,
314, 351.

360, 397.
President Jackson's proclaination, 126, Question of a load-line, 328–337.
129.

Question of tariff infinence examined,
President Jefferson's naval policy, 100, 164–173, 367, 308, 385.
101.

Question of our flag at sea, 51, 52, 146,
President Washington's farewell, 52, 53. 180, 258, 269, 406, 423, 425.

French,"

66

Raleigh, Sir Walter, on naval improve- Rivalry of the Registers, 82, 85, 189,
ment, 65.

309.
Rank among the nations, 3, 52, 53, 382. Roman shipping power, 47.
Rates of ins., Am., 280-283.

Rule America, 177.
Rates of ins., French, 300–305.

Rules for freeboard, Am., 330-337.
Rates of ins., Wheat Tariff trust, 223, Rules for iron shipbuilding, Brit., 83,
224, 226.

84, 144, 152.
Rating of ship-timber, Lloyd's, 221, 222. Rush, Richard, Secretary of Treasury,
Rating of vessels classed, 221, 225. 122, 123, 363.
Ratio, Am. to foreign arrivals, N. Y.,
285,

Safety and seaworthiness of fleets, 252,
Ratio, Am. to foreign ins. San Fran., 289. 253, 255, 257-259, 308, 309, 310.
Ratio, bounty to cost of transport, 414. Sail and steam tonnage, Am., 160, 161,
Ratio, freightage to value of cargo, 11, 391.

13, 14, 16, 19, 20, 23, 31, 32, 34, 35, Sailing-ship performance, 232-264, 269.
38, 268, 273-275.

School, naval architecture, Brit., 67.
Ratio, life to durability of vessels, 199. Sea-life of vessels, 190, 197, 199, 225.
Ratio, sail to steam, foreign trade, 40, Sea-power in history, 4, 43-45, 378.
391.

Sealing rights invaded, 7.
Reciprocal liberty of commerce, 56, 102, Secretary of Commerce proposed, 360,

141, 153, 163, 358, 393, 424, 426. 361, 402.
Record of American and Foreign Ship- Secretary of the Treasury, 277, 296, 361,

ping, 83, 183, 282, 309, 329, 409, 452. 362, 400, 401, 409, 410.
Reduction in crews, Brit., 355, 356. Sentiment, Brit. shipping, 60, 246, 247,
Reëxport trade, 134, 137.

297, 329.
Refunding, tonnage taxes, 320–322. Sharpness of hulls, loading, 333, 334.
Registered steam tonnage, 161. Sherman, John, Sec'y of Treasury, 374
Registers, marine, of world, 309.

379.
Regulation of trade, 29, 30, 272, 276, Shipbuilding, a civilizing art, 42, 50.
295.

Shipbuilding, a test of manliness, 50,
Regulation of triangular trade, 435, 436. 378.
Regulation of underwriting, 294, 295. Shipbuilding essential to independence,
Rehabilitation of the Am. arine, 177, 1, 3, 26–28, 42, 47, 48, 50, 52–54, 58,

227, 264, 276, 295, 354, 373, 375, 382, 59, 62, 65, 66, 83, 90, 95, 101, 144, 152,
385, 390, 396, 411, 416.

176, 187, 306, 373, 378, 382.
Relief for England, final act of reci- Shipbuilding, influence on history, 32,
procity, 114, 364, 369.

33, 42, 47, 48, 305, 306, 378.
Remarks on period of 1856-60, 147. Shipbuilding protected, 95, 164, 176,
Repeal of discrim. duties, 110, 363, 370. 177, 182, 186, 376, 387.
Repeal of, injurious laws, 114, 120, 134, Shipbuilding since the war, 232, 372,

135, 139, 163, 319, 322, 373, 390, 424, 374, 375, 378.
429.

Shipbuilding, value of (1891), 178.
Repeal of tonnage-tax law, 322–324. Ship market, 174, 185, 192, 193, 305, 306.
Report, consular, Havre, insurance, 298– Shipowner's profits, 36, 191, 216, 217.
305.

Shipowning goes with building, 179,
Report. consular, Newcastle-on-Tyne, in- 182-184, 305, 378.
surance, 296.

Shipping business, 35, 52, 373, 382.
Reports, collectors of customs, insur- Shipping, different nations, safety, 300,

ance, 277, 280, 286.
Reports, Secretaries of the Treasury, Shipping economy, 187–193, 271, 338a

362-396.
Reports, Secretaries, summed up, 396, Shipping independence, 187, 264, 269,
397.

272, 375, 378, 382, 387.
Retrogression, 1811-1815, 102; 1861- Shipping in foreign trade, 34, 37, 38,

1865, 151 ; 1876–1880, 157, 160, 162, 149. See Tables of Tonnage.
365, 367, 369, 370, 380, 392.

Shipping per capita, 34, 37, 38, 149, 155.
Review, foreign insurance systems, 305– See Tables of Tonnage.
310.

Ship-protection, 32, 43, 75, 76, 87, 91,
Review, losses from unfortunate legisla- 93, 94, 96-98, 127, 130, 131, 133, 144,

tion, 162, 163, 170, 365, 367, 369, 370. 152, 162, 305, 306, 308, 326, 327, 363,
Richardson, William A., Secretary of 361, 371, 372, 376, 378, 379, 383, 384,
Treasury, 373, 374.

392, 395, 411-413.

310.

359.

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Ship-protection by tariff, 93, 95, 97, 128, Table, losses from acts of Congress, 163.
147, 387, 423.

Table, extent bounty payments, 417.
Ship-protection by tonnage dues, 93, 94, Table, subsidies, mail payments, Great
96-98, 105, 147, 387, 390, 423.

Britain and United States, 467, 468.
Ship-protectiou, principle of early policy, Table VI., Performance of ships, part
105, 119, 120.

1st, 234; 2d, 241 ; 3d, 252 ; 4th, 255;
Ships, weapons of war, 44, 89, 378. 5th, 257.
Shipwright's Company, Brit., 65. Tables I., II., III., and IV., comparison,
Shipwrights imported, Eng., 7, 46.

freeboards, 330, 331.
Silver problem, the, 23, 178, 179. Tables I., II., III., IV., and V., fleets,
Size of ships, Cal. trade, 233-234, 262. survival Am. and Brit. vessels, 200
Slow teaching of experience, designing, 211.
310, 313.

Tables, tonnage, commerce, and carriage,
Sources, free-ship machination, 175, 176. 96, 97, 99, 102, 111, 122, 128, 129, 131,
Southern building and owning, 183, 184. 133, 139, 140, 145, 151, 153, 156–158,
Sovereignty of the sea, 2, 43, 63, 127, 160.
176.

Tables, wages of seamen, 357–359.
Spanish maritime power, 5, 48–50. Taboo, Brit., of Am. ins., 228-230, 293.
Spanish shipping policy, 353, 354, 372, Taney, Roger B., Sec'y of Treasury, 364.
389, 393.

Tariff acts, influence of, 16+-173, 367,
Speed, Am. superiority, 243, 244, 247, 368, 385, 386.
269.

Tariff and shipping reciprocity, 431, 432.
Speed, lake steamers, 346, 349.

Tariff and volume of trade, 171.
Speed, voyage days, San. Fran. to Liver- Tariff bill of 1828, 119, 165, 364, 369.
pool, 241, 269.

Tariff for revenue, Walker's, 134, 367,
Spencer, John C., Sec'y of Treasury, 368.
365.

Tariff reciprocity, 431.
State Department, 87, 296, 314, 317. Taxation of vessels, 312–325, 373, 380.
State insurance protection, 220.

Taxes paid foreigners (Griffin), 24.
Statistics, production, Mulhall, 422. Taxes, tariff and freightage, 22.
Steam navigation, 85-87, 161, 325–327, Test of economic building, 189, 192, 194,
388.

214, 215, 217, 256, 257, 348.
Strength, lake steamers, 316, 347. Test office, tonnage surveys, 316, 317.
Stripping off ship-protection, 102, 103, Text of tonnage bill, 407-410.

108-110, 112, 114, 145, 146, 156, 176. The free-ship notion imported, 177.
Struggle to recover (1886–70), 153. Theory, ship-protection, duties, 119, 120.
Subsidy protection, 142, 147, 154, 325- Tide of the fifties, 141, 147.

327, 374, 385, 386, 391, 405, 406, 434, Tonnage, seamen, under five flags, 45.
456-459.

Tonnage bill, 206, 207, 312, 393, 407,
Subsidized foreign tonnage, 325–327, 413-419, 420, 436, 437, 459.
406, 412.

Tonnage bill and estimates, 404-419.
Substitution, iron for wood, 144, 152, Tonnage classification, Brit., 77, 144,
188, 189, 239, 305, 377, 381, 384.

189.
Subvention policy, Brit., 89, 326, 405. Tonnage destroyed by cruisers, 150.
Suez Canal opening, 155.

Tonnage, eligible and not, 417.
Superior survival, Brit. wood sail, 212. Tonnage gains, 111, 113, 141, 142.
Superiority, Am., iron fastening and Tonnage in statistics may represent idle-

ness, 169, 370.
Superiority, Am. ships, 195, 197–199, Tonnage lost annually, different flags,
202, 208, 210, 212–215, 217, 225, 238,

309, 310.
246, 253-255, 257, 261, 262, 309, 310. Tonnage mensuration, Am., 69, 316,
Suppression, bureau report, 277, 296, 317.
401.

Tonnage mensuration, Brit., 67–69.
Survival of vessels, 199, 200, 204, 208, Tonnage needed, now and future, 39, 40,
210-217, 225.

162.
Survival, final comparison, 214.

Tonnage of subsidy, 325-327.
System of protection needed, 437. Tonnage, proportion, at different ages,

210, 215.
Table, cost running steamers, 353. Tonnage rules, foreign net, 315, 316.
Table, discriminative ins., 75, 223, 224. Tonnage sold off, 123, 140, 150, 152,
Table, growth, thrift, decline, shipping, 169.
162-108.

Tonnage-tax collections, 323, 380.

canvas, 165.

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