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Car. I. c. 11), A.D. 1641. In 1642 bishops | of Triers, as they were termed, in al! were deprived of their seats in parliament, thirty-eight in number, of whom part and their lands were subsequently seized were Presbyterians, part Independents, for the expenses of the civil war. Par- and a few Baptists, to which was given, liament passed numerous ordinances by without any instructions or limitations which many hundreds of clergymen were whatever, the power of examining, apturned out of their livings. The cathedral proving, or rejecting all persons that service was everywhere put down, and might thereafter be presented, nominated the clergy were left to read the Liturgy chosen, or appointed to any living in the or not, as they pleased, and to take their church. This was tantamount to dividing own way in other things. Marriage was the church livings amongst these differmade a civil rite, and was performed by ent religious bodies ; but the measure justices of the peace. In 1643 the Assem was designed by Cromwell to restrain bly of Divines was called together by an the excessive liberty that had previously order of the two Houses of Parliament, existed, when any one who chose might to give their advice respecting a new sys set up as a preacher, and so give himself tem of ecclesiastical polity. (WESTMIN a chance of obtaining a living in the STER ASSEMBLY OF DIVINES.] The church. The Board of Triers continued majority of the assembly were Presby: to sit and to exercise its functions a terians; and, in place of the suppressed Whitehall, till a short time after the death Liturgy, they formed a Directory of Pub- of Cromwell. lic Worship, which was established by As soon as the Restoration of Charles an ordinance of the parliament on the II. was effected in 1660, the work of re3rd of February, 1645. The assembly constructing the Established Church Fas also laid down a Confession of Faith, commenced. The convention parliament which comprehended a Presbyterian form passed an act (12 Car. II. c. 17) " for the of ecclesiastical polity, and was at once confirming and restoring of ministers; received by the Scottish Church ; but it and the next parliament, which met in was never distinctly sanctioned by the May, 1661, repealed the act which disEnglish legislature. On the 6th of June, abled persons in holy orders from er: 1646, an act was passed which partially ercising any temporal jurisdiction or established the Presbyterian form of authority, the effect of which was to church government in England ; but restore the bishops to their seats in the his was confessedly done by way of ex- Upper House. periment, as the preamble of the act ex The Book of Common Prayer, which pressly declares, “that if upon trial it had been revised by a cominission sp was not found acceptable it should be pointed by Charles II. after his restoration, reversed or amended;" and to this law a was unanimously adopted by both houses further effect was afterwards given by of convocation, and having been approved several additional ordinances of the House of by the king, was transmitted to the of Commons; till at last, in 1649, it was House of Peers on the 24th of February, declared, without qualification, by the 1662, with a message from his majesty, House, that Presbyterianism should be the recommending that the book so altered established religion. The Presbyterian should be that " which in and by the inform of church government, however, tended Act of Uniformity shall be ap pever obtained more than a limited and pointed to be used by all that officiate in imperfect establishment. The clergy all cathedrals and collegiate churches were pot exclusively Presbyterians: some and chapels, and in all parish churches benefices were retained by their old Epis- of England and Wales, under such sanecopalian incumbents ; a few were held by tions and penalties as the parliament shall Independents; and some by persons be- think fit." The act here alluded to relonging to the minor sects, which in- ceived the royal assent on the 19th of creased so abundantly at this time. At May (14 Car. II. c. 4), and was entitled last, in March, 1653, Cromwell, by an “An Act for the Uniformity of Public ordinance of council, appointed a Board | Prayers and Administration of Sacra


ments, and other Rites and Ceremonies, | testant Presbyterian Church of Scotand for establishing the form of making, land, and the doctrine, discipline, and ordaining, and consecrating Bishops, government thereof respectively, are Priests, and Deacons, in the Church of by the laws of this realm severally England.” It provided that all ministers established, permanently and inviolably: should henceforth use the amended Book and whereas it is just and fitting, that of Common Prayer, and that all persons on the repeal of such parts of the said who enjoyed any ecclesiastical benefice acts as impose the necessity of taking or promotion should publicly declare the sacrament of the Lord's Supper, their assent to the use of the same, and according to the rite or usage of the their approval of everything contained in Church of England, as a qualification for it: and, besides the oath of canonical office, a dec.aration to the following effect obedience, the terms of conformity were should be substituted in lieu thereof, it now made to include the abjuration both is therefore enacted, that every person of the solemn league and covenant, and who shall hereafter be placed, elected, or of the lawfulness of taking up arms against chosen in or to the office of mayor, alderthe king, or any commissioned by him, on man, recorder, bailiff, town clerk, or comany pretence whatsoever.

mon councilman, or in or to any office of During the reign of Charles II. many magistracy, or place, trust, or employment acts were passed for the punishment of relating to the government of any city, persons who did not conform to the Esta- corporation, borough, or cinque port withblished Church. Some of them were in England and Wales, or the town of even more severe than those passed in Berwick-upon-Tweed, shall within one the reigns of Elizabeth and James I. calendar month next before or upon his [NONCONFORMISTS.]

admission into any of the aforesaid ofWilliam III. was more tolerant than fices or trusts, make and subscribe the most of his subjects, and soon after his declaration following :

-I, A. B., do accession he proposed a repeal of the Test solemnly and sincerely, in the presence Act, the statute most obnoxious to the of God, profess, testify, and declare, upon Nonconformists; but the House of Lords the true faith of a Christian, that I will rejected a motion to this effect. Even never exercise any power, authority, or tually, however, an act was passed (1 influence which I may possess, by virtue Wm. III. c. 18) which mitigated the of the office

to injure or enactments against all sects except the weaken the Protestant Church as it is by Roman Catholics. We must again refer law established in England, or to disturb to the article NoNCONFORMISTS, for a the said church, or the bishops and clergy brief notice of the Toleration Act, and of the said church, in the possession of some other statutes of a like character. any rights or privileges to which such Between this act of Wm. III. and the church, or the said bishops and clergy, reign of Geo. IV. little was done to re are or may be by law entitled.'” The lieve Nonconformists or Roman Catholics 7th section of the act provides that no from any of the penalties against those naval officer below the rank of rear-adwho did not conform to the doctrines and miral, and no military officer below the discipline of the Protestant Established rank of major-general in the army, or Church of England and Ireland.

colonel in the militia, shall be required In 1828 an act was passed (9 Geo. IV. to make or subscribe the above declarac. 17) "for repealing so much of several tion; and no commissioner of customs, acts as imposes the necessity of receiving excise, stamps, and taxes, or any person the sacrament of the Lord's Supper, as a holding any of the offices concerned in qualification for certain offices and em- the collection, management, or receipi of ployments.” This act, which repeals the revenues which are subject to the the Test Act, provides another security said commissioners, or any persons subin lieu of the tests repealed : “And ject to the authority of the postmasterwhereas the Protestant Episcopal Church general, shall be required to make or deof England and Ireland, and the Pro-scribe such declaration.


In 1829, when the Roman Catholic The principle of the state maintaining Relief Act (10 Geo. IV. c. 7) was passed, an exclusive system of education in aca provision was made for the security of cordance with the principles and doctrines the Established Church; and the oath to of the Established Church has been par. be taken by Roman Catholic peers on tially abandoned both in England and taking their seat in the House of Lords, Ireland. The parliamentary grants for and Roman Catholic persons upon taking education are enjoyed by dissenters as their seat as members of the House of well as churchmen. In Ireland the state Commons, contains the following pledge, supports schools which are established on which is sworn to "on the true faith of the plan of not permitting the inculcation a Christian :” “I do hereby disclaim, dis- of the peculiar doctrines of any religious avow, and solemnly abjure any intention body as a part of the regular course of to subvert the present Church Establish-teaching, but religious instruction is ment as settled by law within this realm." | given by the ministers of different reli

Other acts have also been passed which gious bodies to the scholars of each denohave further departed from the old prin- mination separately. In the government ciple of requiring uniformity of reli- plan for founding provincial colleges in gious faith. The act 6 & 7 Wm. IV. Ireland the same principle has been C. 85, enables persons to be married ac- adopted. Lastly, parliament has annucording to the rites of their own sect, in-ally voted funds for the maintenance of stead of those of the Established Church an institution (Maynooth) for the educaonly; and the same act permits the mar tion of Roman Catholic priests; and in riage contract to be made by a merely 1845 this annual vote was converted into civil ceremony, in which respect the law a fixed annual payment. now resembles in effect that which was The King and Queen of England must established during the Commonwealth. be members of the Established Church, In the act 3 & 4 Vict. c. 72, which is an and may not marry a Roman Catholic; act relating to marriages, the recent acts but the only other offices from which on the same subject are alluded as being Roman Catholics are now excluded are framed with the view of enabling mar the offices of guardians and justices of the riage to be “ solemnized according to the United Kingdom, or Regent of the same, form, rite, or ceremony the parties see fit the office of Lord High Chancellor to adopt." The act for the registration of Great Britain or Ireland, the Lord of births, marriages, and deaths renders | Lieutenant of Ireland, and the office of baptism unnecessarv for civil purposes, and High Commissioner to the General Assemestablishes a lay department for the regis- | bly of the Church of Scotland. With tration of births, marriages, and deaths. these exceptions the members of the cabiThe act 3 & 4 Vict. c. 92, enabled courts net council, privy councillors, the judges of justice to admit non-parochial registers and magistrates, all offices in the state as evidence of births or baptisms, deaths and in the army and navy, may be filled or burials, and marriages. In England | by Roman Catholics or dissenters from the chaplains of gaols must be clergymen the Established Church. The repeal of of the Church of England, but in Ireland the Corporation and Test Acts opened the there may be appointed for each union Municipal Corporations to Roman Cathoworkhouse three chaplains, one Roman lics and Dissenters. Jews are the only Catholic, one of the Established Church, class of persons who are excluded from and one Protestant dissenter.

the Houses of Lords and Commons, and Rates are levied in England and Wales from municipal corporations ; but a bill called Church Rates, which Noncon- under the superintendence of the governformists are required to pay as well as ment is at present passing through parchurchmen. In Ireland the churches are liament which contains a form of oath kept in repair out of funds in the hands to be taken by Jews who are elected to of the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, municipal offices in corporate boroughs. which are derived from extinguished sees There are at present instances of persons and other sources.

of the Jewish religion who fill the office

of high sheriff, and are in the commission | advantages of these endowed seats of of the peace. [Jews.]

| learning. (UNIVERSITY.] The connection between the Church The revenues of the Established Church and State has been brought within com- in England and Wales, as returned to the paratively narrow limits by the course Ecclesiastical Commissioners in 1831, of recent legislation. The Established were as follows: Church is in possession of revenues from

Gross. Net. land, a large part of which are enjoyed


£ under the old law of Frankalmoigne. Archbishops and bi[FRANKALMOIGNE.] The clergy also re


181,631 160,292 ceive certain customary payments for Cathedral and collethe performance of marriages, christen giate churches and ings, and internients. Its form of polity

ecclesiastical corpois also guaranteed by the State. Parlia

rations aggregate 284,241 208,289 ment may alter the distribution of the pro

Prebends and other perty of the Church, as it has recently preferments in cathe done by uniting and suppressing bishop

dral and collegiate rics, creating new sees, abolishing sine


54,094 44,705 cures, and disposing of some parts of the Renewals of leases revenues of the church for other church (average of three purposes (ECCLESIASTICAL COMMIS years)

21,760 21,760 SIONERS; BISHOPRIC); but it has not yet Benefices* (10,718) 3,251,159 3,055,451 sanctioned the diversion of the revenues of the Church to other purposes, though

£3,792,885 3,490,497 it has been on the point of doing so in the The following is an account of all payo case of the revenues of the Established ments from the public monies to the EsChurch in Ireland.

tablished Church of England and Ireland, On the 25th of April, 1836, Lord Mor- or to the commissioners of Queen Anne's peth, who was then Secretary for Ireland, Bounty, from 1801 to 1840, both inclubrought in a measure which contained a sive:clause known as the “ Appropriation


£ Clause,” by which it was intended, after Commissioners for building supplying the legitimate wants of the new churches

1,500,000 Irish Church, to apply 97,6121. out of the Grants from 1809 to 1820 inrevenues of the Church to the moral and clusive, to governors of religious instruction of the Irish people. Queen Anne's Bounty for The principle of the appropriation clause poor clergy

1,000,000 was affirmed by the House of Commons Drawback on materials used after three nights' discussion, by a majority in building new churches . 153,000 of 300 to 261. In the House of Lords the

IRELAND. clause was rejected by 138 against 47. Grants for building churches The clergy of the Established Church from 1801 to 1820

749,551 constitute a distinct order. [CLERGY.] Grants for Protestant charterNo person can be ordained to holy orders schools from 1801 to 1829 741,043 who does not subscribe to the Liturgy and Grant for relief of tithe arrears 1,000,000 the Thirty-nine Articles, which latter comprehend his assent to the doctrine of the


£5,193,599 king's supremacy. No person can hold In reference to the history of the Estaany benefice without taking the oath of blished Church in Ireland, it will be sufcanonical obedience to the bishop. The ficient here to quote the fifth article of the constitution of the Universities of Oxford, act for the Union of Great Britain with Cambridge, Durham and Trinity College, Ireland (40 Geo. III. C. 67), passed July Dublin, is such as to exclude persons 2nd, 1800, which enacts, “That it be the who do not belong to the Established Church from a full participation in the * See the article Benefice, pp. 354-5-6-7.

per cent.

fifth article of union, that the Churches without any religious service. The numof England and Ireland, as now by law ber of dissenting places of worship regisestablished, be united into one Protestant tered pursuant to 6 & 7 Wm. IV. is 2232, Episcopal Church, to be called the United while the number of marriages at each Church of England and Ireland; and place does not on an average amount to that the doctrine, worship, discipline, and three in the course of a year. government of the said united church It is stated ( App. to First Report of the shall be and shall remain in full force Commissioners of Public Instruction, Irefor ever, as the same are now by law es- land, 1834) that of the 1387 benefices in tablished for the church of England; and Ireland there were 41 which did not conthat the continuance and preservation of tain any Protestants ; 20 where there were the said united church, as the established less than or not more than 5; in 23 the church of England and Ireland, shall be number was under 10; in 31 under 15; in deemed and taken to be an essential and 23 under 20; and in 27 benefices the fundamental part of the union."

number of Protestants was not above 25. There is this, amongst other peculiari- | There were 425 benefices in Ireland ties in the Established Church in Ireland, in which the number of Protestants was that it is the church of only about a tenth below 100. There were 157 benefices in part of the population. When a special which the incumbent was non-resident, census of the population was taken in and no service was performed. The num1834, with the object of ascertaining the ber of parishes or ecclesiastical districts religious persuasion of people, it was is 2408, and of this number 2351 possess found that out of a total population of a provision for the cure of souls; but the 7 954,760 there were

total number of benefices is only 1387, as Proportion before mentioned, of which 908 are single

parishes, and 479 are unions of two or Roman Catholics 6,436,060 80.9

more parishes. Parishes are permanently Established Church 853,160 10:7 united by act of Parliament, by act of Presbyterians 643,658 8.4

Council, or by prescription, and they may Other Dissenters 21,882

be temporarily united by the authority of In England and Wales, on the con the bishop of the diocese. Latterly, pertrary, the majority of the population be- | petual curates, a new order in the Irish long to the Established Church, and it is Church, have been appointed to a portion not placed in that anomalous position of a parish especially allotted to them, the which the church occupies in Ireland. tithe of which they receive and are not There is no authentic account of the num- subject to the incumbent of the remaining ber of persons who belong to the Esta- portion of the parish, but hold their situablished Church in England and Wales, tions for life. and the number of marriages which are The episcopal revenues in Ireland are celebrated at dissenting places of worship chiefly derived from lands let upon lease is not an index of the numbers of the po- for twenty-one years, and renewed from pulation who are dissenters; but it is time to time at the original rent, on payindicative of the fact that the church has ment of a fine on renewal, which Auca considerable hold on the respect of a tuates according to the altered value of large mass even of those who do not the land. In 1831 the income of the episbelong to it, while its rites and cere copal establishment was 151,1281. This monies and doctrines contain so little to amount will in the course of a short time repulse men who are not churchmen, be reduced to 82,9531., under the operathat we find in 1842, out of 118,825 mar tion of the Church Temporalities Act riages, only 6200 (representing a popula- [BISHOP; ECCLESIASTICAL COMMISSIONtion of 805,000, out of a total of nearly ERS]; and the surplus of 68,1751. will sixteen millions) were celebrated in regis- be applied to the purposes of ecclesiastical tered places of worship, under the act of discipline and education. Some of the the 6 & 7 Wm. IV. c. 86; and in only leases belonging to the suppressed sees in 2357 cases was the ceremony celebrated | Ireland have been converted into perpe

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