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either case it was a complete separation | 401) deprived the Athenians of their of a member from the body. Such were foreign dependencies, though they were the proper colonists (årouxiai) of the partially recovered. But Athens never Greeks ; but they were not colonies in succeeded in establishing a system of cothe modern sense of the word, nor colo- lonies on a sure and lasting basis, as the nies in the Roman sense. We have Romans did. derived from the Romans the name of That the Greek settlements of a kincolony, and our colonies resemble theirs dred race should feel a common interest in a great degree, and bear no resem- in opposition to those of a rival branch is blance to the so-called Greek colonies. natural, and is proved, among other inIndeed, the Greek colonies should be stances, by the case of the deputies from called by another name; and the word Egesta in Sicily, who, while requesting “ foreign settlements,” or the German the assistance of the Athenians against term “auswanderung," comes nearer to the Syracusans and Selinuntians, urged the sense of Apoikia (anoukia) than the as an additional plea that the Leontines, term colony. When the Athenians, in who were originally Chalcidians, and later times, took possession of parts of therefore akin to the Athenians, had been Euboea (Thucyd. i. 114), and of Ægina expelled from their town by the Syra(ii. 27), of Melos (v. 116), and shared the cusans, and showed that it was the inlands among their own citizens who went terest of the Athenians to assist a kindred there, the relationship thus formed was of people against the prevailing power of a different kind, and came nearer to the the Dorian colonies in Sicily. (Thucyd. nature of a Roman and a modern colony. vi.) Yet Thucydides calls the settlers in Me Before we pass to the Roman colonies, los, Apoikoi (ČRTOLKOI); but the name Cle- we must say something of the system of ruchi was usually given to such settlers : colonization among the other inhabitants and their allotments were called Cleruchiae of the Italian peninsula in the ante(kampouxiai). In the case of Ægina the Roman times. The Etruscans extended whole population, which was of Hellenic their conquests north of the Apennines in stock, was turned out, and a body of the great plain of the Po, and founded Athenians occupied their place, with the there twelve colonies, the principal of express object of being as a body or com which was Felsina (Bologna). Aftermunity subordinate to the state of Attica, wards, having defeated the Umbrians, in order to prevent the annoyance to many years before the assumed foundawhich Attica had long been subject tion of Rome, they extended themselves by the proximity of an independent is into East and South Italy, penetrated into land so well situated both for the pur- Latium, and took Campania from the pose of annoying Attica and for self-de- Oscans, where they founded likewise fence. The relation between the settlers twelve colonies, the principal of which called Cleruchi and the parent state of was Capua. The Etruscans, being skilled Athens appears not to have been always in architecture, surrounded their towns the same; that, in some cases at least, with solid walls built of massive stones they retained all the privileges of Athe- without any cement; they were also well nian citizens is sufficiently clear. Of versed in agriculture and hydraulics, and these Athenian settlements the earliest is several of the earliest drains and canals the instance mentioned by Herodotus (v. in the Delta of the Po are attributed to 77), which belongs to the last part of the them. They subjected, but at the same sixth century B.c., of the settlement of four time civilized, the people among whom thousand Athenians in Chalcis on the con- they settled. Their colonies seem to have quered lands. The system subsequently formed independent communities, though was extended to other places, as appears allied by a kind of federation. The Etrusfrom the passages above referred to; and, cans also founded colonies in the Picenum, among other places, the island of Lesbos such as Hatria, Cupra Montana, and Cureceived Athenian settlers. (Thucydides, pra Maritima. They took from the Liiii. 50.) The battle of Ægospotami (B.c. gures the country around the gulf now

called Della Spezia, and founded the city , sent out to form a community elsewhere of Luna. They likewise sent colonies to by a decree of their state, or with the the islands of Elba and Corsica, for the general consent of the people from whom Etruscans were a commercial as well as they have departed. Those who leave agricultural people; they navigated the without such a consent, but in consesea, and in the sixth century B.C. they quence of civil dissensions, are not colodefeated the Phocæans, and drove them nies.” The notion of an early Roman out of Corsica. The Etruscans contri-colony was this: the colonists occupied buted to civilize Italy by means of their set a city already existing; and this, with tlements; but, unlike Rome, they did not perhaps one exception or two, was the keep them united under a central power. general character of the early Roman

The Sabini, an agricultural and pastoral colonies in Italy. These colonists were people, lived in the Apennines of Central a part of the Roman state; they secured Italy, and occupied part of the modern her conquests and maintained the subject Abruzzi : they sent out colonies in very people in obedience. When the Romans early times to other parts of Italy. It afterwards extended their conquests into was a custom common among many of countries where there were no regular the old Italians, after the lapse of a cer towns, or where the population was fierce tain number of years, to celebrate solemn and hostile, and the Roman settlers must sacrifices in the spring season, and to be ever on their guard against them, they consecrate to the gods a number of young built new towns in some favourable pos men, who were to quit their native land, tion. Such was the case in several parts and proceed under the auspices of Hea- of Gaul, Germany, and Spain. The first ven to seek a new country. (Dionysius, Roman colony beyond the limits of Italy Roman Antiquities, i. 16.) In this man was that founded on the site of Carthage, ner the Piceni and the Samnites are said in the tribunate of Caius Gracchus, B.C. to have been colonies of the Sabini. The 122. This colony, which was originally Samnites in their turn sent out other called Junonia, did not succeed, or was nécolonies, and the Lucanians were one of glected, owing to the dissensions at Rome: these. The Samnites, as well as the Sa- it was restored, or finally established, by bini, were entirely given to agricultural C. Julius Cæsar. (Plutarch, Caius Gracpursuits.

chus, c. 11.) Narbo Martius, Narbonne Rome, in the earliest ages, adopted the in the south of France, was one of the system of sending out colonies to those early colonies beyond the limits of Italy. parts of Italy which she conquered. The early Roman colonies then in Italy Colonies were established during the consisted of Roman citizens, who were kingly period (Livy, i. 11, 27, 56); and sent as settlers to fortified towns taken in the practice was continued after the ex war, with land assigned to them at the pulsion of Tarquinius Superbus, the last rate generally of two jugera of arable king (Livy, ii. 21, 39). But the Roman land or plantation for each man, besides colonies were different from those of most the right of pasture on the public or other people, inasmuch as they remained common land. The old inhabitants were strictly subject to the mother country, not ejected, or dispossessed of all their whose authority they were the means of property; the general rule was,

that oneenforcing upon the conquered nations. third of the territory of the town was They were, in fact, like so many garri- confiscated and distributed among the sons or outposts of Rome. Servius (Æn. colonists, and the rest was left to the i. 16) gives the following definitions of a former owners, probably subject to some colony, taken from much older autho- charges in the shape of taxes or services. rities :-“ A colony is a society of men led The colonists constituted the populus of in one body to a fixed place, furnished the captured place; they alone enjoyed with dwellings given to them under cer- political rights and managed all public tain conditions and regulations.” Again, affairs. The ownership of the publicum Colonia is so called a colendo; it consists or public property, including the pasture of a portion of citizens or confederates | land, was probably also vested in the new

settlers. It is natural to suppose, that for (Pro Cacina, c. 33) argues that the joinsome generations at least, no great sym- ing such colony must be a voluntary act. pathy existed between the old and the There is also no reason for supposing that new inhabitants, and hence we frequently the joining of a Roman colony was comhear of revolts of the colonies, which pulsory; and if it was, it follows from means, not of the colonists against the what has been said, that a Romau colonist mother city, but of the old inhabitants, retained his civic rights. These Latin who rose upon and expelled the colonists. colonies were Roman colonies, inasmuch (Livy, ii. 39; vi. 21.) But these events as they were subject to the Roman generally ended by a second conquest of state; and hence they are sometimes the place hy Roman troops, when the old called Roman colonies, which in one inhabitants were either put to the sword sense they were. But as opposed to or sold as slaves, or, under more favour- Roman colonies which consisted of able circumstances, lost at least another Roman citizens (Coloniæ civium), they third of their property. In later times, were called Latin colonies, by which during the Civil Wars of Rome, which term was denoted their political condition. commenced with the disputes between Before the Social War (B.C. 90), the Marius and Sulla, new colonies were sent following was the classification of people by the prevailing party to occupy the in the Roman dominions :place of the former ones; and the older 1. Cives Romani, Roman citizens, that colonists were then dispossessed of their is, the inhabitants of Rome, the citizens property either wholly or in part, just as of the Colonia Civium or proper Roman they had dispossessed the original inhabit- colonies, and the citizens of the Municipia ants. Sometimes colonies, especially at without reference to the stock to which a great distance from Rome, having they belonged. dwindled away, or being in danger from 2. Latini, or the citizens of the old the neighbouring people, asked for a re towns of the Latin nation, with the exinforcement, when a fresh colony was ception of those towns which were raised sent, which also received grants of land. to the rank of Municipia; and also the (Livy, ii. 21; vi. 30; xxxi. 49.) Each | nunerous and important Coloniæ Latinæ. of the older colonies, it is observed by 3. Socii (Allies), the free inhabitants Gellius (xv. 13), was a Rome in minia- of Italy who did not belong to the two ture; it had its senators called Decuriones, classes first enumerated, and belonged to its Duumviri, Ædiles, Censores, Sacer- very various national stocks. dotes, Augurs, and other officers.

4. Provincials: the free subjects of the A distinction must be made between Romans beyond the limits of Italy. Roman colonies and Latin colonies. The This is the division of Savigny (Zeita citizens who went out to form a Roman schrift für Geschichtliche Rechtswissencolony retained all their civic rights, schajt, xi. 6); and it appears to be conalthough Sigonius and some others pre- sistent with all the best ancient authoritend that they lost the franchise (jus ties. He adds that as to the political consuffragii); and yet, in various passages of dition of the people included under these Livy and elsewhere, colonists are styled four heads, those included under the first cives and Romæ censi. The members of head, Cives Romani, were alone Cives; Roman colonies which were called Latin those included under the three other heads (Coloniæ Latinæ), had not the Roman were Peregrini (aliens). According to citizenship, and those Roman citizens who this view, the members of Latin colonies went out in such a colony thereby lost before the Social War were simply subtheir suffrage; they voluntarily renounced jects of the Roman state: they had none part of their civic rights in consideration of those political capacities which were of a grant of lands. The practice was for the characteristics of Roman citizenship. those persons who were willing to join a As the term Peregrinus, however, was colony, to give in their names at Rome, very comprehensive, and included all who and as the consequence of joining a Latin were not Cives, it follows that, according colony was a loss of civic rights, Cicero | to this view, the Latinæ Coloniæ and

foreigners not under Roman dominion | different thing from the Jus Latii. “ It were precisely on the same footing as to had no reference to the status of indivithe privileges of Roman citizens; but duals, but to the condition of many comtheir condition differed in this, that munities. When a Provincial town reforeigners (aliens, properly so called)ceived as a special favour by a Privilegium were not Roman subjects, but the mem those rights which were the peculiar bers of Latin colonies were. This view privileges of the Italian towns, this favour is perhaps on the whole right, yet the was called Jus Italicum. It consisted of inhabitants of Latin colonies were in a three things: a free constitution, with the sense Cives, as contrasted with foreigners choice of their own magistrates, such as not subject to Rome, though they were are mentioned in the Italian Municipia not Roman citizens, in the sense of those and Colonies (Duumviri, Quatuorviri); who had all the capacities of Roman exemption from land-tax and poll-tax; citizenship

the capacity of the land within the limits The result of the Social War was, that of the community to be held in Roman the Roman citizenship (civitas) was given ownership (ex jure Quiritium), and the to all the inhabitants of Italy south of the consequent application to such land of the Po: all became Romani Cives; and the Roman rules of law, as to Mancipation Latini—the inhabitants of Coloniæ Latinæ and Usucapion.” (Savigny, Zeitschrift, -and the Socii were all merged in the &c., xi.) class of Cives. The distinction of Ro The correctness of this view of the mani Cives and Peregrini still subsisted ; nature of the Coloniæ Latinæ, the Labut the class of Roman citizens had be- tinitas, and the Jus Italicum, will hardly come enlarged. A new class of persons be disputed now. was now established, and distinguished by The Roman Agrarian Laws, or the the name of Latini. This term now did laws for the distribution of public land, not denote a particular people, but a poli. were often passed with the view of foundtical status—an imperfect citizenship, by ing a colony: and this became a usual virtue of which this new class had the mode of providing for veteran soldiers. right of acquiring property (commer- Perhaps one of the earliest instances is cium) just like Roman citizens; but they mentioned by Livy (xxxi. 4). The senate had not the connubium, or civic right of passed a decree for the measurement and contracting such a marriage as would be distribution of public land in Samnium a Roman marriage; in other words, a and Apulia among those veteran soldiers Roman citizen who married a woman in who had served in Africa under P. Scipio. the condition of a Latina, was not accord- | But after Sulla had defeated his opponents, ing to Roman law the father of his chil- | the grants of lands to soldiers became dren, and the children consequently were more common, and they were made to not Roman citizens. But in certain cases, gratify the demands of the army, at the a Latinus might acquire the Roman citi- cost of former settlers, who were ejected zenship, for instance, by holding the high to make way for the soldiers. Julius offices in his city. This rule was first Cæsar and Octavianus Augustus added established for the people north of the Po, to the number of these military colonies, and then given to many towns, and to and the practice of establishing them in large tracts out of Italy. The privilege parts beyond Italy existed under the of thus acquiring the Roman citizenship Empire. was the Jus Latii (Appian, Civil Wars, These colonies are distinguished by ii. 26), or Latinitas (Cicero, Ad Atticum, having military ensigns on their coins, xiv. 12); and it was given to some towns while the Coloniæ Togatæ, or citizen founded after the Social War, as Novum- colonies, have a plough on theirs. The Comum, which was founded in Italy coins of some colonies have both marks, north of the Po, by C. Julius Cæsar, B.C. which means that the original colony 59. The privilege which the Romans consisted of citizens, after which a second sometimes conferred on a town or district, was sent, composed of soldiers. In Taciunder the name of Jus Italicum, was a tus (Annal. i. 17), the veterans complain

that, after their long service, they were | and was divided into several administrarewarded only with lands situated in tive divisions. The earliest foreign posswampy tracts or on barren mountains. session that the Romans formed into a

The early system of colonies adopted province was Sicily (B.C. 241). Sardinia by Rome had a double political object; (B.C. 235) became a Roman province, and to secure the conquered parts of Italy, and the system was extended with the extento satisfy the claims of its own poorer sion of the Roman power to all those parts citizens by a division of lands among of Europe, Asia, and Africa which were them. The importance of the Roman subjected to Roman dominion. A procolonies is well expressed by Cicero, who vince was originally a foreign dependency calls them “propugnacula imperii et spe-on Rome; after all Italy became Roman, culæ populi Romani.” Such they doubtless at the close of the Republican period, we were, and at the same time, by their ex- may view all the provinces of Rome as tension beyond Italy, they were the germ foreign dependencies on Italy, of which of the civilization of Northern and West Rome was the capital. The condition of ern Europe. A nation of civilized con- the provinces, viewed as a whole, with querors, whatever evils it may inflict, respect to Rome was uniform: they were confers on the conquered people greater subject countries, subject to the ruling benefits. By their colonies in Spain, country, Italy. But the condition of the Gaul, on the banks of the Rhine, and in towns in the provinces varied very greatly: Britain, the Romans established their some had the Jus Italicum, or privilege of language and their system of administra- Italian towns, in the sense already extion. The imprint of their Empire is plained, and these were probably in most indelibly fixed on all the most civilized cases settlements of Roman citizens; some nations of Europe.

towns retained most or perhaps all of The difference between a Roman Co- their old privileges; and others were lonia and an Italian Municipium is, that more directly under the Roman governor. the latter was a town of which the inha- | Thus while the whole country was a debitants, being friendly to Rome, were left pendency on Rome, particular cities might in undisturbed possession of their pro- have all the privileges of Italian cities; perty and their local laws and political and others would be in a less favoured rights, and obtained moreover the Roman condition. Both under the Republic and citizenship, either with or without the the Empire, but still more under the Emright of suffrage; for there were several pire, the Romans established colonies both descriptions of Municipia. The Roman of Roman citizens and Latin colonies, in colonies, on the contrary, were governed their provinces; and in this way they according to the Roman law. The Mu- introduced their language and their law. nicipia were foreign limbs engrafted on Tracts of land were doubtless seized as the Roman stock, while the colonies were public land and distributed from time to branches of that stock transported to a time, but there does not appear to have been foreign soil. There is, however, some any claim on all the lands in any prodifficulty as to the precise character of an vince, as lands that the Roman state might Italian Municipium in the republican distribute, though undoubtedly the theory period of Rome; and the opinions of under the Empire was that all land in modern writers are not quite agreed. the provinces belonged to the Cæsar or

The Roman Provincial system must the Roman state (Gaius, ii. 7). And not be confounded with their Colonial this theory would have a practical effect system. A Roman province, in the later in all cases where an owner of land died sense of that term, meant a country which and left no next of kin, or anybody who was subjected to the dominion of Rome, could claim his land. The maxim also and governed by a praetor, propraetor, or implied the duty of obedience to the Roproconsul sent from Rome, who generally man state, and that rebellion or resistance held office for a year, but sometimes for to the Romans would at once be a fora longer period. Thus Spain, after the feiture of that land which was held by Roman conquest, was a Roman province, I provincials, according to this theory, as a

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