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may be divided into two classes ; those creed of Pius IV., of which the following which bind the interior, and those which is the substance:regulate outward conduct. This distinc The preamble runs as follows: “I, tion, which corresponds to that above N. N., with a firm faith believe and promade between doctrinal and disciplinary fess all and every one of those things decrees, may appear unusual, as the term which are contained in that creed which laws seems hardly applicable to forms of the holy Roman church maketh use of.” thought or belief. Still, viewing the Then follows the Nicene creed. Catholic church under the form of an “I most steadfastly admit ard embrace organized religious society, and consider- apostolical and ecclesiastical traditions, ing that it professes to be divinely au- and all other observances and constituthorized to exact interior assent to all that tions of the same church. it teaches, under the penalty of being “I also admit the holy scriptures, acseparated from its communion, we think cording to that sense which our holy we can well classify under the word law | mother the church has held and does those principles and doctrines which it hold, to which it belongs to judge of the commands and expects all its members to true sense and interpretation of the scripprosess.
tures : neither will I ever take and interCatholics often complain that doctrines pret them otherwise than according to are laid to their charge which they do the unanimous consent of the fathers. not hold, and in their various publications “I also profess that there are truly and protest against their belief being assumed properly seven sacraments of the new upon any except authoritative documents; law, instituted by Jesus Christ our Lord, and as such works are perfectly accessible, and necessary for the salvation of manthe complaint is reasonable and just. There kind, though not all for every one, to are several works in which an accurate wit: baptism, confirmation, the eucharist, account is given of what Catholics are penance,* extreme unction, holy orders, f expected to believe, and which carerully and matrimony: and that they confer distinguish between those points on which grace; and that of these, baptism, conlatitude of opinion is allowed, and such firmation, and orders cannot be reiterated as have been fully and decisively decreed without sacrilege. I also receive and by the supreme authority of the church. admit the received and approved ceremoSich are Veron's • Regula Fidei,' or nies of the Catholic Church, used in the Rule of Faith, a work lately translated solemn administration of the aforesaid into English, and Halden's Analysis sacraments. Fidei.' But there are documents of more “ I embrace and receive all and every authority than these; for example, the one of the things which have been defined • Declaration’ set forth by the vicars apos- and declared in the holy Council of tolic or bishops in England, in 1823, often Trent, concerning original sin and jusrepublished; and still more the Cate- tification. chismus ad Parochos,'or. Catechism of the “I profess likewise that in the mass Council of Trent,' translated into Eng. there is offered to God a true, proper, lish not many years ago, and published and propitiatory sacrifice for the living in Dublin. A perusal of such works as these will satisfy those who are desirous * Under penance is included confession; as of full and accurate information regard the Catholic sacrament of perance consists of
three ing Catholic Jets, of their real nature,
pasts: contrition or sorrow, confession, and
satisfaction and show that the popular expositions of † The clerical orders of the Catholic church their substance and character are gene- are divided into two classes, saered and minor rally incorrect.
orilers. The first consists of subdeacons, dea. The formulary of faith, which persons the daily recitation of the Breriary, or collection
cons, and priests, who are bound to celibacy and becoming members of the Catholic church
of pslms and prayers, occupying
a considerable are expected to recite, and which is sworn time. The minor orders are four in number, and to upon taking any degree, or being ap
are preceded by the tonsure, an ecclesiastical
ceremony in which the hair is shorn, initiatory to poiuted to a chair in a university, is the the ecclesiastical state.
and the dead : and that in the most holy Of the disciplanary or governing code sacrament of the eucharist there is truly, we have already spoken, when we obreally, and substantially, the body and served that it consisted of the Canon Law, blood, together with the soul and divinity which, unlike the doctrinal and moral of our Lord Jesus Christ; and that there code, may vary with time, place, and acis made a change of the whole substance cidental circumstances. of the bread into the body, and of the III. The last head was the essential whole substance of the wine into the or constitutive principle of the Catholic blood, which change the Catholic church church. By this we mean that principle calls transubstantiation. I also confess that which gives it individuality, distinguishes under either kind alone Christ is received it from other religions, pervades all its whole and entire, and a true sacrament. institutions, and gives the answer to every
"I firmly hold that there is a purgatory, query regarding the peculiar constitution, and that the souls therein detained are outward and inward, of this church. helped by the suffrages of the faithful. Now, the fundamental position, the
“Likewise, that the saints reigning constitutive principle of the Catholic with Christ are to be honoured and invo- church, is the doctrine and belief that cated, and that they offer up prayers to God has promised, and consequently beGod for us; and that their relics are to stows upon it, a constant and perpetual be had in veneration.
protection, to the extent of guaranteeing “I most firmly assert that the images it from destruction, from error, or fatal of Christ, of the mother of God, and also corruption. This principle once admitted, of other saints, ought to be had and re-every thing else follows. 1. The infaltained, and that due honour and venera- libility of the church in its decisions on tion are to be given them.
ncerning faith. 2. The obli“I also affirm that the power of indul- 1 gation of submitting to all these decigences was left by Christ in the church, sions, independently of men's own private and that the use of them is most whole- judgments or opinions. 3. The authority some to Christian people.
of tradition, or the unalterable character “I acknowledge the holy Catholic of all the doctrines committed to the Apostolic Roman church for the mother church; and hence the persuasion that and mistress of all churches : and I pro- those of its dogmas, which to others mise true obedience to the bishop of appear strange and unscriptural, have Rome, successor to St. Peter, prince of been in reality handed down, uncorthe apostles and vicar of Jesus Christ.” rupted, since the time of the apostles,
Then follow clauses condemnatory of who received them from Christ's teachall contrary doctrines, and expressive of ing. 4. The necessity of religious unity, adhesion to all the definitions of the by perfect uniformity of belief: and Council of Trent.
thence as a corollary the sinfulness of It is obvious that this form of confes- wilful separation or schism, and culpable sion was framed in accordance to the errors or heresy. 5. Government by decrees of that council, and consequently authority, since they who are aided and has chiefly in view the opinions of those supported by such a promise must neceswho followed the Reformation.
sarily be considered appointed to direct Such is the doctrinal code of the Catho- others, and are held as the representatives lic church; of its moral doctrines we and vicegerents of Christ in the church. need not say anything, because no autho- 6. The papal supremacy, whether consirised document could be well referred to dered as a necessary provision for the that embodies them all. There are many preservation of this essential unity, or as decrees of popes condemnatory of im- the principal depository of the divine moral opinions or propositions, but no promises. 7. In fine, the authority of positive decrees. The moral law, as councils, the right to enact canons and taught in the Catholic church, is mainly ceremonies, the duty of repressing all the same as other denominations of Chris- attempts to broach new opinions; in a tians profess to follow.
word, all that system of rule and autho.
ritative teaching which must strike every | the United States, in California, and in one as the leading feature in the consti- South America, have embraced the same tution of the Catholic church.
faith. In Asia there is hardly any nation The differences, therefore, between this professing Christianity which does not and other religions, however complicated contain large communities of Catholic and numerous they may at first sight Christians. Thus in Syria the entire appear, are thus narrowed to one ques nation or tribe of the Maronites, dispersed tion; for particular doctrines must share over Mount Libanus, are subjects of the the fate of the dogmas above cited, as Roman see, governed by a patriarch and forming the constitutive principle of the bishops appointed by it
. There are also Catholic religion. This religion claims other Syriac Christiansunder other for itself a complete consistency from its bishops, united to the same see, who are first principle to its last consequence, and dispersed all over Palestine and Syria. to its least institution, and finds fault with At Constantinople there is a Catholic others, as though they preserved forms, | Armenian patriarch who governs the dignities, and doctrines which must have united Armenians as they are called, sprung from a principle by them rejected, large communities of whom also exist in but which are useless and mistaken the Armenia proper. The Abbé Dubois, in moment they are disjoined from it. Be his examination before a committee of this as it may, the constitution of the the House of Commons in 1832, stated Catholic church should seem to possess, the number of Catholics in the Indian what is essential to every moral organized peninsula at 600,000, including Ceylon, body, a principle of vitality which ac and this number was perhaps rather counts for all its actions, and determines underrated than otherwise. There are at at once the direction and the intensity of present an archbishop who is vicar apoall its functions.
stolic of Bengal, bishops who are vicars We conclude this account of the Ca- | apostolic of Madras, Bombay, and Ceylon tholic church with a sketch of the extent respectively, and they are assisted by coof its dominions, by enumerating the adjutor bishops. [BISHOPRIC.] A new countries which profess its doctrines, one has been added for Ceylon. We have or which contain considerable commu not the means of ascertaining the number nities under its obedience. In Europe, of Catholics in China, but in the province Italy, Spain, Portugal, France, Belgium, of Su-Chuen alone they were returned, the Austrian empire, including Hun- 22nd September, 1824, at 47,487 ( Annales gary, Bavaria, Poland, and the Rhenish de la Propag. de la Foi, No. XI. p. 257); provinces of Prussia, which formerly and an official report published at Rome belonged to the ecclesiastical electorates, in the same year gives those in the proprofess the Catholic religion as that of vinces of Fo-kien and Kiansi at 40,000. the state, or, according to the expression There are seven other provinces containiof the French charte, that of the majority ing a considerable number of Catholics, of the people. In America, all the coun- of which we have no return. In the tries which once formed part of the united empire of Tonkin and CochinSpanish dominions, both in the southern China the Catholics of one district were and northern portion of the continent, estimated at 200,000 (Ibid, No. X. p. and which are now independent states, 194), and, till the late persecution, there profess exclusively the same religion. was a college with 200 students, and conThe empire of Brazil is also Catholic. vents containing 700 religious. Another Lower Canada and all those islands in district gave a return, in 1826, of 2955 the West Indies which belong to Spain or infants baptized, which would give an France, including the Republic of Haiti, estimate of 88,000 adult Christians. A profess the Catholic faith; and there are third gave a return of 170,000. M. Dualso considerable Catholic communities bois estimates the number of native in the United States of North America, Catholics in the Philippine Islands at especially in Maryland and Louisiana. 2,000,000. In Africa, the islands of Many Indian tribes, in the Canadas, in Mauritius and Bourbon are Catholic, and
all the Portuguese settlements on the | altogether 239,4421. One regiment of coast, as well as the Azores, Madeira, Dragoon Guards (the 1st) contains 479 the Cape Verd, and the Canary Islands. of all ranks, and costs 22,2641. The
CALCUS, a word in use in the United cost of six regiments of Light Dragoons, States of North Ameria, which is applied each with 791 officers and men, in service to public meetings which are held for the in India, is defrayed by the East India purpose of agreeing upon candidates to Company, and amounts to 34,638l. per be proposed for election to offices, or to annum for each regiment. The cavalry concert measures for supporting a party, in the pay of this country for 1844-5 was or any measure of a public or local na 7970 officers and men, out of a standing ture ; but its use is more generally con army of 99,707, exclusive of cavalry in fined to meetings of a political character. India; or including the Queen's troops in The word is to be found in nearly every India, the charge for cavalry for 1844-5 American newspaper, and the · American wasCyclopædia' states that it is one of the 808 Officers .
£190,322 very few “Americanisms' which belong 1059 Non-Commissioned Officers 44,382 entirely to the United States. It is used 9634 Rank and File
235,519 in Gordon's · History of the American Revolution,' published in London in 1788.
£470,223 Gordon says, that more than fifty years Dragoons are a species of light cavalry prior to the time of his writing, “Samuel trained to act either on horseback or on Adams' father, and twenty others in Bos- foot as may be required. They appear ton, one or two from the north end of the to have been introduced into the English town, where all ship business is carried service before the middle of the sevenon, used to meet, make a caucus, &c.” teenth century; but the oldest regiment It has therefore been supposed that “ cau- of dragoons in the army is that of the cus” was a corruption of “ caulkers,” the Scotch Greys, which was raised in 1681. word meeting being understood.
Dragoons perform the duty of advanced CAVALRY (remotely from the Latin guards and patroles; they escort convoys, caballus, “a horse') is that class of troops and harass the enemy in his retreat; or, which serve on horseback. In the British in reverses of fortune, they protect the army it consists of the two regiments dispersed and defeated infantry. The of Life Guards, the royal regiment of name Dragoon appears to come from the Horse Guards, seven regiments of Dra- Latin Draconarius, the appellation given goon Guards, and seventeen regiments of to a standard-bearer, who carried a Light Dragoons, of which the 7th, 8th, standard or colour with the figure of a 10th, 11th, and 15th are Hussars, and dragon on it. (Ammianus Marcell. xx. the 9th, 12th, 16th, and 17th are Lancers. 4, and the notes in the edition of J. GroA complete regiment of cavalry is divided norius; Vegetius, ii. 7.) into four squadrons, and each of these Hussars are also a species of light cainto two troops. The full strength of a valry, which originally constituted the troop is 80 men; and to each troop there national militia of Poland and Hungary. is appointed a captain, a lieutenant, and a They are usually employed to protect recornet.
connoitring and foraging parties, and to The charge of the regimental establish serve as patroles. ments of the Life and Horse Guards in The Lancers were introduced into the the year 1845, was--Life Guards, each re British service in order to correspond to giment 29,803l.; Horse Guards, 26,2951. the corps of what were called Polish The number of rank and file in each of Lancers in the French army. The long these regiments is 351; non-commis- lance carried by this class of troops was sioned officers, trumpeters, and drummer supposed to be of use in a charge against 53; officers 32: total 436. The pay in infantry; and the fluttering of the flag at the Life and Horse Guards is higher in the extremity of the lance, by alarming every grade than for the cavalry of the the horse, to give an advantage over a line. Fourteen regiments of dragoons cost | dragoon otherwise armed.
In the late war a portion of the French (Niebuhr, ii. 402.) It appears from a cavalry was furnished with cuirasses, and, passage in Livy (vi. 27) that the census in imitation of them, the English Life also showed the amount of a man's debts Guards and Horse Guards have since and the names of his creditors. borne the same heavy armour. These According to the valuation of their protroops carry a sword, two pistols, and a perty at the census, the citizens were dicarabine; the heavy cavalry in general vided into six classes; each class concarry carabines, pistols, and swords; and tained a number of centuries or hundreds. the light cavalry very small carabines, That a century did not always consist of pistols, and sabres.
a hundred men is clear, from the fact that In the French budget for 1845-6, the the richest centuries were the most nuestimate for the army was for 81,689 merous, and consequently must individuhorses and 340,000 men. There are ally have contained fewer persons than fifty-four regiments of cavalry, of five the centuries of the poor. (Hist. of Rome, squadrons cach, in the French service, by the Society for the Diffusion of Useful besides four regiments (the African Chas- Knowledge, p. 21.) The first class conseurs), each composed of six squadrons. sisted of those whose property amounted The fifty-four regiments consist of-Cara- to 100,000 ases, about 3221. 185. of Engbiniers 2; Cuirassiers 10; Dragoons 12; | lish money: the second class consisted of Lancers 8; Chasseurs 13; and Hussars persons worth 75,000 ases; the fortune of 9 regiments.
the third class amounted to 50,000 ases; In the Austrian service the number of that of the fourth to 25,000; that of the regiments of Cavalry of the line is 37 : fifth to 11,000; and the sixth class inCuirassiers 8; Dragoons 6; Light-horse cluded all below the fifth, even those who 7; Hussars 12; Uhlans, 4.
had no estate whatever. This was naturally The Russian cavalry in 1835 consisted the fullest of the six, but was accounted of 86,800 men, besides 4000 Cossacks. only as one century. Now, as the richer
The Prussian cavalry in 1843 amounted classes contained får more centuries than to 19,960 men.
the poorer, so much so that the first class CEMETERY. [INTERMENT.] contained more than all the rest together, CENSOR. [Census, Roman.] and as the votes in the Comitia Centuriata
CENSORSHIP OF THE PRESS. were taken within the centuries individu[Press.]
ally, and then the voice of the majority CENSUS, THE, at Rome, was a num- of centuries was decisive, it is obvious bering of the Roman people, and a valua- that the influence of wealth was greatly tion of their property. It was held in the preponderant in this assembly. Cicero Campus Martius, after the year B.C. 432. (De Repub. ii. 22) assigns this as the ob(Liv. iv. 22; Varro, De R. R. iii. 11.) ject aimed at in the institution. The real Èvery Roman citizen was obliged, upon object of the Comitia Centuriata was (as oath, to give in a statement of his own Niebuhr supposes) to bind the different name and age, of the name and age of his orders of the state together in one conwife, children, slaves, and freedmen, if he sistent and organised body. In the Comitia had
any. The punishment for a false re- Centuriata the people always appeared turn was, that the individual's property under arms, and each class had a parshould be confiscated, and he himself | ticular kind of armour assigned to it. scourged and sold for a slave. Taxation The census was held at first by the depended on the results of the census; kings, afterwards by the consuls, and, many kinds of property were excepted, from B.C. 442, by two magistrates called while, on the other hand, some sorts of Censors (Censores), who were appointed property were assessed at several times every five years.
After the census a satheir value. Constant changes were made crifice of purification was generally, but by successive censors in the valuation not always, offered. The victims were a of taxable property. Cato and Flaccus sow, a sheep, and a bull, which were led rated the taxable value of high-priced thrice round the army, and then slain : slaves at ten times the purchase-money. I the sacrifice was called Suovetaurilia.