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Mohair Yarn and Feathers, I am directed by the lords of the committee of privy council for trade to acquaint you therewith, and to convey their lordships' request, that his Majesty's several consuls in Europe may be instructed to pay strict attention thereto.
I am, &c.
In the absence of the Secretary. Joseph Planta, Esq.
Council Office, Whitehail,
6th April, 1827. SIR-I am directed by the lords of his Majesty's most honourable privy council to acquaint you, that it is their lordships' pleasure that the regulations referred to in my letter to you of the 13th December last, respecting the production of quarantine certificates, should be dispensed with until further order, so far as regards the articles of Hemp, Wool, Flax, Hair, Feathers, Furs, Leather, Hides, and Skins, coming to this country from any Russian port in the Baltic, or the White Sea, or from any port in the dominions of Russia ; and I am therefore to request that you will move the commissioners of his Majesty's customs to give the necessary directions to the pilots and proper officers to that effect; and that they will also take such measures as they may deem advisable for communicating this circumstance to the masters of vessels engaged in the trade with those ports.
I am to add, that consular certificates are to be produced for the re maining articles alluded to in my letter, viz.-Cotton, Silk, Carpets, Rags, Cotton Yarn, Ostrich Feathers, Sponges, and Mohair Yarn.
I am, Sir, &c. &c.
C. C. GREVILLE. ·
Council Office, Whitehall, 7th June, 1827. My LORD, -The lords of his Majesty's most honourable privy council having had under consideration the copy of a letter from his Majesty's consul at, wherein he complains of a practice adopted by some of the merchants in that port, of signing certificates of origin for each other for goods shipped from that port, without reference to the consul, &c., I am to state, that their lordships conceive that the permission given to merchants to sign such documents, in certain cases, applies only to those places where no British consuls or vice consuls are resident.
I have, &c. Marquis of Clanricarde,
(Signed) JAMES BULLER. &c. &c. &c. The declaration to accompany rags from all ports in Europe, to state whether they have been washed or otherwise purified. (Order dated 11 Dec. 1826.)
Council Office, Whitehall,
27th August, 1827. Sir, -The lords of his Majesty's most honourable privy council having had under their consideration various petitions from merchants and ship owners, trading to the Mediterranean and the Levant, praying for relaxations in the laws relating to quarantine, &c. Their lordships have come to the determination of appointing medical superintendants at the regular quarantine ports * where it may be thought necessary, and of directing and empowering the superintendants of quarantine at those ports, under a certificate from the medical superintendant, that all persons on board are in good health, and that no danger is to be apprehended from any disease of a suspicious nature as to infection having prevailed on board during the voyage, immediately to release from quarantine all vessels arriving under the following circumstances, viz.
1st. All vessels with clean bills of health having non-enumerated goods only on board, coming from any Ports or Places in the Mediterranean, under the Dominion or Protection of Great Britain ; or under the Dominion of France, Spain, Italy, Austria, or Sardinia.
2d. All vessels arriving with clean bills of health from any of the ports or places above described, having on board any of the following enumerated goods, being the only enumerated goods for which declarations of origin are now required, viz. Cotton,
Mohair Yarn, provided the master of such vessel shall produce certificates or declarations to prove, that such goods are not the produce of Turkey, or of Africa within the Streights, or of West Barbary on the Atlantic-or that they are the produce of some other country.
3rd. Vessels with clean bills of health arriving from any of the acknowledged lazaret ports within the Streights, viz.Malta, Messina,
Genoa, and having enumerated goods on board, provided the master of the vessel shall declare upon oath that he received the goods on board from the shore, at such lazaret port.
The superintendant of quarantine, on releasing any vessel, shall deliver to the master or other person having the command of such vesse! a certificate, signed by the said superintendant, which certificate the master will produce at the port of entry to the proper officer of the customs, previous to the vessel being admitted to entry. The remainder of the letter relates to the duty of the superintendants.
I am, Sir,
Your most obedient huinble servant, Thomas Whitmore, Esq.
C. C. GREVILLE.
--* These are
- Milford, Liverpool, Standgate Creek, and Deal; and by Order, dated 15 September, 1827, the above order is extended to the ports of Portsmouth, Plymouth, Falmouth, Bristol, Hull, Leith, and Greenock.
Council Office, Whitehall, SIR,
15th February, 1830. I have laid before the lords of his Majesty's most honourable privy council your letter of the 28th ult. enclosing copy of a letter from the secretary of the customs, with its enclosures, relative to the proposed plan of extending to Ireland the quarantine regulations, at present established in England.
I am now, therefore, directed to acquaint you, for the information of the lords' commissioners of his Majesty's treasury, that the lords of the council are of opinion that the commissioners of his Majesty's customs should be directed to take the necessary steps for establishing without loss of time in the ports of Dublin, Cork, and Belfast, quarantine regulations similar to those which have been adopted in England, and which were transmitted in my letter to the secretary of the customs on the 27th August, 182 (vide page 312.) The lords of the council are of opinion, that the additional fee to be charged in Ireland on each vessel subject to quarantine should be two guineas, and that the same should be placed to the credit of the revenue of customs. The ancient fee of £2. 128. 6d. payable to the clerk of the council in Ireland is to be collected by the officers of the customs, and paid over by them to the clerk of the council quarterly.
All vessels liable to quarantine arriving at AT ANY OTHER PORTS IN IRELAND than the three before-mentioned, are to be released, as at present, by order from the lords of the privy council in Dublin; and it must be understood by the ship-owners and others, that as there is no quarantine station in Ireland, with a regular establishment of lazarets, any vessels leaving the MedITERRANEAN with a cargo or part of a cargo of susceptible or enumerated articles requiring expurgation in a lazaret, ought to proceed for that purpose to Milford Haven; as in the event of any vessel arriving at any port in Ireland with any part of her cargo, consisting of such articles, she will be required to repair to Milford for the purpose of expurgation, or the parties, as an indulgence, (when there is only a small quantity of enumerated articles on board,) may be permitted to hire a vessel in the port of arrival for that purpose, at their own expence.
Each vessel to pay £2. 2s. to the medical gentleman who examines the passengers and crew for their certificate.
I am, &c. &c.
(Signed) C. GREVILLE. G. R. Dawson, Esq.
DecidED Cases. In the case of ships coming from Turkey, and obliged to perform quarantine before their entry into the port of London, it was usual for the consignee to send down persons at his own expence to pack and take care of the goods; and where a consignee had omitted to do so, and the goods were damaged by being sent on shore loose, Lord Kenyon decided that he had no right to call upon the master for compensation. Dunnage v. Jolliffe. Guildhall. M. T. 1789.
Court of King's Bench, Sheer v. Marshall and others. The plaintiff in this action was a corn-merchant, and the defendants the owners of a vessel called the Wistow, which had been engaged by the former to bring home a full cargo of wheat from Odessa. The vessel having taken in her cargo, sailed from that port, and on her voyage touched at Constantinople, and took in some bales of silk ; on her arrival in the river she was ordered under quarantine into Standgate Creek, where, by the orders in council, had she sailed under a clean bill of health, and with a cargo solely of corn, she would have been required to lie for ten days; but as by those orders there were certain specified articles which subjected vessels to a quarantine of twenty days, and amongst them were silks, &c., on its being discovered that these formed a part of her cargo, she was ordered to remain for the longer period, after having delivered the silks to the place appointed by the orders. On this a petition was presented to the lords of the council, stating the perishable nature of the cargo, and the damage it was sustaining on board the vessel, but without effect. This, however, was repeated, and permission given to discharge the wheat into lighters. On the eleventh day some of this was so discharged, but the lighter was compelled to remain under quarantine. In the result the vessel was at the expiration of the full period brought into St. Katharine's Dock, but the wheat was not landed for some days. During this delay the price of wheat had fallen some shillings per quarter; the price which could have been obtained, at the expiration of ten days, was 60s. per quarter ; that at which it was sold was, for 900 quarters, 54s. per quarter, and for 1000 quarters, the remainder of her cargo, only 5ls. per quarter; and the object of the present action was to recover from the detendant the difference which had arisen in consequence of this delay; it was contended on the part of the plaintiff, that the delay had arisen owing to the defendants having departed from the terms of the engagement, by increasing the cargo, which was to have been a full one of corn, by taking in a prohibited article.
On the part of the defendants it was contended, that, according to the charterparty, the captain was not prohibited from taking in any of the enumerated articles, of which silk was one, at Odessa; and if that was the case, it was a matter perfectly immaterial whether it was taken in there or at Constantinople, as it was the commodity, and not the place, against which the quarantine laws were directed ; besides which, there was a portion of the wheat brought over in sacks, and as canvass was one of the articles enumerated, the addition of the silk would not alter the question. But the real state of the case was, that when the plaintiff was told how matters stood, he forwarded a petition to the privy council, and obtained leave to land the wheat on the eleventh day, but, calculating from the state of the weather, which at the time was very rainy, that a rise would take place, he did not act on that permission, but purposely delayed the landing and sale of the wheat : therefore it was too much for him to come on the defendants to make up that loss, which had been caused by his own acts.
Lord Tenterden, in summing up to the jury, said this was an action to recover compensation from the defendant for loss sustained in the value of a cargo of wheat by delay, arising from a vessel being exposed, from an act of the defendant, to an extra period of quarantine. The defendant having agreed to take in a cargo of wheat at Odessa on
account of the plaintiff, after taking in such cargo, the master on his voyage stopped at Constantinople, and took in some bales of silk, by doing which the vessel was detained for a longer period in quarantine than she would have been had no such silk been taken in, by which act the sale of the wheat was prejudiced; for although there was no special contract, yet the master hud no right to take in a cargo which would subject the ship to a further detention. The learned judge then said, that if they thought that but for the act of the defendants the cargo might have been landed earlier, and a sale have been made, they would give a verdict for the plaintiff, with damages not exceeding 2s. per quarter. But if they were of opinion that he might have sold it, and could have had it landed at an earlier period, then they would give the verdict for the defendant.
The jury, after consulting together some time, retired, and on their coming into court they gave a verdict for the plaintiff with 1911. damages. Guildhall. Sittings after M. T. 1831.
It now remains to state the best mode of fumigating vessels and apartments infected with infectious diseases, and to offer such hints as are applicable to the subject.
Odoriferous woods, gums, sweet herbs, and aromatics, have been recommended as fumigations, but with little certainty as to their effects; perfumes still less so; besides which, they rather conceal the mal-aria than correct contagion. The evaporation of common vinegar by heat is often employed as a fumigation, but the acetic acid or radical vinegar is better; its powers are however limited to a small space, and therefore, though it may be useful about the persons of those who attend the sick, it is inadequate to the purification of large rooms.
The stronger and better fumigations are the nitrous or marine acid, and the oxymuriatic acid vapour, the former of which is made thus: half an ounce of nitre reduced to powder and vitriolic acid (oil of vitriol) in equal quantities, mixed in small pots, and placed in various parts of the room.
Oxymuriatic acid, which is more powerful, is prepared thus :
To a small quantity of the mixture of the manganese and salt, (suppose three ounces,) the whole of the water is to be added, (half an ounce,) and to this, in a pot large enough to prevent the ebullition from flowing over, add the vitriolic acid from time to time. This will keep up for twenty-four hours a discharge of the oxygenated muriatic acid, of which the smell is not unpleasant, and the vapour gives no annoyance to either the sick or the attendants.
Where ships or hospitals are highly infected with the plague, it will be necessary for them to undergo a stronger fumigation of sulphur, but that being attended with danger should only be done by persons properly acquainted with the manner of doing it; they should afterwards be white-washed, and the floors well scoured.