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neighbourhood of Exeter, being sent out for this particular market. The bales for the Tunis market should be assorted as under :

10 pieces light blues.
9 ditto Turkey blues.
9 ditto mazarine blues.
9 ditto red.
10 ditto coffee-coloured.
2 ditto yellow.

I ditto green.
50 pieces in each bale.

30 pieces blue.
15 ditto red.

5 ditto sorted colours (no green.)
50 pieces in each bale.

Scarlet long ells should always be sent in separate bales; two or three bales of scarlet are sufficient at one time, and for the other bales, assorted as stated. There is always a demand at Tunis for any quantity, as the caravans take immense quantities into the interior of Africa.

The fine cloth which the Tunisians chiefly use, has been generally of French manufacture ; only because they esteem the colour, rather than the quality, of the cloth; bales should be assorted as under:

1 piece scarlet.
I ditto crimson.
1 ditto light wine.
I ditto deep wine.
2 ditto deroy.

ditto purple.
2 ditto mazarine blue.
2 ditto light blue.
1 ditto green.

12 pieces in each bale.

The pieces should be from 18 to 20 yards each, seven-fourths wide; the cloth should not be shorn bare, but have a tolerable dress upon it.

The best season for a ship to go to Tunis with a cargo of merchandise, is in the months of September and October, particularly for woollens; the weather then becomes rather temperate, and the Moors never think of purchasing an article for their own wear till the moment it is wanted, though they often pay double for it.

Spices of all sorts are always paid for in ready cash ; lead, and all sorts of naval and military stores, pay no duty whatever; all other articles imported in British ships are by treaty to pay three per cent, ad valorem, but the tariff does not amount to more than two per cent.

The French pay the same tariff as the English; most other nations pay ten per cent. ad valorem; and the Jewish merchants, who enjoy the whole of the trade between Tunis and Leghorn, pay ten per cent. tariff upon all their imports.

The English have, therefore, a considerable advantage, and are enabled to undersell most nations, particularly in goods direct from England.

TURIN, the capital of Piedmont, is situated at the junction of the Po and the great Doire. Its trade is extensive, particularly in silk; which, on account of its fineness and lightness, is considered the best in Europe. Wool, wines, and embroideries are also to be had, as well as most sorts of silken stuffs, stockings, handkerchiefs, &c.

Accounts are kept in lire of 20 soldi, the soldo of 12 denari of Piedmont; a scudo is six lire. The lira may be valued at 11fd. sterling.

The imports are much the same as in the other Italian states. . See article Leghorn.

On Amsterdam, 36 soldi for one florin Dutch.
On London, 414 soldi for one pound sterling.
On Paris, 50 soldi for three francs.

Weights. 100 libbra of Turin.... = 81 lb. 5 oz. avoirdupois; and therefore 100 lb. avoirdupois.... = 122.979 libbra of Turui.

The rubbo is 25 libbra.

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VENICE was once the first commercial city in the world, but, under Austrian control, is sunk to comparative insignificance. Its principal commerce is now more particularly with the Levant, the produce of which is transmitted from hence to other countries, and the Levant supplied with groceries, Dutch and German linens, dried and salted fish, &c. The manufactories of Venice afford large quantities of wrought silk for foreign commerce ; also velvets and embroideries. The Venetian turpentine and mirrors are celebrated all over Europe. The bank of Venice is the oldest in the world, being instituted in 1587; all bills made payable in Venice, in banco, used to be paid through the bank; but since the French carried away the funds or capital of the bank this has ceased.

Accounts are kept in ducati of 24 grossi, the grosso of 12 grossetti (or denari) ducati, or in lire of 20 soldi (or marchetti) the soldo of 12 denari piccoli.

The following Table shows the proportion of these monies, as formerly reckoned and still partially retained.

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These monies are either currency or banco; the latter is only used in exchanges. The proportion is as follows :

One ducato banco or corrente is six and one-fifth lire banco or corrente.

31 ducati or lire banco are 48 ducati or lire correnti or piccoli.

The ducato banco is nine and three-fifths lire correnti piccoli; a zechina is 22 lire correnti.

The new method of keeping accounts here is in lire Italiane, each 100 centesimi, according to the French system. This lira is of the same value as the French franc.

On London ...
On Amsterdam.
On Hamburgh
On Leghorn
On Paris ..
On Naples


27 lire ...... for 1 £ sterling.
224 centimes .. for 1 florin.
196 centimes .. for 1 mark banco.
.533 centimes . . for 1 pezza.

105 centimes .. for 1 franc.
.433 centimes .. for 1 ducato di regno.

Weights. At Venice, as in most other parts of Italy, there is a great diversity of weights. Those chiefly used in trade are

1. The heavy weight, or peso grosso, of 12 heavy ounces to the pound.

2. The light weight, or peso sottile, of 12 light ounces to the pound. 12 pounds heavy weighi are equal to 19 pounds light weight.

One carrica is four quiutals, or 400 lb. light weight, or 25215 lb. heavy weight.

100 lb. heavy weight. . = 105 lb. 3 oz. English.
100 lb. light weight ... 66 lb. 7 oz. English; and therefore

100 lb. avoirdupois ... = 95.069 libbra peso grosso; or, 150.537 libbra peso sottile.

The French kilogramme is used here under the name of the new Italian pound. It answers to 2,205 lb, or 2 lb. 3 oz. 41 dr, avoirdupois.

DRY MEASURE. 100 staja of grain are equal to 28] English Winchester quarters. Flour is sold per stajo of 33 pounds peso grosso.

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A bigoncia of brandy is, however, only 14 secchj; the bigoncia of wine weighs 64 pounds peso grosso, and the bigoncia of brandy 56 pounds. Oil is sold per migliajo of 40 miri : this is both a weight and à measure; it weighs 1000 lb. peso grosso, and contains about 180 English gallons.

100 braccia or ells for woollens are 74 English yards. 100 braccia for silk are 69 English yards.

VIENNA is the centre of the commerce of all the Austrian dominions, as payments in Trieste and other places are generally made by bills on Vienna : a great deal of exchange business is also done here for those places, and most of the merchants in the interior have a banker at Vienna. The most important part of the trade of Vienna is that carried on with Turkey, to which country are exported glass ware, cloth, hardware, and Spanish piastres; the imports are cotton, coffee, goats' hair, fruits, wines of Greece, and leather.

Among the numerous associations and cominercial societies, the two principal are the Egyptian Company, and the Bohemian Linen Company, of which the former has an establishment at Smyrna, and exports various Austrian manufactures, and imports raw cotton, silk, coffee, &c. The latter sometimes make shipments by way of Cadiz to South America.

Accounts are kept in guldens or florins, each of 60 creutzers, the creutzer being divided into 4 ptennings.

1} florin, or 90 creutzers ..... =l rix dollar of account. 2 forins, or 120 creutzers...... = l rix dollar specie.

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EXCHANGES. On London, 10 florins for one pound sterling. On Amsterdam, 140 dollars currency for 100 dollars Dutch. On Hamburgh, 148 dollars currency for 100 dollars Hamb. banca. On Leghorn, 1 florin for 58 soldi moneta buona. On Cadiz, 200 florins for 100 ducats of exchange. On Constantinople, 112 florins for 100 piastres. Ou Paris, 119 forins for 100 ecus of three francs,

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The Dreyling wine measure = 30 eimers = 448 English gallons. llence the eimer.

= 1413 English gallous.

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A saum is 275 lb. but a saum of steel is only 250 lb. The centner of 100 lb... = 123} lb. avoirdupois; and therefore 100 lb avoirdupois ... . = 80.972 lb. of Vienna,

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