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at the present time nearly all the in- , and works the same into fustians, verhabitants of that populous empire are millians, and dimities." clothed in cotton cloths of home manu- ! There is abundant evidence to show facture.

that in the beginning of the sixteenth Before the discovery of the passage to century, and probably before that time, India by the Cape of Good Hope, cotton cotton was cultivated and converted into wool is said to have been spun and woven clothing in most of the countries occupyin some of the Italian states, the traders ing the southern shores of the Mediterraof which were the channels through nean. The European conquerors of Mexwhich the cotton fabrics of India were ico in their first invasion of that country distributed to the different countries of found in use native manufactures of cota Europe. Becoming thus acquainted with ton, both unmixed and mixed with the these goods, and having near at hand the fine hair of rabbits and hares. Some of raw material of which they were formed, these fabrics were sent by Cortes to Spain it was natural that they should apply to as presents to the Emperor Charles V. the production of similar goods the manu-Cotton was cultivated and manufactured facturing skill they had long possessed. at an equally early period by different

Mr. Baines has shown (Hist. of Cot-nations on the coast of Guinea, and it is ton Manufacture,') that the cotton plant stated by Macpherson in his · Annals of was extensively cultivated, and its pro Commerce,' that cotton cloths were imduce manufactured, by the Mohammedan ported into London in 1590 from the possessors of Spain in the tenth century. | Bight of Benin. This branch of industry flourished long Previous to the introduction of Arkin that country. In the thirteenth cen- wright's inventions the cotton manufactury, the cotton manufacturers formed ture was of small importance, as is evident one of the incorporated companies of from the quantities of the raw material Barcelona, in which city two streets re- then brought into the country. Arkwright's ceived names which point them out as the first patent for the mode of spinning by quarter in which the manufacturers re- rollers was taken out in 1769, and the sided. The cloths made were mostly of following account of the importations of coarse texture, and a considerable quan- cotton at different periods preceding and tity was used as sailcloth. The name speedily following that event will show fustians, from the Spanish word fuste, how rapid was the progress occasioned siguifying “substance,” was borrowed by it, and by the other inventions for from the Spanish weavers, and is still which it prepared the way:used to denote a strong fabric made of

1697 . . . 1,976,359 lbs. cotton. In consequence of religious prejudice, the arts which long fourished

1701 to 1705 . 1,170,881 „ average

1710 . . . 715,008 , among the Mohammedan possessors of Spain did not extend themselves to the

1720 . . . 1,972,805 , Christian inhabitants of other European

1730 . . . 1,545,472 ,

1741 . . . 1,645,031 , countries: the traffic of Andalusia was

1751 . . . 2,976,610 , all carried on with Africa and the

1764 . . . 3,870,392 ,, East.

1771 to 1775. 4,764,589 From Italy the art made its way to the Netherlands, and about the end of the

1776 to 1780. 6,766,613 average sixteenth or the beginning of the seven


. 31,447,605 , teenth century was brought thence to

1800 . . . 56,010,732 , England by protestant refugees. Lewis The system under which this manuRoberts, in The Treasure of Traffic,' facture was long carried on was very difpublished in 1641, makes the earliest ferent from that which is now pursued. mention extant of the manufacture in It was the custom for the weavers who England. He says, “ The town of Man- were dispersed in cottages throughout the chester buys cotton wool from London district to purchase the material with that comes from Cyprus and Smyrna, / which they worked, and having converted it into cloths to carry their wares revenue officers to charge them with to market and sell them on their own ac double the duty paid upon calicoes count to the dealers : but about 1760, the woven with linen warp and printed for merchants of Manchester began to em exportation; and also by prohibiting their ploy the weavers, furnishing them with use at home. With some difficulty an yarn for warp, and with raw cotton, act of parliament was obtained for rewhich was spun by the weaver's family moving these obstacles to the develop for the weft, and paying a fixed price for ment of the manufacture, which from the labour bestowed in weaving.

that time was prosecuted with a great The application of machinery to the and continually accelerated rate of in. preparation and spinning of raw cotton crease. for weft preceded by some years the in The earliest attempts at prodacing ventions of Arkwright. In the year 1760, muslins were made about the year 1780, or soon after, a carding engine not very but without much success, although Indiadifferent from that now used was con- spun yarn was substituted as weft for trived by James Hargreaves, an illiterate that produced by the spinning-jenny: the Weaver, residing near Church in Lanca- greatest degree of fineness to which yarn shire; and in 1767 the spinning-jenny was spun with Arkwright's frame had then iuvented by the same person. This ma- been brought, was eighty hanks to the chine as at first formed contained eight pound, and even this degree was not atspindles, which were made to revolve by tainable by means of the jenny. This means of bands from a horizontal wheel. disadvantage was overcome by the invenSubsequent improvements increased the tion of Mr. Samuel Crompton, which power of the spinning-jenny to eighty came into general use about the year 1786, spindles, when the saving of labour which and which partaking of the nature of both it thus occasioned produced considerable Hargreaves and Arkwrights machines, alarm among those persons who had em- was aptly called the mule-jenny. By means ployed the old mode of spinning, and a of this piece of mechanism, yarns were party of them broke into Hargreaves' produced of a much greater fineness than house and destroyed his machine. The had before been attained. Mr. Crompgreat advantage of the invention was so ton's invention was made several years apparent, however, that it was soon again before it could be openly used, because of brought into use, and nearly superseded its interference with the patented inventhe employment of the old spinning- tion of Arkwright: but when this patent wheel, when a second rising took place of was annulled, the mule-jenny was brought the persons whose labour was thus super- rapidly and extensively into use, so that seded by it. They went through the in 1787, 500,000 pieces of muslin were country destroying wherever they could made at Bolton, Glasgow, and Paisley, find them both carding and spinning ma- with yarn of British production. The chines, by which means the manufacture price paid at that time by the manufacwas for a time driven away from Lanca turers for these fine yarns was 20 guineas shire to Nottingham.

per lb; but such have been the improve The cotton-yarn produced both by the ments since made in the machine and the common spinning-wheel and spinning- manner of working it, that yarn of the jenny could not be made sufficiently same fineness has been sold at 15 strong to be used as warp, for which pur- shillings per lb. Mr. Crompton did pose linen-yarn was employed. It was not secure to himself the benefit of his not until Arkwright's spinning-frame was invention by taking out a patent ; he brought into successful operation that carried on a spinning and weaving busithis disadvantage was overcome. Yarn ness on a small scale at Bolton, and spun with Hargreaves' jenny continued | worked his mule-jenny with his own for some time to be used for weft. At hands in an attic. In a brief memoir of first, the manufacturers of cloths com- | Crompton, Mr. Kennedy has stated, that posed of cotton only were subject to much about 1802 he, in conjunction with Mr. annoyance from the determination of the Lee, set on foot a subscription which

amounted to 5001., and with this Cromp-, who join such threads as may be acciton was enabled to increase his manu- dently broken. Self-acting mules were facturing establishment, and to set up contrived at different times by Mr. Wilseveral looms for fancy work at Bolton. I liam Strutt of Derby, Mr. In 1812 he made a survey of all the cot- Lanark, Mr. De Jongh of Warrington, ton-manufacturing districts in the king- and others; but none of these were dom, and ascertained that the number of brought successfully into use, owing no spindles then at work upon his principle doubt in some measure to the inferior amounted to between four and five mil- skill of the machine-makers as compared lions : since that time the number has with the perfection which they have since been doubled. The kind friends already attained. named assisted him in making an applica- ! The first successful attempt to weave tion to parliament for some reward, and by means of machinery was made in 1785 the great merit of his invention having by Dr. Cartwright, who secured the inbeen established before a Committee of vention by patent. In a commercial point the House of Commons, he received a of view Dr. Cartwright did not draw any grant of 5000l., which was paid to him in advantage from his power-loom ; but in full without any deduction for fees or 1809 he obtained from parliament a grant charges. This money was employed by 1 of 10,0001. as a reward for his ingenuity. Crompton in putting his sons into busi- Mr. Monteith, of Pollokshaws, Glasgow, ness, but they proved unsuccessful, and who fitted up 200 power-looms in 1801, he was reduced to poverty, when Mr. I was the first person who brought them to Kennedy again interfered in his behalf, profitable use. A great obstacle to their and raised a second subscription, with success was presented by the necessity for the produce of which a life annuity of 631. the frequent stopping of the machine in was purchased. He lived only two years order to dress the warp. This difficulty to enjoy this small provision. The first was removed in 1804 by the invention of mule-jennies consisted of not more than a machine for dressing the whole of the thirty spindles each, but the number has warp before it is placed in the loom, been progressively increased, and they which was made the subject of a patent now frequently contain more than 600 by Mr. Radcliffe, the inventor. In the use spindles each. With one of these ma- of this machine the warp in its progress chines, a good workman can produce in a to the weaving beam is passed through week consisting of sixty-nine working a dressing of hot starch; it is then comhours, thirty-two pounds of yarn of the pressed between rollers to free it from fineness of 200 hanks to the pound, and the superfluous quantity of starch taken as each hank measures 840 yards, the up, and is afterwards, in order to dry it, produce of his week's work if extended drawn over a succession of cylinders in a line would measure 3050 miles. This heated by passing steam through them ; work, extraordinary as it may seem, does during this last part of the operation the not afford a full conception of the degree warp is “lightly brushed as it moves of tenuity to which cotton is capable of along, and is fanned by rapidly revolving being reduced, one pound of raw cotton fanners." The flour used for this dresshaving been converted into 350 hanks, ing operation throughout the cotton faoforming a continuous thread 167 miles in tories of this kingdom amounts in the length. Mules have been put to work year to at least 650,000 bushels. The which carry each 1100 spindles. The number of power-looms used in cotton greatest recent improvement made in the factories throughout the kingdom at the construction of this machine has been end of the year 1835 was stated by the effected by Messrs. Sharp, Roberts, and inspectors of factories in a return laid Co., machinists, of Manchester. These before parliament to be 109,626. The machines, which are called self-acting number in England was 90,679; Scot mules, do not require the manual aid of a land, 17,531 ; Ireland 1416. In Lancaspinner, the only attendance necessary shire the number of spindles was 61,176; being that of children, called piecers, | Cheshire, 22,491; Lanarkshire, 14,069.


. Each of these looms, if of good con- | heads Hose and Lace, which are branches struction and attended by a skilful weaver, of the Cotton Manufacture, and also a was capable of producing 120 yards of | proportionate number of those wbo were cloth per week, or 6240 yards in the year, | returned as weavers, spinners, and factory at which rate the annual productive | workers (“ fabric not specified'), and we power of the whole number of looms have then a total of nearly half a million amounted to 684 millions of yards. persons engaged in this great branch of

Hitherto it has not been practicable to national industry, and this at a time when produce any but coarse or heavy goods it was in a very depressed state. by means of the power-loom; fine cali

Persons Employeci. coes, muslins, and fancy goods are woven


377,662 by the hand. The number of hand-loom


50,955 weavers cannot be ascertained with the

35,347 same correctness as the number of powerlooms, the latter being collected together

463,964 in factories which are under the super The ages and sex of the alšove number intendence of official inspectors, while (377,662) engaged in the manufacture of hand-loom weaving is altogether a do- cotton fabrics were as follows:mestic manufacture carried on in the cot Males aged 20 and upwards. 138,112 tages of the artisans. Computations of under 20.

. 59,171 the number of these domestic looms have Females aged 20 and upwards. 104,470 been made by different intelligent persons under 30 . . . 75,909 conversant with the trade, who have es The employment of young persons in timated them variously; the lowest at cotton factories is regulated by statute. 200,000 and the highest at 250,000. [FACTORIES Act.]

Mr. Kennedy, who is considered a good The first cotton-mill built in the United authority on this subject, supposed the States was set to work in Rhode Island in value of cotton goods made in Great Bri- 1790, and about the same time one was tain in 1832, when the quantity of the erected at Beverley, Massachusetts, by raw material used was about 12 per cent. an incorporated company. The manuless than in 1833, was 24,760,0001. Mr. facture made at first so little progress in Baines, who has taken great pains to test the United States, that up to 1808 not the accuracy of his calculations in every more than 15 spinning-mills had been possible way, has made the value amount, erceted. There was a great increase in in 1833, to 31,338,6931. Of this value the 1812, occasioned by the war between part exported amounted to 18,459,0001., England and America; again from 1820 and the value of the goods remaining for to 1825 much capital was applied to this home consumption would therefore be object; also in 1831 and 1832; and still 12,879,6931. (Hist. of Cotton Manufac- more since the passing of the tariff of ture, p. 412.) Following Mr. Baines's 1842, which imposed higher import duties mode of calculation, Mr. Porter estimated on cotton and other manufactured goods the value of the cotton goods manufac- generally. tured in 1841 at 48,641,3431.; and as the In 1840 the number of cotton manufacexports, including yarn, amounted to tories in the United States was 1240, 24,668,6181., there would remain for home which employed 2,284,631 spindles, and consumption goods to the value of produced manufactured articles valued at 23,972,7251. The capital invested in the 46,350,000 dollars. The capital invested cotton manufacture in Great Britain is was estimated at 51,000,000 dollars; and variously estimated at from 30,000,0001. the number of persons employed, includto 34,000,000l.; and Mr. Baines regards ing dyers, printers, &c., was 72,119. The the latter estimate as very moderate. value of goods produced in Massachu

The number of persons returned under setts in 1840 was 16,553,000 dollars ; the head Cotton Manufacture in the Cen. | Rhode Island 7,116,000; Pennsylvania, sus Returns of 1841 is 302,376, to which 5,013,000; New Hampshire, 4,142,000, should be added those returned under the New York, 3,640,000; Connecticut, 2,715,964; New Jersey, 2,086,104; Mary- | France was about one-fifth of that used in
land, 1,150,000 dollars, and in other our mills, and the value of the exports
States in smaller quantities. One-half of from France, nearly one-third of which,
the cotton manufacture was carried on in according to Mr. Macgregor (* Commer-
Massachusetts and Rhode Island.

cial Statistics') are smuggled into Spainh,
The great demand for cotton goods was between one-fifth and one-sixth part of
within the States at first prevented any the value of the shipments from England.
very considerable exportation. Between In 1820 the value of the exports of cotton
1826 and 1832 the total annual value of manufactured goods was 29,000,000 fr.,
the shipments made was under 250,0001., and in 1840 107,000,000 fr.; and the
the greater part of which were to Mexico value of cotton twist exported in 1820
and the South American States. The was 397,000 fr., and 593,000 fr. in 1840.
annual value of the exports in the follow- The cotton manufacture is of modern
ing years was as under :- .

introduction in Switzerland. The first

Dollars. spinning-machine was established at St.
1834 . 2,200,000 1837 · 3,758,000 Gall, in the year 1800; but Switzerland
1835 . 2,255,000 1838 . 2,975,000 still imports considerable quantities of
1836 . 2,831,000 1839. 3,549,000 foreign-spun yarns for the use of her

In the year ending 30th September, hand-loom weavers, as well as of power-
1842, the exports of cotton manufactured | loom cloths from Eugland, which are
goods from the United States consisted of dyed and printed, and afterwards ex-


ported. So great is the degree of perfec
Printed and coloured piece goods 385,040

tion attained in the application of the

colour denominated Turkey red, that

. 2,297,964
Twist, yarn and thread


calicoes and prints of that colour are im-
Other cotton goods . .

ported from Switzerland into England :

the same may be said of embroidered


Within the last few years the cotton
In the nine months ending 30th June, manufacture has made great progress in
1843, the value of the exports of cotton the Rhenish provinces of Prussia and in
goods was 3,223,550 dollars, and the Saxony, and also, though to a smaller
principal countries to which they were extent, in Würtemberg and Baden. It is
sent were China, Chili, Brazil, and Mex- one of the objects of the German Customs'
ico, which took about four-fifths of the Union to foster the cotton and other manu-
whole: it is stated in the official returns factures by high duties on the cheaper
that white cotton goods of the value of products of England.
113,694 dollars were exported to the Bri- The cotton manufacture is the most
tish East Indies. The value of the ex- generally diffused of all the branches of
ports to China was 1,063,285 dollars; to | industry upon which the production of
Chili, 550,857 dollars ; Brazil, 383,408 clothing depends. The greater part of
dollars; and Mexico, 193,027 dollars. the countries in which it is carried on

The quantity of cotton imported into limit their production of cotton goods to
France in 1787, the earliest year as to the wants of their own people. The per-
which any returns are given, was fection to which the spinning processes
4,466,000 kilogrammes, or not quite ten have been carried in this country has
millions of pounds. In 1815 the import- made the greater part of the world in
ation was 16,414,606 kilogrammes ; in some measure dependent upon our cotton-
1820 had reached 20,000,000 kilogram- mills for the finer descriptions of yarns,
mes; in 1825 it was still below 25 mil. In 1844 the exports of cotton goods,
lions; in 1830 it amounted to 294 mil- hosiery, and twist from England amounted
lions, and in 1835 reached 38,760,000 in value to 25,831,5861., or nearly one-
kilogrammes, and in 1840 it was half of the total exports. In the follow-
52,942,000 kilogrammes(116,000,000 lbs). ing years the declared value was as

In 1840 the quantity of cotton spun in follows:-

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