Intervention, Border and Maritime Issues in CARICOM
The maritime land and river boundary disputes between the adjacent South American countries of Suriname and Guyana existed long before the two nations gained independence from colonialism. Both countries claim sovereignty over three regions: the Courantyne River which separates them; the New River Triangle, which lies at the southern edge of the adjacent countries; and part of the Caribbean Sea, which extends north from their coastlines. The issue was of little importance until the discovery of important natural resources in the contested regions: gold deposits were found in the New River Triangle and offshore petroleum opportunities arose on the continental shelf. When both nations realized that timely resolution was economically crucial, they renewed efforts to achieve a comprehensive bilateral demarcation. However, a mutually agreeable settlement has proved far more elusive than anticipated.In Intervention Border and Maritime Issues in CARICOM, the contributors address this ongoing boundary dispute as well other maritime disputes between Barbados and Trinidad and Tobago and Guatemala and Belize. The background of the disputes are discussed in the context of international law as well as CARICOM s intervention and non-intervention. The major conflicts have tested the goodwill and ability of member states and CARICOM to find common ground at the leadership level. At a time when the Community is grappling with the erosion of preferential agreements as well as competition for aid from countries in the east of an expanded Europe, striking a harmonious balance with the self-interests of individual states in order to resolve conflict is of supreme importance.Recommendations for the resolution of conflict are offered, including a strengthening of Community mechanisms so as to avoid inciting external interference and intervention in any form. The assertion of individual interests however, will continue to test the flexibility and resourcefulness of CARICOM in absorbing and accommodating these interests. CARICOM must find a way between an inter-governmental approach and a supranational approach that best represents the interests of all of its members.
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CARICOM NonIntervention and Intervention
1799 Agreement 1859 Convention accepted affairs Arbitral Tribunal Article VII Assembly asserted award Berbice bilateral Brazil Britain British Government British Guiana British Honduras Caribbean CARICOM claim colonial Commission concessions continental shelf Corentyne countries country’s Courantyne River declaration delimitation agreements demarcation diplomatic Dutch East Timor effect elections established Exchange of Notes Exclusive Economic Zone exercise fisheries fishing Foreign Minister French Guiana frontier granted Grenada Grenadines Guatemala Guyana and Suriname Guyanese independence International Court international law intervention islands issue jurisdiction Kutari land maritime borders miles Namibia negotiations Netherlands Government occupation OECS parties political position possession prescription President Prime Minister principle regard region relations relevant Republic resolution respect River Triangle Sarstoon Security Council settlement sovereignty Spain supra note Suriname’s terra nullius territorial integrity territorial sea territory of Belize treaty Trinidad and Tobago UNCLOS United Kingdom United Nations uti possidetis juris Venezuela