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ORAL philosophy, or the science of human
nature, may be treated after two different manners; each of which has its peculiar merit, and may contribute to the entertainment, instruction, and reformation of mankind. The one considers man chief ly as born for action; and as influenced in his meafures by taste and sentiment; pursuing one object, and avoiding another, according to the value which these objects seem to poffess, and according to the light in which they prefent themselves. As virtue, of all objects, is allowed to be the moft valuable, this species of philosophers paint her in the most amiable colours; borrowing all helps from poetry and eloquence, and treating their subject in an easy and obvious manner, and such as is best fitted to please the imagination, and engage the affections. They select the most striking observations and instances from common life; VOL. II.
place opposite characters in a proper contrast, and alluring us into the paths of virtue by the views of glory and happiness, direct our steps in these paths by the soundeft precepts and most illustrious examples. They make us feel the difference between vice and virtue; they excite and regulate our sentiments; and so they can but bend our hearts to the love of probity and true honour, they think that they have fully attained the end of all their labours.
The other species of philosophers consider'man in the light of a reasonable rather than an active being, and endeavour to form his understanding more than cultivate his manners. They regard human nature as a subject of peculation; and with a narrow scrutiny examine it, in order to find those principles which regulate our understanding, excite our sentiments, and make us approve or blame any particular object, action, or behaviour. They think it a reproach to all literature, that philosophy should not yet have fixed, beyond controversy, the foundation of morals, reasoning, and criticism; and should forevertalk of truth and fallehood, vice and virtue, beauty and deformity, without being able to determine the source of those distinctions. While they attempt this arduous task, they are deterred by no difficulties; but proceeding from particular instances to general principles, they still push on their inquiries to principles more general, and rest not satisfied till they arrive at those original principles; by which, in every science, all human curiosity must be bounded. Though their speculations seem abstract and even unintelligible to common readers, they aim at the approbation of the learned and the wife; and think themselves sufficiently compensated for the labour of their whole lives, if they can discover some hidden truths, which may contribute to the instruction of pofterity.
It is certain that the easy and obvious philosophy will always, with the generality of mankind, have the preference above the accurate and abftrufe; and by
many will be recommended, not only as more agreeable, but more useful, than the other. It enters more into common life; moulds the heart and affections ; and, by touching those principles which actuate men, reforms their conduct, and brings them nearer to that model of perfection which it describes. On the contrary, the abstruse philosophy, being founded on a turn of mind, which cannot enter into business and action, vanishes when the philosopher leaves the shade, and comes into open day; nor can its principles easily retain any influence over our conduct and behaviour. The feelings of our heart, the agitation of our paffiors, the vehemence of our affections, dislipate all its conclufions, and reduce the profound philosopher to a inere plebeian.
This also must be confessed, that the moft durable, as well as justeft fame, has been acquired by the easy philosophy; and that abstract reasoners seem hitherto to have enjoyed only a momentary reputation, from the caprice or ignorance of their own age, but have not been able to support their renown with more equitable pofterity. It is easy for a profound philofopher to commit a mistake in his subtile reasonings ; and one mistake is the necessary parent of another, while he pushes on his consequences, and is not deterred from embracing any conclusion, by its unusual appearance, or its contradiction to popular opinion, But a philosopher, who purposes only to represent the common sense of mankind in more beautiful and more engaging colours, if by accident he falls into error, goes no farther ; but renewing his appeal to common sense, and the natural sentiments of thie mind, returns into the right path, and secures imself from any dangerous illufions. The fame of CiCERO flourishes at present; but that of ARISTOTLE IS utterly decayed. LA BRUYERE pafies the seas, and ftill maintains his reputation; but the glory of MALEBRANCHE is confined to his own nation, and to his own age. And ADDISON, perhaps, will be read
with pleasure, when Locke shall be entirely forgotten.
The mere philosopher is a character which is commonly but little acceptable in the world, as being supposed to contribute nothing either to the advantage or pleasure of society, while he lives remote from communication with mankind, and is wrapped up in principles and notions equally remote from their comprehension. On the other hand, the mere ignorant is still more despised; nor is any thing deemed a surer sign of an illiberal genius in an age and nation where the sciences flourish, than to be entirely destitute of all relish for thote noble entertainments. The most perfect character is supposed to lie between those extremes ; retaining an equal ability and taste for books, company, and business ; preserving in conversation that difcernment and delicacy which arife from polite letters; and in business, that probity and accuracy which are the natural refult of a juft philosophy. In order to diffuse and cultivate fo accomplished a character, nothing can be more useful than compofitions of the easy style and manner, which draw not too much from life, require no deep application or retreat to be comprehended, and send back the student among mankind full of noble sentiments and wise precepts, applicable to every exigence of human life. By means of such compofitions, virtue becomes amiable, science agreeable, company instructive, and retirement entertaining.
Man is a reasonable being; and as such, receives from science his proper food and nourilhment: But so narrow are the bounds of human understanding, that little satisfaction can be hoped for in this particular, either from the extent or security of his acquisitions. Man is a sociable, no less than a reasonable, being : But neither can he always enjoy company agreeable and amufing, or preserve the proper relish for them. Man is also an active being; and from that disposition, as well as from the various neceflities of
human life, must submit to business and occupation: But the mind requires some relaxation, and cannot always support its bent to care and industry. It seems, then, that nature has pointed out a mixed kind of life as most suitable to human race, and secretly admonished them to allow none of these biafles to draw too much, fo as to incapacitate them for other occupations and entertainments. Indulge your pallion for science, says she, but let your science be human, and such as may have a direct reference to action and society. Abitruse thought and profound researches I prohibit, and will severley punish, by the penfive melancholy which they introduce, by the endless uncertainty in which the involve you, and by the cold reception your pretended discoveries shall mest with, when communicated. Be a philosopher; but amidst all your philosophy, be still a man.
Were the generality of mankind contented to prefer the easy philosophy to the abstract and profound, without throwing any blame or contempt on the latter, it might not be improper, perhaps, to comply with this general opinion, and allow every man to enjoy, without opposition, his own taste and sentiment. But as the matter is often carried farther, even to the absolute rejecting of all profound reasonings, or what is commonly called metaphyfics, we shall now proceed to consider what can reasonably be pleadded in their behalf.
We may begin with observing, that one confiderable advantage, which results from the accurate and abstract philosophy, is, its subserviency to the easy and humane; which, without the former, can never attain a sufficient degree of exactness in its sentiments, precepts, or reasonings. All polite letters are nothing but pictures of human life in various attitudes and situations; and inspire us with different sentiments, of praise or blame, admiration or ridicule, according to the qualities of the object which they set before
An artist must be better qualified to succeed in this undertaking, who, besides a delicate taste and a