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ner, so as to give the air an upward direction. It is better to put “ cheeks,” as they are called, on the sides, for they serve not only to attach the sloping board to the wall, but to prevent the air from falling out sideways into the room. This ventilator may be hidden by hanging a picture in front of it, and will cause no draught. I may state here that it is better in a large room to have two or more small ventilators of any kind whatever than one large one, and that no single inlet opening should be larger than a square foot. Openings of half that size are preferable. It is calculated that there should be 24 square inches of opening per head, so that a square foot would be sufficient for six persons. In such an opening as has been described, wooden or glass louvres may be placed. The same end may be attained by making one of the upper panels of a door to open forwards with hinges to a certain distance; or, even in some instances, by fixing it in this position. An obvious disadvantage, and one which always has to be considered in making openings through walls and doors is, that conversation which goes on in the room can be heard in the passage outside. Sherringham's valve is a modification of this plan, and can be fitted either into an outer wall or into one between the room and the passage or hall. It consists, as you see, of a metal box to fit into the hole in the wall, with a heavy metal flap, which can swing forwards, and is exactly balanced by a weight at the end of a string passing over a pulley, the weight acting as a handle, by means of which the ventilator can be opened or shut or kept at any desired position. What has been said before applies to these ventilators. They should not be placed too near the ceiling, and this is the mistake that is generally made in fixing them. Stevens' drawer ventilator may also be mentioned here. The name almost describes it. It resembles a drawer, which is pulled out of the wall for a certain distance, and allows air to come into the room vertically in several streams between metal plates placed inside the drawer. Jennings' “Inlet,” which is in use in the barracks, consists of an opening through an outer wall, into a chamber in which dust, etc., is deposited, and thence between louvres into the room. Here I may mention that it is sometimes advised to place perforated zinc or wire gauzeoutside the entrance to the ventilators, so as to prevent dust, etc., coming into the room. This is not advisable, as the apertures get clogged up, and the entrance of air is much impeded. It is better to have an iron grating which will prevent birds entering, and to employ other methods for preventing the entrance of dust, soot, etc. Where this is considered necessary, the plan of passing air through cotton wool, which must be frequently changed, may be adopted. Currall's ventilator for admitting air through the door is sometimes useful. It resembles his window ventilator almost exactly; a long slit is cut through the door, a perforated metal plate placed outside, and a flat plate fixed parallel to
the door inside and in front of the slit, thus giving the air as it comes into the room an upward direction. An admirable plan for the admission of air into rooms is by means of vertical tubes--an old system, but one which has been brought into prominence of late years by Mr. Tobin. A horizontal aperture is made in the wall into the outer air just above the floor, and then a vertical pipe carried against the wall to a height of from four to five feet. The cold air is thus made to ascend like a fountain into the room. It does so in a compact column, which only perceptibly spreads after it has got some height above the mouth of the tube. It then mixes with warm air at the top of the room, producing no draught at all. In spite of the vertical height through which air has to pass before it emerges into the room, a considerable amount of soot and dust of various kinds is brought into the room. This may be obviated by placing a little cotton wool in the interior of the tube. This, however, although a very efficient plan, has the serious disadvantage of impeding the current of air. A better plan is the one patented by the Sanitary Engineering and Ventilating Company; & tray containing water is placed in the horizontal aperture in the wall, the en-. tering air being deflected on to the surface of the water by metal plates. The greater part of the dust is thus arrested by the water, which can be changed as often as necessary. In warm weather ice may be placed in the trays. Another plan is to place in a vertical tube a long muslin bag with the pointed end upwards, and kept in shape by wire rings. This provides a large filtering area, and offers very little resistance to the passage of air. The bag may be taken out and cleansed as often as necessary.