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house sewer, or, if necessary, at the end of one or more branches, there should be a ventilating pipe, four inches in diameter, carried up above the eaves of the house or above the ridge of the roof, and not under or near any bedroom windows. This may be covered with a little conical cap, or merely with a piece of wire network, or with a cowl (preferably a fixed cowl) if it is required to be ornamental. Whether this pipe be covered with a cowl or not, air will, as a rule, enter at the air inlet at the lower end of the sewer, pass along it through its whole length, and escape by the ventilating pipe or pipes just mentioned, and no foul air can accumulate in any part of the sewer. If any foul air escapes at the air inlets, it acts as a warning to show that something is wrong; the siphon is stopped up, or there is an accumulation of foul matter in it, or in the sewer somewhere. When all is going right, no foul air will escape by these openings. The ventilating pipes may be made of iron if only used as ventilating pipes. When used also as soil-pipes they are better made of lead, as will be further shown in the next lecture. Rain-water pipes may be taken directly into the house sewer or its branches without any trap, provided that their joints are well filled and packed, and that they do not open at the top near to any bedroom windows, otherwise they must discharge over the surface of the yard or area. The surface gulleys for yards, &c., may be stoneware siphon gulleys, provided with galvanized iron gratings, which are better than stoneware gratings, as they are less liable to break. They are sometimes provided with openings in the side above the level of the water for the admission of waste pipes, &c. Dipstone traps are sometimes used, but are objectionable. McLandsborough’s gulley is sometimes useful. It may be described as an iron dip-trap with three compartments, having several openings, into which pipes may be taken above the surface of the water. Jennings' receiver is also often

useful, especially where the trap has to be low down, and upright pieces placed one above another over it up to the level of the pavement. Pieces with openings are provided, so that drains coming from the inside of the house—the basement drains for instance—may be discharged into it, and so disconnected from the house sewer. Drains from the basement of a house ought not to open directly into the house sewer, but always into a disconnecting trap of some kind or another. Clark's gulleys are useful where much sludge is likely to be washed into the trap. They are provided with iron buckets that collect the sludge, and can be lifted out bodily. They are doubly and sometimes trebly trapped. The common bell trap, so often used, not only in areas, but in the basements of houses, is a most mischievous contrivance. It consists of an iron box with a pipe, which is connected with the sewer, standing up in it. The perforated cover of the box has an iron cup or bell-shaped piece fastened underneath it. Of course water stands in the box up to the level of the pipe which descends into the sewer. The bell on the perforated lid is so arranged that, when the lid or grating is in its place, the rim of the bell dips into the water around the vertical pipe. Even if the bell is in place, and whole, the trap is untrustworthy, because a very slight increase of pressure of air in the sewer will cause it to force its way through the small film of water into which the bell dips. It is objectionable because it soon becomes filled up with filth, and because, unless water is almost continually running through it, a sufficient amount evaporates to allow the sewer air to escape freely; but the great objection to it is that, when the cover is taken off, the bell is taken off too. The trap, such as it is, is gone, and the air from the sewer escapes freely into the house if the trap is inside the house. The covers are often taken off by

frequently broken, and so the use of these traps should be discouraged as much as possible. The Mansergh trap is frequently useful in areas, as it serves also for the disconnection of the basement sinks, and provides a place of attachment for a ventilator for the house sewer. It consists of three compartments. Into an opening in the side of the first, the waste-pipe of a sink may be conducted. The water from this fills the first compartment up to the level of an aperture, through which it passes into the second, the pipe through which the water is conveyed into the first com

surface of the water in that compartment. Over the first and second com.

a grating over the second or middle compartment. From the second compartment, the water passes under a partition into the third, the outlet from which into the house sewer is above the lower edge of this partition, which itself extends from the top of the trap nearly to the bottom, so that it completely separates the air in the third compart

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