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profusely used. Examples of this division may be seen in St. Bartholomew's Church, Smithfield; South Ockendon Church, Essex; the Church of the Hospital of St. Cross, built by Henry de Blois, about 1136, &c. The third division may, perhaps, more properly be called the transition style, from its consisting partly of the perfect style, showing some of the general features of the next. lá this division the pointed arch was frequently used; but the ornaments and mouldings retained the same character as in the last, though wrought with an increased complexity. In some instances the pointed arch appeared earlier, as in the Church of St. Cross: in fact, this church has almost all the varieties of the Norman style. The circular part of the Temple Church in London, and Becket's Crown, Canterbury Cathedral, are in this division: in Durham Cathedral there is also some transition work.

The semicircular arch is the characteristic of the Norman style; but in it the horseshoe, the Moorish, the elliptical, segmental, and pointed arches are sometimes to be met with. Windows with three lights, the centre one being raised considerably above the sides, are to be seen in Waltham Abbey, and several other buildings. In Little Snoring Church, Norfolk, is to be seen a semicircular arch within a pointed one, and these two are encompassed by another semicircular arch, with the sides continued from the spring. ing to the impost. There are many examples where the pointed and semicircular arches are both used in the same place, which may be evidence of transition work. Fig. 1. is a section of the jamb mouldings of a window Fig. 1.

Fig. 2.

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of the middle division. It will be seen by this section that the mouldings are geometrical figures, and are formed out of the flat surfaces of the arches: these arches form distinct recesses, and are very numerous in some buildings. From the peculiar character of the ornament, which, I believe, is always sunk, and never raised above the face of the stone, except in labels, strings, &c., I am inclined to think much of the ornamental work was carved when the arches were set; indeed, some unfinished work, occasionally to be met with strengthens this opinion. Cusps are sometimes found in the later divisions of this style.

The commencement of the reign of Richard I. (1189) is the period usually assigned for the general adoption of the pointed arch, and from the decided change from the massive proportions of the preceding periods to the lofty proportions of the Gothic style, and to that general tendency to perpendicular lines, instead of horizontal ones, which characterised it. of the numerous names applied to this style of architecture each has its merit in some peculiar way, though but few can be allowed to be sufficiently compre

hensive: under these circumstances, I will not presume to add to the catalogue of titles by which it is designated, but shall content myself with the term Gothic, which is generally applied, commonly accepted, and always understood to signify that light and elegant architecture which became general after the Norman style, and which was characterised by the use of the pointed arch and perpendicular lines, as, when so applied, its barbarous definition is never thought of. The Gothic style may be divided into four classes: viz. 1st Class,

which is composed of geometrical Fig. 3.

forms, in circles and segments of circles, with equilateral and lancet arches; 2d Class, with ramified tracery, sometimes resembling the fibres of leaves, and equilateral lancet arches; 3d Class, with perpendicular lines, and compound arches; 4th Class, also, with perpendicular lines, and compound arches continued, but increased in richness and the number of mouldings; the general proportions being, consequently, more heavy in appearance.

The First Class of Gothic Architecture, commenced in 1189, and continued till

about 1272; and in the first division of this class many of the mouldings and ornaments retained some of the characteristics of the Norman style; while among its principal decora. tions, slender marble columns, highly polished, appear very conspicuously. These columns were introduced perfectly unconnected, except by the capital and base, and were frequently carried to a great height. Where they remain in our buildings in their original state, they produce, by their richness, a beautiful contrast to the plain stone. The square recesses of the Norman style were now changed to plain splays, chiefly in the exteriors, though the interior mouldings were still governed by the same general principles. Fig. 2, is a section of the arch mouldings of the east window in the north aisle of Stone Church, Kent, which will show the character of the mouldings of the middle division of this class; and their distinctive marks will be seen by a comparison with those in Fig. 1. The degree of progress obtained in the mouldings of this period will also be seen; and by again comparing the section, Fig. 2, with the elevation Fig. 3, something of the same geometrical character will be observed. Fig. 4, is a section of the window jamb, or

Fig. 4.

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profusely used. Examples of this division may be seen in St. Bartholomew's Church, Smithfield; South Ockendon Church, Esses; the Church of the Hospital of St. Cross, built by Henry de Blois, about 1136, &c. The third division may, perhaps, more properly be called the transition style, from its consisting partly of the perfect style, showing some of the general features of the next

. lo this division the pointed arch was frequently used; but the ornaments and mouldings retained the same character as in the last, though wrought with an increased complexity. In some instances the pointed arch appeared earlier, as in the Church of St. Cross: in fact, this church has almost all the varieties of the Norman style. The circular part of the Temple Church in London, and Becket's Crown, Canterbury Cathedral, are in this division: in Durham Cathedral there is also some transition work.

The semicircular arch is the characteristic of the Norman style; but in it the horseshoe, the Moorish, the elliptical, segmental, and pointed arches are sometimes to be met with. Windows with three lights, the centre one being raised considerably above the sides, are to be seen in Waltham Abbey, and several other buildings. In Little Snoring Church, Norfolk, is to be seen a semicircular arch within a pointed one, and these two are encompassed by another semicircular arch, with the sides continued from the spring. ing to the impost. There are many examples where the pointed and semicircular arches are both used in the same place, which may be evidence of transition work. Fig. 1. is a section of the jamb mouldings of a window Fig. 1.

Fig. 2.

[graphic]

of the middle division. It will be seen by this section that the mouldings are geometrical figures, and are formed out of the flat surfaces of the arches: these arches form distinct recesses, and are very numerous in some buildings. From the peculiar character of the ornament, which, I believe, is always sunk, and never raised above the face of the stone, except in labels, strings, &c., I am inclined to think much of the ornamental work was carved when the arches were set; indeed, some unfinished work, occasionally to be met with strengthens this opinion. Cusps are sometimes found in the later divisions of this style.

The commencement of the reign of Richard I. (1189) is the period usually assigned for the general adoption of the pointed arch, and from the decided change from the massive proportions of the preceding periods to the lofty proportions of the Gothic style, and to that general tendency to perpendicular lines, instead of horizontal ones, which characterised it. Of the numerous names applied to this style of architecture each has its merit in some peculiar way, though but few can be allowed to be sufficiently compre

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hensive: under these circumstances, I will not presume to add to the cata. logue of titles by which it is designated, but shall content myself with the term Gothic, which is generally applied, commonly accepted, and always understood to signify that light and elegant architecture which became general after the Norman style, and which was characterised by the use of the pointed arch and perpendicular lines, as, when so applied, its barbarous definition is never thought of. The Gothic style may be divided into four classes: viz. 1st Class,

which is composed of geometrical Fig. 3.

forms, in circles and segments of circles, with equilateral and lancet arches; 2d Class, with ramified tracery, sometimes resembling the fibres of leaves, and equilateral lancet arches; 3d Class, with perpendicular lines, and compound arches; 4th Class, also, with perpendicular lines, and compound arches continued, but increased in richness and the number of mouldings; the general proportions being, consequently, more heavy in appearance.

The First Class of Gothic Architecture, commenced in 1189, and continued till

about 1272; and in the first division of this class many of the mouldings and ornaments retained some of the characteristics of the Norman style; while among its principal decorations, slender marble columns, highly polished, appear very conspicuously. These columns were introduced perfectly unconnected, except by the capital and base, and were frequently carried to a great height. Where they remain in our buildings in their original state, they produce, by their richness, a beautiful contrast to the plain stone. The square recesses of the Norman style were now changed to plain splays, chiefly in the exteriors, though the interior mouldings were still governed by the same general principles. Fig. 2, is a section of the arch mouldings of the east window in the north aisle of Stone Church, Kent, which will show the character of the mouldings of the middle division of this class; and their distinctive marks will be seen by a comparison with those in Fig. 1. The degree of progress obtained in the mouldings of this period will also be seen; and by again comparing the section, Fig. 2, with the elevation Fig. 3, something of the same geometrical character will be observed. Fig. 4, is a section of the window jamb, or

Fig. 4.

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architrave, below the springing of the arch, which more distinctly shows the splaybefore alluded to: it will be proper to mention that this sec. tion is not taken from the same window as the other, as that could not be obtained, in consequence of the lower part being entirely enclosed with brickwork and plaster. In this, (Fig. 4.) which is from a window of two lights in the same church, are shown two isolated marble columns. Fig. 5, is the section of the exterior jamb moulding of the same window. Fig. 6, is another specimen of an exterior architrave and label moulding from Rochester Cathedral. Fig. 7, is a section of an cxterior jamb moulding and mullion, of the first division of this class, from Rochester Cathedral.

The middle division of the first class of Gothic architecture had scarcely reached its highest point of beauty when it began to decline: and, first, the slender lofty marble column, which had been, from ines. perience, formed of marble the laminæ of which were perpendicular instead of being horizontal, split into several pieces, from the weight it

had to support; and, consequently, a substitute for this Fig. 7. was rendered necessary. This was found by connect

ing the columns to the mullions in the last division of this style, and by running them up in smaller piers of freestone. The marble column thus gradually got into disuse; and this will account for the decay of many of our early Gothic buildings, and for the necessity, in the next class, of putting in new windows. In buildings of this period, it is not an uncommon thing to see capitals and bases without the shaft of the column. Here, we may reasonably suppose, once stood a marble shaft,

which probably split and fell, though bearing little more than its own weight. In the early division of this class, few cusps were introduced into the window heads, and these were only in the pero fect figures of the upper parts. Examples of this first division may be seen in Barnes Church, Surrey; Rochester Cathedral, &c.; and of the middle division, in Westminster Abby, about 1245; Wells Cathedral, 1220; and in the east end of New Shoreham Church, Essex, 1220. Stone Church, Kent, is of this division; and in this church, which is one of the most perfect specimens of this class of Gothic architecture, it is curious to observe the increase of richness in the architecture as you proceed from west to east: this practice, which is, I believe, to be seen in all our ecclesiastical edifices, is, in this one very conspicuous. Of the third, or transition, period, some examples are to be seen in Little Maplestead Church. The characteristic arches of this class are the equilateral and the drop arch, with occasionally the lancet specimens of windows. The toothed ornament was much used in this class, in the hollow mouldings; beautiful specimens of which may be seen in Stone Church, and in the arch leading to St. Bartholomew's Church, Smithfield; and also in the restored Lady's Chapel, Southwark.

The Second Class of Gothic Architecture commenced about 1272, and continued to 1377. The fault discovered in the marble columns of the preceding class was the means of their disuse; and their places soon became supplied with mullions formed of the same moulding as the tracery mullion; and the geometrical figures of the window heads of the

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