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DECEMBER 27, 1889.]

vii

ELECTRICAL REVIEW/INDEX.

RAILWAY

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PAISLEY, 631

AILWAY companies and the Post

Office, 158
station struck by lightning,

182
train jolting, 297
diary, 672

station lighting, 600
Ram, G. S., on the heating of wires and

lamp filaments, 638, 668
Ransomes, Sims & Co., 422
Rapid rise in

copper, 613
Rating of machinery, 329
Recent electrical work on the elevated

roads and its bearing on the rapid

transit problem, 137, 160
Reckenzaun, A. and F., on storage bat.

teries at the Paris Exhibition, 469
Reducting the coal bill, 42
Refractory patent, 532
Regulating accumulators in electric light-

ing, 652
Regalation of accumulators, 573

of Railways Act, The, 1889, 517
Removal, 41, 720
Renard battery lamp, 420
Repaving of the Strand, 358
Repeal of Chilian import duties, 501
Report on the first six months' working of

the electric section of the Lon.

don Chamber of Commerce, 21
of the Post and Telegraph Depart-

ment of Queensland for 1888, 403
Results of strikes, 244

Sale of machinery, 422, 673
Sartiaux and Weissenbruch, on applications

of electricity to railways, 611, 633,

660
Save us from Our Friends, 675
Saving life at sea, 15
Sawyer-Man decision, 556
Scarcity of gutta-percha, 159
School of Electrical Engineering and Tele-

graphy, 646
Schuster, Arthur, On the passage of elec-

tricity through gase, 354
St. Louis Universal Exposition, 181
St. Thomas Charterhouse Boys' School,

214
Scotch gas managers and electric lighting,

125
Section work at the British Association,

478
Seeing sparks, 60
Seldon, Charles, On electric train lighting,

522
Shah and the electrical omnibus, 42

» » phonograph, 70
Shah's visit, 15
Shipyard lighting in Belfast, 256
Shocking death of a telephone employee,

509
Shop lighting tenders wanted, 107
Shuffling off this mortal coil, 294
Significant figures, 243
Silvertown, 42

strike, 360, 450, 532, 614
Social, 503
Society of Engineers at Deptford, 394

99

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Pamphlett-Ferguson fresh water condenser,

464
Parallel introduction of alternating cur-

rent machines at Marienbad, 199
Paris Exhibition, 13, 644

awards, 422
Conferences at, 13, 298
dydamos, Notes on, 36,

95, 121, 146, 206, 260,

292, 408
Electric lighting at, 34
Electrical engineering at,

507
Lighting Syndicate, 98
Storage batteries at, by

A. and F. Reckenzaun,

469
meter competition, 510
Parliamentry Bills for electric lighting,

42
Patent Office, 504
Patten, F.J.,on alternating current motors,

413
Payment of expert witnesses, 113
Peculiar ground, A, 63
Pension, 41
Peral, 357
Perseverance rewarded, 450
Personal, 43, 70, 126, 189, 298,329, 358, 422,

449, 478, 532, 587
Physical Society for Liverpool, 502
Police and the telephone,
Policeman's life, &c., 587
Portsmouth lighting, 554

New Town Hall, 392
Practical photometry, 205
Precautions for safety in the use of Sir

William Thomson's electro-static

voltameter, 4
Precipitation of sewage by electricity, 22
Preece, W. H., on telephonic communica-

tion between London and

Paris, 318
on effects of steady and

alternate currents

different conductors, 352
Prescott, G. B., on some methods of regu-

lating accumulators, 582, 621
Present state of traction by storage

batteries, by Dr. Louis Bell, 455
for John W. Mackay, 183
position of the electric light in

Paris, 5
Presentation to Prof. Tait, 672

to Mr. McIver, 674

721
Price of copper, 647
Priestman's petroleum engine, 159
Primary batteries, 393
Prince of Wales and electric launches, 183

Bismarck and the phonograph, 449
Private enterprise at Devonport, 696
Problems in electric traction, 29, 46
Profit in motor work, 269
Proposed electric trawline for Eastbourne,

159, 202
new Atlantic cable, 158
direct cable from Hong Kong to

Singapore, 194

submarine cable, 13
Prosperous electrical firm, 70
Protection of telegraph and telephone lines

against electric light wires, 717
Provisional order abandoned, 127

orders, 588

orders for Chatham, 15
Public safety signal, 127

on

REVIEW8—
A. B. C. of Electricity, by W. H. Mea-

dowcroft, 356
Alternating Currents of Electricity,

Papers for the Use of Students
and Engineers, by T. H. Blakesley,

355
Dictionary of Electrical Words, &c., by

E. J. Houston, 474
Electric Lighting with reference to

Municipal Government, by Dr. W.

Schrader, 106
Electrical Engineering, Systematically

Arranged Questions, by Professor

Jamieson, 530
Electricity, Experimental and Practical,

124
Electricity Applied to Military Art, by

Colonel Gun, 124
Electricity in our Homes and Workshops,

500
Electro-metallurgy Practically Treated,

by Alexander Watt, 106
Elementary Manual of Magnetism and

Electricity, by Prof. Jamieson,

474
Energy and its Transformations, Mecha-

nical Power, Heat, Light, Che-
mism, Electricity and Magnetism,

by R. Colson, 530
Incandescent Wiring Handbook, by F.

B. Badt, 179
Law relating to Electric Lighting, by G.

Spencer Bower and Walter Webb,

474
Modern Views of Electricity, by Oliver

J. Lodge, 167
Practical Electric Bell Fitting, by F. C.

Allsop, 40
Solutions to the Questions set at the

May Examinations of the Science
and Art Department, by Prof.

Adams, 475
Sound, Light and Heat, by Alfonzo

Gardiner, 475
Study of Mr. Harness's Electropathic

Belt, 205
Thermo Electricity, by Arthur Rust, 40
Traité Théorique et Pratique D'Electro-

chimie, by Donato Tommasi, 107
Useful Rules and Tables, by W. J. M.

Rankine, 179
Revival of an old idea, 42
Rise in copper, 243
Roper dynamo and arc lamp, 528
Rucker, Prof. A. W., On the instruments

used in the recent magnetic survey

of France, 320
Russian Exhibition, 504

SOCIETIER—
City Guilds Old Students' Association,

593
Engineering Society, King's College, 557
Institute of Electrical Engineers, 556,

562, 589, 591, 614, 617, 646, 649,

673, 678, 698
Institution of Electrical Engineers at

Paris, 233, 269, 510, 526, 532
National Electrical Society, 555, 613
National Telephone Electrical Society,

674, 721
Physical Society, 26, 541, 593, 706
Royal Institution of Great Britain, 697

Society, 672, 696
Society of Arts, 14, 532

Société Electrique Vevey-Montreux, 15
Some new forms of electrical treatment,

730
Sound reading, 70
Spite of gas, 556
Spray arrester for secondary batteries, 420
Standardising electric measuring appa-

ratus, 143

laboratory, 212
Standard types of apparatus, 100,
State purchase of the telephones in France,

91
Statue of Ohm, A, 558
Steam tramcars voted a nuisance, 698
Storage batteries at Paris Exhibition, by

A. and F. Reckenzaun, 469
Strand, 394
Strange dispute, 450
Street lighting in Montreal, 212
Strike at Silvertown, 360, 450

in America, 422
Strikes, 406

on the wane, 696
Stroud, Hy., on the E.M.F. produced by an

abrupt variation of temperature
at the point of contact of two por-

tions of the same metal, 319
Study of the duration of lightning, 6
Submarine boats, 719

torpedo boats, 182
Subsidy refused to the Canadian Cable

Company, 181
Subways, 719
Sudden death of an electrician, 359
Suggested names for electrical execution,

215
Suggestion, A, 393
Sunbeam lamp, 395
Supply of coal, 558
Swinburne, Jas., on design of transformers,

314
Swiss-German Rhine Canal Company, 240,

268
Synthetic study of dynamo machines, 10

64, 257, 381, 497, 605

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viii

ELECTRICAL REVIEW-INDEX.

[DECEMBER 27, 1889.

TABOR steam engine indicator, 268
TABOR
Taunton Electric Lighting Company, 505
Teachers and students, 433, 532, 672
Technical Instruction, 297

Students in Glasgow, 477
Telegrams, Cheap, 423
TELEGRAPH–

Afghanistan, 722
central staff, 698
China, 269, 696
column printing machine, 702
Construction and Maintenance Company,

672
on the Eiffel Tower, 328
and telephone in Uruguay, 268
Bill, 101
clerks' overtime work, 242
communication at Torquay, 296

with China, 587

in India, 589
Indian, 290
materials wanted, 532
money orders, 242
reduction of Hungarian tariffs, 503
poles wanted, 558
posts, 125
stores, 556
in warfare, 436

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CARLEY, S. A., On lightning con-

ductors, 8, 77, 148, 378
Vestries and the Board of Trade, 215
Victor turbine, 478

Telegraphic communication at Torquay,

422
at Torquay

resumed,

442
Telegraphists and their grievances, 478
The telegraphophone, 357
TELEGRAPHY, 13, 630

Army, 167
in Belgium, 477
examinations, 394
in Brazil, 13
in Honduras, 214
International congress of, 697
regarded from a financial point of view

(high speed and low speed), 172
in San Salvador, 14
TELEPHONE-
amalgamation, 101
in America, 532
in Austria-Hungary, 201
Bell Telephone Company, 394
between Vienna and Prague, 328
Captured by, 423
Co-operative telephones, 722
in Court, 721
Duke of Portland and, 12
Erection of poles at Southampton, 296

Long-distance telephony in Northern

Europe, 313
Telephony, 646

a new era, 436
in Austria, 100
in Austria-Hungary, 12
Bale, 126
in France, 12
in Germany, 157
in Russia, 557
Submarine, 665

in Wurtemburg, 125
Telephote, 186
Tenders for telegraph stores wanted, 360

wanted, 450

Electric lighting, 532
Tesla self-starting alternating motor

system, 64
Testimonial to Prof. Kennedy, 99
Testing the Ferranti cable with a tension

of one million volts, Dr. A. Koep-

sal, 467
Tests made for Health Department of the

City of New York, 729
Tests of the Timmis and Forbes patent

electro-magnetic railway brake, 715
Theatre lighting, 98
Theatrical, 159
Things worth knowing, 101
This year's electrical companies, 100
Thomson, Prof., exhibits at Paris, 498
Thomson's, Sir Wm., electro-static volt-

meter, precau -

tions for using, 4
chain of electro-

WATERH

ATERHOUSE system, 157
Water power, 268
Webber, Major-General, On distribution of

électricity in Chelsea with accu-
mulators as a main source of

supply, 382
Webster, Wm., On purification of sewage

and contaminated water by elec-

trolysis, 425
Welcome innovation, 433
Western Union Telegraph Company of

America, 502
Westinghouse Company, 348
Westinghouse-Edison lamp patent suit,

471
What boldness will do, 215
What's in a name! 43, 504
Which is the best tramcar starter? 182
Wire straightening machine, 697
Woodhouse & Rawson, Limited, wiring

tables, 360,531

Limited, 100
Work änd wages,

672

YEAR Book of Commerce, 270

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York, 555

ZIPERNO
IPERNOWSKY electrostatic electro-

„ at Gosport, 328

at Bournemouth, 559
Extension of, 614

at Southampton, 128
As a fire alarm, 720
at fires, 722
in France, 328
French, 577
in French Navy, 241
German, 41
in Italy, 722
Japan,

698
Lecture on, 558

static voltmeters,
by Andrew
Meikle, 524, 550,

589, 612
new inspectional

electric instru.
ments, 718

motor, 344
electric tramway with

& vertical rail, 547

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1888.

ALDRED, W. (18091), 56

Allison, H. J. (8170A),
Anderson, F. V. (12832), 250

E. W. (16625), 567

BAILEY, M., and Warner, J. (17537),
Bernett, H. T., and Pyke, L. S. M. (11503),

166
Batault, E. (18220), 112
Boult, A. J. (7408. Communicated by G.

Manet and C. Manet, of Paris), 55
Bristol, L. (9854), 28
Browd, A, B. (15206), 542

C. E. L. (16257), 567

HANDFORD, T. J. (15433), 642 OULT

ULTON, J., and Edmundson, J. (14843),

681 Harcourt, C. J. (15601), 542

Owen, D., Maurice, A. H., and Carr, L.,
Harness, C. B. (15869), 223

(11809), 404
Harris, H. J. (17694), 707
Head, H. H., and Sanderson, L. (11573),

196
Hollick, T. D. (14888), 681

PARIS and Scott

, Limited, and Laurence, , Holloway, J., and Mortimer, W. R. (9032),

Parker, T., and Lowrie, W. (12907), 222 55; (10654), 55

Rees, E. S. G. (17718), 731 Holt, H. P. (17590), 707

Patten, F.J."(16681), 308 ; (16681A), 308
Houghton, E. J. (7523),

Paul, R. W. (15530), 598
Huber, J. L. (18589), 731

Perrett, E. (18245), 681
Pieper, H. (11569), 166; (11570), 196

Pitt, S. (11927. Communicated by J. B.
IMMIS
MMISCH, M. (6985), 27

Atherton, of America), 567
Pyke, L. S. M.,and Barnett, H. T. (11503),

166
JACOB

ACOB, F. (13076), 223
Jennings, and Nicholson, F. B. RAWORTH, J. S. (16471), 625

17479), 681
Jolin, P., and Rawson, F. L. (8525), 55

Rawson, F. L., and White, W. (9487), 28

and Jolin, P. (8525), 55 Redfern, G. F. (13221), 251

Rees, C. S. G., and Parker, T. (17718), 731
KAPP
APP, Gisbert (9910), 55

Revueltas, J. N., and Vigil, P. (12798), 223

Rousseau, E. (10505), 222; (15877), 542
Kendall, J., and Cooper, O. (13994), 166
Kincaid, J. (11100), 195

Rowbotham, W., and Fox, W. (8765), 27

CAMPI

514

YAMPBELL-SWINTON, A. A. (10929).

166 ; (14963),
Cardew, P. (15395), 681
Carr, L., Maurice, A. H., and Owen, D.

(11809), 404
Cauderay, J. (12332), 222
Clark, W. (13215), 196
Cleveland, W. B. (15648), 196
Cliffe, D. Y. (17127), 681
Cockburn, A. C. (101.4), 166
Colle, C., and Lahouse H. & Co. (8905), 28
Cooper, O., and Kendall, J. (13994), 166
Cornwell, A. (19061), 112
Craven, E. G. (14622), 429
Crompton, R. E. B., and Swinburne, J.

(5811), 55

R. E. B. (13687), 598
Cumming, J. G. (11544), 55
Currie, $. C. C. (10708), 403 ; (10709), 403

9

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AHOUSE, H., & Co., and Colle, C. SACK, J. (1550), 542
), 28

Salomon, Sir David, and Faraday, H.
Lake, H. H. (8809. Communicated by s.

(15713), 542 Bergmann, of America), Sanderson, L. (13987), 196 27 ; (18108), 731

and Head, H. H. (11573), 196 (17267. Communicated by

Sandron, A. (12452) 196 J. Klames, of America), Sargeant, T. M.,and Sweete, O. R. (13000A). 28

251 (11106), 196

Satterlee, G. B. (13615), 277 (16479. Communicated by Schallenberger, O. B. (11897), 429; (11898), Prof. H. Walter, of Ame

542
rica), 681

Schaņschieff, A. (12290), 308
Langdon, W. E. (9171), 166

Sheffield, G. E., and Lowensteen, M. (18856), and Towle, W. (11529),

708
404

Shepard, A. L. (16766), 681
Langdon-Davies, C. (16239), 542

Schoop, W. P. (15626), 542
Laurence, R., and Paris, L., and Scott, Sellon, J. S. (11749), 55
Limited, (17568), 707

Serrin, H. G. C. (12163), 196
Lineff, A. L. (10092), 55

Seward, G. F., Lowrey, G. P., and Willson,
Loeffler, J. C. L. (18526), 430

T. L. (9672), 55
Lorrain, J. G. (11345), 542

Sherrin, J., and Sherrin, J. V. (13473), +04
Lowrey, G. P., Seward, G. F., and Willson,

Siemens Brothers & Co. (17961), 707 ; T. L. (9672), 55

(18659), 708
Lundberg, A. P. (16249), 707

Sigmann, A. (10900), 277
Lowrie, W., and Parker, T. (12907), 223 Smith, C. (10956), 166

M. H. (11963), 308
R. A., and Dorman, C. M. (15216),

430
MACKIE, W. (9825), 28

Snelgrove, W. (13643), 308
Manville, E. (9745), 195

Snell, C. S. (10107), 28 ; (14426), 404
Maquaire, F. V. (10209), 429

Spagnoletti, C. E. (12158), 222
Maquay, S. W. (14932), 430

Sweete, O. R., and Sargeant, T. M. (13000A),
Margetson, J. C. (15324), 430

251 Maurice, a. H., Carr, L., and Owen, D. Swinburne, J., and Crompton, R. E. B. (11809), 404

(5811), 55 Mayrhofer, c. A. (1713), 277

(14065), 681 Mercadier, E. J. P. (10363), 166

Swinton-Campbell, A. A., and E. Cox.
Miller, H. W. (10782), 55

Walker (90-46), 28
Moese-Nollendorf, E. R. von (14489), 681
Mortimer, W. R., and Holloway, J. (9032),
55; (10654), 55

, ),

Thompson, W. P. (12609), 514
ICHOLSON, F. B., and Jennings, E. Timmis, J. A. (10941), 166
J. (17479), 681

Towle, W., and Langdon, W. E. (11529), 404
Noble, A. (10730), 166

Tyer, E. (16140), 430; (16141), 542

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EDMUNDS, H. (12860), 404
Edmundson, J., and Oulton, J. (14843),

681
Edwards, E. (15183. Communicated by

E. Cassalette, D. Kunhardt), 681

FARADAY, H., and Salomons, Sir David
Ferranti, s. 2. (12289), 196 ; (12605), 222

(13621), 277 (13622), 567
Fox, W., and Rowbotham, W. (8765), 27
Fuller, J. C., and Fuller, G. (18636), 731

TAYLOR, H. A. (18233), 707

GARFORD, J. (17694), 707
Gauge, A. (14941), 542
Gouraud, G. E. (16212), 542

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ELECTRICAL REVIEW-INDEX. .

[DECEMBER 27, 1889.

VARLEY,

ARLEY, S. A. (13402), 277 Vigil, P., and Revueltas, J. N. (12798), 223

Currie, S. C. C. (5142), 140 ; (6547), 251 ;

(11075), 543 ; (3456), 251

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ALKER, E. COX (6893), 27

and Campbell-Swin

ton, A. A. (9046),

28; (14963), 514 Wallace, N. W. (10299), 166 Warner, J., and Bailey, M. (17537), 681 Wells, C. (13208), 251 White, W., and Rawson, F. L. (9487), 28 Willans, P. W. (14703), 429 Willcox, B. (14149. Communicated by

C. S. Bradley, of America), 308 Willson, T. L., Lowrey, G. P., and Seward,

G. F. (9672), 55 Winnall, L. W. (9747), 166 Wise, W. L. (12376), 404 Wynne, F. (13805), 567

DALLOS, M. (11900), 543
De Bathe Cameron, H. F., and Harris, T.

(8855), 460 Depoele, c. J. Van (5912), (5913), 140;

(5014), 460 Dewey, M. W. (1611), 139 Drake, E. S. (9638), 308 Dyer, I. T., Fish, P., and Fish, R. C. (1401),

139

Lake, H. H. (2480. Communicated by

H. H. Cutler, of Ame

rica), 277 (2080. Communicated by

L. T. Stanley, of

Brooklyn), 277 (6065. Communicated by

Prof. Elihu Thomson,

of America), 277 (9576. Communicated by S. F. Van Choate, of

America), 460
Lake, W. R. (6804. Communicated by G.

Stratton, of Canada), 278
Lawrence, G. McGuire (4960), 140
Leonard, H. W. (6854), 278
Lowrie, W., and Hall, C. J. (1103), 112

[blocks in formation]

MALTBY

CALTBY-NEWTON (7356), 278 Mehner, C. H. (434), 139 ; (7597), 278 Mestern, R., and Shedlock, J. J. (6119), 140

YORKE, R. F. (9405), 28

[blocks in formation]

GALOPIN, H., and Alcock, A. U. (7526),

139 Newton, H. E. (485), 166; (8046), 278

ZIGANG,

IGANG, J. P. (12963), 250 Zipernowsky, C., and Deri, M. (12858), 112 ;

(12856), 514

278 Gibbs, J. D., and Fesquet, E. (238), 277 Guitton, E. (2276), 140

[blocks in formation]

HALL, C. J., and Lowrie, W. (1103), 112

RICKETSON, J. C. (3808), 277 ; (9589),

Harris, T., and De Bathe Cameron, H. F.

(8855), 460 Heaviside, A. W. (7673), 278 Hicks, T. H. (5293), 140 ; (7002), 278 Holcomb, F. A. (8360), 278 Howard, F. G., Appleton, J., Burbey, W. T., and Williamson, A. E. (6622), 278 Howes, A. J. (7129), 278

Roper, J. (2406), 140

1889.

SHE

Α'
LCOCK, A. U., and Galopin, H. (7526),

278 Anderson, F. (11732), 460 Appleton, J., Howard, F. G., Burley, W.

T., and Williamson, A. E. (6622), 278

IMRAY, O. (8053), 278

HEDLOCK, J. J., and Mersten, R.

(6119), 140 Siegmann, A. (8619), 278 Snedekor, C..T. (11067), 404 Soames, A., Nalder, F. H., Nalder, H., and

Crawley, C. W, S. (1343), 139 Sperry, E. A. (5176), 167: (3401), 251 ;

(1118), 277 Starkey Barber-Starkey, W.J. (7619), 278

JARMAN, A. J. (6423), 140

BALET, J. W. (3381), 140

[blocks in formation]

Bright, E. B., Engelbach, F. W., and

Bright, J. (8657), 542 Berg, E. (1223), 139 Bernstein, A. (5737), 277 Burbey, W. T., Appleton, J., Howard, F.

G., and Williamson, A. E. (6622),

278 Boult, a. J. (1892), 140 ; (5084), 277

KEEN, R. E. (10814), 542 Kennedy, R. (1162), 112 Kookogey, W. P. (12731), 543

[blocks in formation]
[blocks in formation]

(Cost. Communicated by WELLS, C. H. (759), 112

4654 Cook, G. W. (7645), 278 Crawley, C. W. S., Nalder, F. H., Nalder,

H., and Soames, A. (1343), 139 Correns, E. (11328), 460

(4800), (5612), 140

140;

140;

Prof. Elihu Thomson,

of America), 251 (6527. Communicated

from abroad), by Nikola Tesla, 251

Wheeler, S. S. (7647), 278
Whittingham, G. H. (1677), 140
Williamson, A. E., Appleton, J., Howard,

F. G-, and Burbey, W. T. (6622),
278

THE TELEGRAPHIC JOURNAL AND

ELECTRICAL REVIEW.

VOL. XXV.

JULY 5. 1889.

No. 606.

PAGE

1

...

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...

CONTENTS:

PAGE The Compound-Winding Case

Traffic Receipts

20 The Inversions of Polarity in Series Dynamos

Legal :-United Telephone Company v. Ahern and Co. 20 Precautions for Safety in the Use of Sir W. Thomson's Electricity in Agriculture

20 Electrostatic Voltmeters

Report on the First Six Months' Working of the Electric The Present Position of the Electric Light in Paris

5 and Allied Trades Section of the London Chamber of Study of the Duration of Lightning

Commerce...

21 Ganz's Standard Screw Threads ...

Precipitation of Sewage by Electricity

22 Continental Notes

The Electric Light for Manchester

22 Lightning Conductors (continued)

Electric Lighting in Bradford

23 A Synthetic Study of Dynamo Machines (cont.)—(illus.) 10 Electric Lighting in Lambeth

23 Notes ... 11 Electric Lighting at Southsea

24 Electric Lighting at Portsmouth 18 The Compound-Winding Patents

25 The Electric Lighting Proposals at Leeds 18 Proceedings of Societies :-Physical Society

26 City Notes, &c.:-The Amalgamation of Telephone Companies 18 New Patents

27 Crompton and Company 19 Abstracts of Published Specifications

27 West African Telegraph Company 19 Correspondence :-A Severe Test

28 South of England Telephone Company

20
Spinning Crystal

28

6 7

...

THE COMPOUND-WINDING CASE.

WE mentioned last week that Lord Trayner had delivered judgment in this case against the holders of Haddan's or Brush's patent, but we had not time to discuss the case with anything like the fullness the importance of the decision demands.

We give the text of the judgment in our other columns.

This lawsuit has quite a little history. Compoundwinding was brought out in 1882 as a means of securing constant potential. In 1885, or about then, the AngloAmerican Brush Corporation attempted to secure royalties on all compound dynamos, under Brush's patent, as Brush had described and claimed the use of series shunt winding, though he said nothing about its being useful for constant potential.

Many of the large firms preferred paying for licences to the chances of war, but Messrs. Crompton & Co., Goolden & Co., Allen & Co., and the Gülcher Company chose to contest the patent, and Messrs. Crompton entered a cross action on a patent of theirs. The chance of success in an English court of law was very uncertain, whereas the risk of incurring expense was quite the reverse; the interest in purely compound dynamos of some of the firms was small, and one happened to be liquidating or reconstructing just then, so a compromise was made, and the Brush Company became masters of the field.

Messrs. King, Brown & Co., however, were doing a very large business in a quiet way in compound dynamos, and on careful examination of the specification, they decided it was much cheaper to fight than to pay royalties. They therefore took a bold course and brought an action against the Brush Company for threats, under the new Patent Act, claiming that their business was damaged by advertisements on the strength of an invalid patent. This involved an action to deterinine the validity of the patent.

The plaintiffs' contention was that the patent was void on several grounds

1. That series shunt winding had already been published in Varley's specification.

2. That series shunt winding had already been used publicly by Varley in his machine.

3. That the detachable wearing commutator segments were old, having been used by Wilde and by Varley.

4. That a number of commutator detail claims went beyond the provisional specification.

The last is a mere legal point in this case. An inventor may not go beyond his provisional in his complete, as if allowed to do so he might fraudulently insert inventions not thought of at the time of his provisional. Of course there was no suspicion of fraud in Mr. Brush's case ; in fact, his American specification containing all these details was filed before the English provisional. The fault rested in another quarter.

Mr. Imray was called first and gave a great deal of educational evidence. Witnesses who had used Wilde commutators then gave evidence, and were followed by Dr. Hopkinson. He pointed out that there were no incandescent lamps in use in 1878, because Edison had not told the world how to make filaments. He also dealt fully with all the doctrinal and technical points of the cage. His testimony as to the storage of magnetism and the separation of the development of the electrical and magnetic forces is interesting reading, but is too long to quote.

Mr. Varley's evidence was, of course, exceedingly important. He said his specification described, and was meant to describe, series-shunt ; and that his actual machine was also series-shunt. He produced his note book of that time with a diagram of series-shunt winding. His reason for not claiming it was that he thought his brother had described it. Mr. Varley's evidence is exceedingly clear and to the point throughout, and is not at all that of a man who would draw a nonsensical specification.

Messrs. Gorman, Myers, and Garnish spoke as to Varley's machine working; and three real live skilled workmen who had made models were produced. Mr. Swinburne then followed and gave more argu

A

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