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24. Historical Account of a Degradation of Gold, made by an Anti-elixir, 1678.

2.. Tracts; the Aerial Noctiluca; and a Process of a factitious self-shining Substance, 1680.

26. A Discourse of Things above Reason, 1681.

27. New Experiments and Observations upon the icy Noctiluca; to which is added, a Chemical Paradox, making it probable, that their principles are transmutable, so that out of one of them, others may be produced, 1682.

28. The second part of the Continuation of new Experiments touching the Spring and Weight of the Air, and a large Appendix, 1682.

29. Letter to Dr. John Beale, relative to making Fresh Water out of Salt, 1683.

30. Memoirs for the Natural History of Human Blood, 1684.

31. Experiments and Considerations about the Porosity of Bodies, in two parts; the first relating to Animals, the second to solid.Bodies, 1684.

32. Short Memoirs for the natural experimental History of Mineral Waters, with dișections as to the several Methods of trying them; including abundance of new and useful Remarks, as well as several curious Esperiments, 1635.

33. An Essay of the great Effects of languid and unheeded Motion ; with an Appendix, containing an experimental Discourse of some hitherto little regarded Causes of the Insalubrity and Salubrity of the Air, and its Effects, 1685.

34. A Dissertation on the Reconcileableness of Specific Medicines to the Corpuscular Philosophy; to which is added, a Discourse of the Advantages attending the use of simple Medicines. To these philosophical, he added a Theological Discourse of the high Veneration Man's Intellect owes to God, particularly for his Wisdom and Power, 1685.

35. Free Enquiry into the vulgarly received Notion of Nature, 1686.

36. The Martyrdom of Theodora and Dydimia; a work drawn up in his youth, 1687.

37. A Disquisition into the final Causes of naturat Things; and whether, if at all, with what caution a Naturalist should admit them; to which is added, an Appendix about vitiated sight, 1688.

I shall present the reader with an extract from this piece. The author proposes at the outset, these four questions: 1. Whether generally or indefinitely speaking, there be any final causes of things corporeal, kpowable by naturalists? 2. Whether, if the first question be resolved in the affirmative, we may consider final causes in all sorts of bodies, or only in some peculiarly qualified ones ? 3. Whether, or in what sense, the acting for ends, may be ascribed to an intelligent (and even inanimate) body? 4. And, lastly, how far, and with what cautions, arguments may be framed upon the suppositon of final causes ?

Sect. 1.

To begin with the first question. Those that would exclude final causes from the consideration of the naturalist, are wont to do it, (for ought I have observed) upon one of these two accounts; either that with Epicurus, they think the world was the production of atoms and chance, without any intervention of a deity; and that, consequently, it is improper and vain to seek for final causes in the effects of chance: or that they judge with Des Cartes, that God being an omniscient agent, it is rash and presumptuous for men to think, that they know, or can


investigate, what ends he proposed to himself in his actings about his creatures. The ground on which the Epicureans have rejected final causes has been disallowed by the philosophers of almost all other sects; and some have written sufficient confutations of it, which therefore I shall here forbear to insist on; though some things I shall upon occasion observe, that may help, if not suffice, to discredit so unreasonable an opinion. But the Cartesian argument has been so prevalent among many learned and ingenious men, that it will be worth while (if it be but to excite better pens) to spend some time in the consideration of it.

I shall beg leave to premise a distinction, which, though novel, I shall venture to employ, because it comprises and distinguishes 'some things, which I think ought neither to be overlooked nor confounded.

I conceive, then, that when we speak of the ends which nature, or rather the author of nature, is said to have in things corporeal, one of these four things may be signified; or, if you like that expression better, the end designed by nature may be fourfold:

First, there may be some grand and general ends of the whole world; such as the exercising and displaying the creator's immense power and admirable wisdom; the communication of his goodness, and the admiration and thanks due to him from his intelligent creatures, for these his divine excellencies, whose productions manifest his glory. And these ends, because they regard the creation of the whole universe, I call the universal ends of God, or nature.

Secondly, in a somewhat more restrained sense, there may be ends designed in the number, fabric, placing, and ways of moving the great masses of matter, that for their bulks or qualities, are considerable parts of the world; since it is very probable, that these bodies, such as the sun, moon, and fixed stars, and the terraqueous globe, and perhaps each of its two chief parts, the earth and the sea, were so framed and placed, as not only to be capable of persevering in their own present state, but also, as was most conducive to the universal ends of creation, and the good of the whole world, whereof they are notable parts. Upon which accounts, these ends may, for distinction's sake, be called cosmical or systematical, as regarding the symmetry of the great system of the world.

There is a third sort of ends, that do more peculiarly concern the parts of animals, (and probably plants too) which are those ; that the particular parts of animals are destinated to and for the welfare of the whole animal himself, as he is an entire and distinct system of organized parts, destinated to preserve himself and propagate his species, upon such a theatre (as the land, water, or air,) as his structure and circumstances determine him to act his part on,

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