Atom, Molecule, and Cluster Beams II: Cluster Beams, Fast and Slow Beams, Accessory Equipment and Applications

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Springer Science & Business Media, 27.09.2000 - 374 Seiten
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This book completes the physical foundations and experimental techniques described in volume 1 with an updated review of the accessory equipment indispensable in molecular beam experiments. It extends the subject to cluster beams and beams of hyperthermal and subthermal energies. As in volume 1, a special effort is made to outline the physical foundations of the various experimental techniques. Hence this book is intended not only as a reference standard for researchers in the field, but also to bring the flavor of current molecular beam research to advanced undergraduates and graduate students and to enable them to gain a solid background in the field and its technique.
 

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Inhalt

1 Fast Beams Production and Detection
1
11 Charge Exchange
4
111 GroundState Particles
6
112 Metastable Particles
13
113 Rydberg Atoms
17
12 Neutralization of Negative Ions by Electron Detachment
18
122 Collisional Detachment
21
13 Neutralization of Ions by Collisions with Metal Surfaces
22
33 Doppler Shift Measurements
171
331 Experimental Technique and Resolution
172
332 Measurements of Differential Scattering Cross Sections
175
34 Deflection in Inhomogeneous Magnetic Fields
177
341 TwoWire Field
178
342 Magnetic Hexapole Fields
184
35 Deflection by Gravity
191
36 Determination of the de Broglie Wavelength
193

14 Aerodynamic Acceleration
24
15 Plasma and Gas Discharge Sources
29
152 Radiofrequency Discharges
34
154 Hollow Cathode Discharges
37
16 Laser Ablation
39
17 Sputtering
42
18 Photolysis
48
182 GasPhase Measurements
49
19 ElectronStimulated Desorption
50
110 Other Methods
51
1102 Shock Waves
52
111 Some Examples of Fast Beam Applications
53
1112 Photofragment Translational Spectroscopy
56
1113 Precision Measurements of Lifetimes
57
1114 Merged Beams
59
1115 Injection of Fast Beams into Fusion Plasmas
62
1116 Fast Beam Methods for Plasma Diagnostics
63
112 Fast Beam Detection
65
1122 Bolometer and Pyroelectric Detectors
67
1123 LaserInduced Fluorescence
68
1125 CollisionInduced Fluorescence
69
2 Production and Diagnostics of Cluster Beams
71
21 Survey of Methods for Cluster Formation
75
22 Supersonic Jets
77
221 Influence of Nozzle Shape
78
222 Influence of Carrier Gases
80
223 Technical Realization of Cluster Sources
81
23 Gas Aggregation
82
24 Surface Erosion
85
241 Sputtering
86
242 Laser Ablation
87
243 Pulsed Arc Discharges
89
244 Liquid Metal Ion Sources LMIS
91
25 LaserInduced Pyrolysis
92
252 Multiphoton Infrared Dissociation and Photosensitization
93
253 Source Design and Applications
95
26 Doping of Clusters and Production of Mixed Clusters
96
261 Formation of Mixed Clusters by Coexpansion
97
264 Cluster Aggregation
99
265 Laser Ablation
100
266 Pulsed Arc Discharges
101
28 Determination of Size Distributions in Cluster Beams
102
282 Light Scattering
105
283 Gas Scattering
107
284 Atom Diffraction
120
285 Mass Spectrometric Methods
122
286 Other Methods
125
29 Some Cluster Applications
132
292 Cluster Impact Lithography
133
293 Examples of Experimental Results
134
294 Cluster Beams in High Energy Physics
136
3 Velocity Measurement and Selection
137
31 Mechanical Selectors
138
311 Slotted Disk Velocity Selector Fizeau Principle
139
312 Calibration
150
313 Special Designs
152
314 Slotted Cylinder Velocity Selector
153
315 Other Designs
154
32 TimeofFlight Methods
156
321 Resolution and Methods of Deconvolution
157
322 CrossCorrelation Method
161
323 Experimental Details
164
324 Calibration
169
362 Diffraction from Transmission Gratings
195
4 State Selection
197
41 Potentials of CylinderSymmetric and Planar Fields
199
411 Monopole Field
200
412 Multipole Fields
201
413 TwoDimensional Periodic Fields
202
42 Deflection in Inhomogeneous Magnetic Fields
204
422 TwoWire Field RabiField
206
423 Quadrupole Sector Field
211
424 TwoPole Field
213
43 Deflection in Inhomogeneous Electrostatic Fields
220
431 Effective Electric Dipole Moment of Molecules
221
432 Rabi and TwoPole Fields
222
433 Electrostatic Multipole Fields
224
434 Other Fields
230
441 ThreeDimensional Quadrupole Fields
232
442 Ioffe Trap
233
45 Nonadiabatic Majorana Transitions
234
46 Technical Details
235
47 Applications of State Selection by Inhomogeneous Fields
240
472 Cesium Frequency and Time Standard
242
473 Atomic and Molecular Collisions
244
474 Cluster Investigations
247
475 Atomic Polarizabilities
248
476 State Analysis
249
478 Miscellaneous Applications
250
48 Optical Methods for State Selection
251
481 Optical Pumping
252
483 Selective Population of an Atomic State
254
484 Selective Population of a Molecular State
255
485 TwoPhoton Processes
257
486 Photodissociation
260
488 Stimulated Raman Adiabatic Passage STIRAP
263
5 Slow Atom Beams Traps and Atom Optics
267
51 Radiation Pressure Forces
268
511 Photon Recoil Force
269
512 Optical Dipole Force
271
513 Optical Beam Slowing by Photon Recoil
273
514 Atomic Beam Deflection by Photon Recoil
278
52 Trapping and Cooling of Atoms
282
522 Atom Traps
284
523 Atom Traps as Sources for Slow and Cold Atoms
287
524 Methods of Beam Compression
289
53 Examples of Applications
291
532 Atomic Collision Processes
292
533 BoseEinstein Condensation
293
534 Photoassociative Spectroscopy
295
535 Atom Lithography
297
54 Atom Optics
298
541 AtomOptical Elements
299
542 Lenses
300
543 Mirrors
303
544 Atom Waveguides
308
545 Diffraction Gratings
309
546 Prisms
315
55 Atom Interferometry
316
551 A MachZehnder Interferometer
317
552 Some Experimental Results
318
References
323
Subject Index
369
Conversion Factors for Pressure and Energy Units
375
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Über den Autor (2000)

Pauly, Max-Planck-Institu Gottingen, Germany.

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