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680. The Inspector-General's Department shall consist composition. of one inspector-general with the rank of brigadier-gen-Wir; 3. P: 751 eral, three inspectors-general with the rank of colonel, Sec.1131, R.S. four inspectors-general with the rank of lieutenant-colonel, and nine inspectors-general with the rank of major. Sec. 14, auct of February 2, 1901 (31 Stat. L., 751), act of March 2, 1901. (Ibid., 899.)

PROMOTIONS AND DETAILS.

*

681. So long as there remain any officers holding perma. Febr.2, '1901, s. nent appointments in the

Inspector-General's 26, v. 31, p. 755. Department, * they shall be promoted according to seniority in the several grades, as now provided by law, and nothing herein contained shall be deemed to apply to vacancies which can be filled by such promotions, or to the periods for which the officers so promoted shall hold their appointments.' Sec. 26, act of February %, 1901 (31 Stat. L., 755).

682. When any vacancy, except that of the chief of the Details. department or corps, shall occur, which can not be filled by promotion as provided in this section, it shall be filled

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Ibid.

190: historical note see end of chapter.

? The organization above set forth becomes operative mpon the occurrence of a vacancy in the grade of colonel as established by the act of February 2, 1901. 3 See also section 14, act of February 2, 1901, paragraph 680, ante.

The same.
Ibid.

by detail from the line of the Army, and no more permanent appointments shall be made in those departments or corps.' Ibid.

683. Such details shall be made from the grade in which the vacancies exist, under such system of examination as the President may from time to time prescribe. Ibid.

684. For pay of one expert accountant for the InspectorFeb, 24,1891, v. General's Department, to be appointed in case of vacancy,

by the Secretary of War, two thousand five hundred dollars. Act of February 24, 1891 (26 Stat. L., 773).

Expert accountant.

26, p. 773.

DUTIES.S

Inspections of

685. It shall be the duty of the Secretary of War to public works and

Apreo, 1974, v. cause frequent inquiries to be made as to the necessity, 18, p. 33.

economy, and propriety of all disbursements made by

disbursing officers of the Army, and as to their strict con1 For statutory regulations respecting details to the staff, see the title Details to the Staff in the chapter entitled “The Staff Departments." This section replaces the requirement of the act of June 23, 1874 (18 Stat. L., 244), authorizing the detail of four officers of the line of the Army to act as assistant inspectors.

? For statutory provisions respecting the mileage of this officer see the act of February 27, 1893 (27 Stat. L., 480). Par. 847, post.

3 The duties of inspectors-general are defined in the following paragraphs of the Army Regulations of 1895 (see also G. O. 80 and 91, A. G. O. of 1898):

Officers of the Inspector-General's Department will inspect once in each year all military commands, garrisoned posts, and camps, and once in two years such ungarrisoned posts and national cemeteries as can be visited without departing materially from the routes of other prescribed inspections. (Par. 867, A. R., 1895.).

Inspections of the Military Academy will be made only under specific instructions given in each case by the Secretary of War, and inspections of the service schools, in so far as they are distinct from posts, under similar instructions given by the Secretary of War or the Commanding General of the Army. (Par. 869, ibid.)

The military department of civil institutions of learning at which officers of the Army are detailed will be inspected annually, near the close of the college year, under specific instructions. The inspecting officer, upon his arrival at the institutions, will apply to the president or the administrative officer thereof for such aid or facilities as he may require. His report will be sent to the Inspector-General of the Army, then to the Adjutant-General of the Army for note and return, and a copy furnished the president of the institution by the War Department. (Par. 870, ibid.)

The sphere of inquiry of the Inspector-General's Department includes every branch of military affairs, except when specially limited in these regulations or in orders. Inspectors-general and acting inspectors-general will exercise a comprehensive and general observation within their respective districts over all that pertains to the efficiency of the Army, the condition and state of supplies of all kinds, of arms and equipments, of the expenditure of public property and moneys, and the condition of accounts of all disbursing officers of every branch of the service; of the conduct, discipline, and efficiency of officers and troops, and report with strict impartiality in regard to all irregularities that may be discovered. From time to time they will make such suggestions as may appear to them practicable for the cure of any defect that may come under their observation. Par. 857, ibid.

Inspectors-general and acting inspectors-general are under the orders of the Secretary of War and the Commanding General of the Army only, and all orders not confidential will be issued from the Adjutant-General's Office and transmitted to them through the Inspector-General of the Army. They will make the general inspections within the limits of their respective districts, and will each be allowed the necessary clerks and one messenger, who will be assigned by the Secretary of War. (Par. 858, ibid.)

See also paragraphs 720, 859–866, 872-875, and 878–889, A. R., 1895.

The sphere of inquiry of the Inspector-General's Department includes every branch of military affairs except when specially limited in these regulations or in orders,

formity to the law appropriating the money; also to ascertain whether the disbursing officers of the Army comply with the law in keeping their accounts and making their deposits; such inquiries to be made by officers of the Inspection Department of the Army, or others detailed for that purpose: Provided, That no officer so detailed shall be in any way connected with the department or corps making the disbursement Act of April 20, 1874 (18 Stat. L., 33).

686. That the reports of such inspections shall be made Reports of inout and forwarded to Congress with the annual report of the Secretary of War. Ibid.'

687. Hereafter no portion of the appropriation for mile- Limitation on age to officers traveling on duty without troops shall be , Aug, 6, 1894, v. expended for inspections or investigations, except such as are especially ordered by the Secretary of War, or such

Inspectors-general and acting inspectors-general will exercise a comprehensive and general observation within their respective districts over all that pertains to the efficiency of the Army, the condition and state of supplies of all kinds, of arms and equipments, of the expenditure of public property and moneys, and the condition of accounts of all disbursing officers of every branch of the service; of the conduct, discipline, and efficiency of officers and troops, and report with strict impartiality in regard to all irregularities that may be discovered. From time to time they will make such suggestions as may appear to them practicable for the cure of any defect that may come under their observation. Par. 857, ibid.

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The inspection contemplated in this provision is that required by the act of April 20, 1874 (18 Stat. L., 33). "See also Chapter XLI, entitled The NATIONAL HOME FOR DISABLED VOLUNTEER SOLDIERS.

All depots, armories, arsenals, and public works of every kind under charge of officers of the Army, except works of engineering conducted under the direction of the Secretary of War and supervision of the Chief of Engineers, will be inspected annually by officers of the Inspector-General's Department. These inspections will include military and business administration and methods, but will not extend to the scientific or technical character of work, for which the officer in charge is responsible, through the head of his department, to the Secretary of War. Par. 868, A. R., 1895.

The inspection of disbursements and money accounts of disbursing officers required by act of April 20, 1874, will be made by officers of the Inspector-General's Department or others detailed for that purpose, and, as far as practicable, at irregular intervals, but no officer so detailed shall be in any way connected with the corps or staff department making the disbursement. The frequency of these inspections will be regulated by the Secretary of War. Par. 871, ibid.

Inspectors-general and acting inspectors-general will inquire as to the necessity, economy, and propriety of all disbursements, their strict conformity to the law appropriating the money, and whether the disbursing officers comply with the law in keeping their accounts and making their deposits. A statement of receipts and expenditures and of the distribution of funds, with a list of outstanding checks, on forms furnished by the Inspector-General of the Army, will be submitted by the disbursing officer to the inspector, who should immediately transmit the list of outstanding checks to the several depositories. Upon return from a depository, balances will be verified and noted on the inspection report, which will then be forwarded to the Inspector-General. The list of outstanding checks will be retained by the inspector, and a copy, with indorsements thereon, sent to the Inspector-General. Par. 876, ibid.

When an officer ceases to act as a disbursing officer he will submit to the officer to whom the inspection of his accounts has been assigned a statement of his money accounts from date of last inspection to and including the closing of his accounts, with a list of outstanding, checks. If an inspection be impracticable, the statement will be forwarded to the Inspector-General of the Army. Par. 877, ibid.

Volunteer Sol-
diers' Homes.
27, p. 653.

eral of Army to

Inspectors-general to designate articles for sale, etc.

as are made by army and department commanders in visiting their commands, and those made by Inspector-General's Department in pursuance of law, Army Regulations, or orders issued by the Secretary of War or the Commanding General of the Army; and all orders involving the payment of mileage shall state the special duty enjoined."

Act of August 6, 1894 (28 Stat. L., 237). ' Inspection of

688. The Secretary of War shall hereafter exercise the erar. Sondes, v. same supervision over all receipts and disbursements on

account of the Volunteer Soldiers' Homes as he is required by law to apply to the accounts of disbursing officers of the

Army. Act of March 3, 1893 (27 Stat. L., 653). Inspector-Gen- 689. The Inspector-General of the Army shall, in permake report, etc. son, once in each year thoroughly inspect the [Soldiers']

Sec. 2. Mar. 3 Home, its records, accounts, management, discipline, and 1883, v. 22, p. 564.

sanitary condition, and shall report thereon in writing, together with such suggestions as he desires to make.” Sec. 2, act of March 3, 1883 (22 Stat. L., 564).

690. The officers of the Subsistence Department shall

procure, and keep for sale to officers and enlisted men at SS.C: 252, 0.236: cost prices, for cash or on credit, such articles as may, from Sec. 1144, R.S. time to time, be designated by the inspectors-general of

the Army. An account of all sales on credit shall be kept, and the amounts due for the same shall be reported monthly to the Paymaster-General. See sections 1299 and 1300, Rev. Stat. (paragraphs 659 and 660, post).

691. Any officer or clerk of any of the departments lawpriete1969, fully detailed to investigate frauds on or attempts to deRes. No: 16, 6:2, fraud the Government, or any irregularity or misconduct 2870,9:23 , y: 16 P: of any officer or agent of the United States, and any officer

of the Army detailed to conduct an investigation, and the Sec. 183, R. S.

recorder, and, if there be none, the presiding officer of any military board appointed for such purpose, shall have authority to administer an oath to any witness attending to testify or depose in the course of such investigation.

Act of March 2, 1901 (31 Stat. L., 951). The expense for transportation to a point not located on a railroad incurred by an officer of the Inspector-General's Department in inspecting unserviceable river and harbor material, is properly payable irom the appropriation for the river and harbor work. III Compt. Dec., 3.

? The act of January 19, 1891 (26 Stat. L., 722), required an officer of this Department, at least once each year, to visit the military prison at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, "for the purpose of examining into the books and all the affaire thereof, and ascertaining whether the laws, rules, and regulations relating thereto are complied with, the officers are competent and faithful, and the convicts properly governed and employed, and at the same time treated with humanity and kindness. And it shall be the duty of the inspector, at once, to make full report thereof to the Secretary of War.”

Qaths, when administered by officers, etc.

v. 31, p. 951.

TIISTORICAL NOTE. — The Inspector-General's Department had existed during the war of the Revolution, the office of Inspector-General having been held by Baron Steuben, whose appointment was approved by Congress in a resolution dated May 25, 1778. During the incumbency of Baron Steuben a system of drill regulations was prepared and introduced, which continued in use until replaced, in part, by the system prepared by Col. Alexander Smyth in 1810, being finally superseded by the drill regulations prepared by Major-General Scott in 1821. On June 25, 1788, in conformity to a resolution of Congress of that date, the Inspector's Department ceased to exist, and the inspection of the troops was conducted for a time by officers of the live detailed for the purpose.

By section 4 of the act of April 30, 1790 (1 Stat. L., 119), the appointment of one Inspector was authorized for the establishment created by that enactment. The act of March 5, 1792 (ibid., 241), merged the duties of the Adjutant and Inspector-General's Departments and made provision for an Adjutant who was to do the duty of an Inspector; section 3 of the act of May 30, 1796 (ibid., 483), made similar provision for an Inspector who was to do the duty of an Adjutant. The acts of March 3, 1797 (ibid., 507), and May 22, 1798 (ibid., 557), authorized the detail of an officer of the line to perform the duties of Inspector-General. Section 6 of the act of May 28, 1798 (ibid., 588), passed in contemplation of war with France, authorized the appointment of an Inspector-General with the rank of major-general, and on July 18, 1798, Gen. Alexander Hamilton was appointed to the vacancy. The temporary military establishment thus authorized, which was never fully completed, was disbanded by the acts of February 20, 1800 (2 ibid., 7), and May 14, 1800 (ibid., 85) aud the duties of the Department were again performed by detail until the office of Inspector was created by section 4 of the act of March 16, 1802 (ibid., 132); by section 3 of the act of April 12, 1808 (ibid., 481), two brigade inspectors were authorized to be detailed from the line with increased rank; by the act of December 24, 1811 (ibid., 669), the office of Inspector-General (brigadier-general) was created and two assistants (lieutenant-colonels) were authorized; the duties of the Department were defined in regulations approved by the Secretary of War on November 4, 1812. By the act of March 3, 1813 (ibid., 819), the Adjutant and Inspector-General's Departments were again merged. The act of March 3, 1815 (3 ibid., 224), fixing the peace establishment, made no express provision for these Departments, their duties being performed by officers temporarily detailed for the purpose. By section 10 of the act of April 24, 1816 (ibid., 297), however, the temporary establishment which had existed since 1815 was made permanent. Provision was also made for an Adjutant and Inspector-General of the Army, together with an inspector-general to each division and an assistant to each brigade, which were to be filled by detail of oflicers from the line. At the general reduction of 1821 the Inspector-tieneral's Department was recognized and continued by section 6 of the act of March 2, 1821 (ibid., 615), its composition being fixed at two inspectors-general with the rank and pay of colonels of cavalry. By section 4 of the act of August 23, 1812 (5 ibid., 512), the Department was reduced to one officer; the disbanded oflicer was restored, however, by the act of June 12, 1846 (9 ibid., 2), and the composition of the Department, as thus established, underwent no change until the outbreak of the war of the rebellion.

By section 2 of the act of August 3, 1861 (12 ibid., 287), five majors were added to the Department; by section 4 of the act of August 6, 1861 (ibid., 318), two colonels were authorized; and provision for the inspection service of the armies in the field was made by section 10 of the act of July 17, 1862 (ibid., 299), which authorized the rank and pay of lieutenant-colonėl of cavalry to be conferred upon the inspectorsgeneral of Army corps. By section 11 of the act of July 28, 1866 ( 14 ibid., 334), the composition of the Department was fixed as follows: Four colonels, three lieutenantcolenels, and two majors. Section 6 of the act of March 3, 1869 (15 ibid., 318), contained the requirement that there should be no promotions or appointments in the staff until otherwise directed by law; by the acts of June 8, 1872 (17 ibid., 338), and June 16, 1874 (18 ibid., 77), promotions were authorized to correct inequalities in the rank of officers of the Department. By the act of June 23, 1874 (ibid., 244), the restriction contained in the act of March 3, 1869, was removed and the strength of the Department fixed at one Inspector-General with the rank of colonel, two inspectors-general with the rank of lieutenant-colonel, and two inpectors-general with the rank of major; authority was also conferred for the detail of four officers from the line of the Army for service as assistant inspectors-general, who were to receive the mounted pay of their grades, and no appointments were to be made to the grade of major until the number of officers in the Department had been reduced to five. By the act of December 12, 1878 (20 ibid., 257), the rank of brigadier-general was conferred upon the senior inspector-general. By the act of February 5, 1885 (23 ibid., 297), the composition of the Department was tixer as follows: One Inspector-General (brigadier-general), two colonels, two lieutenant-colonels, and

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