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enlisted men of the Army. Act of May 4, 1898 (30 Stat. L., 387).

441. When it is impracticable or the expense is found greater to supply marines serving on shore duty in the island possessions and on foreign stations with the army ration, such marines may be allowed the navy ration or commutation therefor. Act of March 3, 1901 (31 Stat. L., 1130).

ORGANIZATION.

Companiesand detachments.

11, , .

Sec. 1611, R. S.

442. The Marine Corps may be formed into as many com72, S. 1, v. 1, p. 591. panies or detachments as the President may direct, with a

proper distribution of the commissioned and noncommissioned officers and musicians to each company or detachment.

DUTIES ON SHORE.

Duty on shore.
July 11, 1798, c.

Regulations.
June 30, 1834, c.

443. The Marine Corps shall be liable to do duty in the 72.1 P5296. forts and garrisons of the United States, on the seacoast,

or any other duty on shore, as the President, at his discretion, may direct.

444. The President is authorized to prescribe such mili13: . 8, V. 4. Petary regulations for the discipline of the Marine Corps as Sec. 1620, R. S. he may deem expedient. Subject to laws

445. The Marine Corps shall, at all times, be subject to governing the Navy, except the laws and regulations established for the government of wijnte:0, 1831, the Navy, except when detached for service with the Army Subii

, 19 by order of the President; and when so detached they shall S: 72, 6. 1, v. 1, p. be subject to the rules and articles of war prescribed for the

government of the Army.

446. Officers of the Marine Corps detached for service court-martial. with the Army by order of the President may be associ

ated with officers of the Regular Army on courts-martial for the trial of offenders belonging to the Regular Army, or to forces of the Marine Corps so detached; and in such cases the orders of the senior officer of either corps who may be present and duly authorized shall be obeyed. Seventy-cighth article of war.

Sec. 1621, R. S.

Articles of War. Service on army

of

78th art. war.

TRANSFERS.

Transfers from military to naval service:

July 1, 1864, e.

447. Any person enlisted in the military service of the

United States may, on application to the Navy Depart301, s. 1, v. 13, p. ment, approved by the President, be transferred to the Sec. 1121, B.S. Navy or Marine Corps, to serve therein the residue of his

term of enlistment, subject to the laws and regulations for the government of the Navy. But such transfer shall not release him from any indebtedness to the Government, nor, without the consent of the President, from any penalty incurred for a breach of the military law.

DETAILS OF NAVAL OFFICERS.

448. The President may detail, temporarily, three com- navy cera edhe petent naval officers for the service of the War Depart-tailed for service ment in the inspection of transport vessels, and for such partment other services as may be designated by the Secretary of 21, 2; 122:33. War.

Feb. 12, 1862, c.

. 1437, R.S.

PROHIBITION OF PUNISHMENTS ON VESSELS OF WAR.

449. No other punishment shall be permitted on board of vessels belonging to the Navy, except by sentence of a general or summary court-martial. All punishments inflicted by the commander, or by his order, except reprimands, shall be fully entered in the ship's log. Article 24, Rules for the Government of the Navy.

ADMINISTRATION OF OATHIS.

1901,

450. Judges-advocate of naval general courts-martial Oaths, and courts of inquiry, and all commanders in chief of v. 31, p. 1086. naval squadrons, commandants of navy-yards and stations, officers commanding vessels of the Navy, and recruiting officers of the Navy, and the adjutant and inspector, assistant adjutant and inspector, commanding officers, and recruiting officers of the Marine Corps be, and the same are hereby, authorized to administer oaths for the purposes of the administration of naval justice and for other purposes of naval administration. Act of March 3, 1901 (31 Stat. L., 1086).

1 The “other punishments" above referred to are those authorized to be inflicted by the twenty-fourth naval article of war.

The act of January 25, 1895, (28 Stat. L., 639), had contained a similar provision.

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CHAPTER IX.

THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR.

Par.

Par.

451. Establishment of Department of the ! 452. Duties of Secretary. Interior,

| 453. Powers of Secretary.

Establishment of Department of the Interior.

Mar. 3, 1819, c.

Duties of Secretary.

Mar. 3, 1819, c.

S. 1, v. 16, p. 198; Feb. 5, 1839, c. 22, s. 1. v. 11, p. 379; July 20, 1868, c. 176, s. 1, v. 15, PP. 92, 106.

451. There shall be at the seat of Government an Execu

tive Department to be known as the Department of the 208, s. 1, v. 9, P. Interior, and a Secretary of the Interior, who shall be the Sec. 437, R. S. head thereof.

452. The Secretary of the Interior is charged with the 108, . 3,5,6,7,8,

supervision of public business relating to the following July 8, 1870,6, 230;

subjects:

First. The census; when directed by law.
Second. The public lands, including mines.'
Third. The Indians. ?

Fourth. Pensions and bounty lands.
Sec. 441, R. S. Fifth. Patents for inventions."

Seventh. Education.
Eighth. Government Hospital for the Insane.'
Ninth. Columbia Asylum for the Deaf and Dumb.

453. The Secretary of the Interior shall hereafter exerMar. 1, 1873, c. cise all the powers and perform all the duties in relation Ser: 412, R. S. to the Territories of the United States that were, prior to

March first, eighteen hundred and seventy-three, by law or by custom exercised and performed by the Secretary of State.

Powers of Ser. retary.

For statutes respecting the public lands see the chapter so entitled. 2 By section 6 of the act of March 3, 1849 (9 Stat. L., 395), the supervising and appellate powers in respect to Indian affairs, formerly exercised by the Secretary of War, were transferred to the Secretary of the Interior. For statutes respecting the In lians see the chapter so entitled.

3 The distribution of public documents, vested in the Department of the Interior by the act of February 5, 1859 (11 Stat. L., 379), and subsequent statutes, was, by sections 61-64 of the act of January 12, 1895 (28 Stat. L., 601), transferred to the Superintendent of Documents, an officer acting under the supervision of the Public Printer.

*For statutes regulating admission in, etc., to this establishment see the chapter entitled THE GOVERNMENT ASYLUM FOR THE INSANE.

CHAPTER X.

THE REVISED STATUTES I_THE STATUTES AT LARGE

THE ARMY REGULATIONS—THE ARMY REGISTER.

Par.
454-468. The Revised Statutes, edition of

1874.
469_473. The same, edition of 1878.
474-480. The supplements to the Revised

Statutes.

Par.
481-486. The Statutes at Large.
487-489. The Army Regulations.
490–494. The Army Register.

THE REVISED STATUTES.

Par.'

Par.
454. Commissioners to revise and consol- 465. Prosecutions and punishments.

idate the General Statutes of the 466. Acts of limitation.
United States.

467. Arrangement and classification of 455. Duties of the commissioners.

sections. 456. Work to be submitted to Congress. 468. Acts passed since December 1, 1873, 457. Revision to be completed as soon as

not affected. practicable.

469. Comunissioner to prepare new edi458. Preparation of Revised Statutes for

tion of Revised Statutes. printing. Headnotes. Marginal | 470. Duty of commissioner. Amendreferences. References to judicial

ments. References. Revision of decisions. Index.

indexes. 459. Printed copies to be evidence. 471. Additional matter to be included. 460. Title of revision of statutes.

472. When to be completed. To be legal 461. Certificate to Revised Statutes.

evidence. 462. Scope of Revised Statutes.

473. New edition of Revised Statutes to 463. Repeal of acts embraced in revision. be prima facie evidence. 464. Accrued rights reserved. 454. The President of the United States is hereby au

Commissioners

to revise and conthorized, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, solidate the Gen: to appoint three persons, learned in the law, as commis- the United sioners, to revise, simplify, arrange, and consolidate all June 27, 1864, v.

14. statutes of the United States, general and permanent in

' eral Statutes of

The Revised Statutes must be accepted as the law on the subjects which they embrace as it existed on the 1st day of December, 1873, and were enacted to present the entire body of the laws in a concise and compact form. When the language of the Revised Statutes is plain and unambiguous, the grammatical structure simple and accurate, and the meaning of the whole intelligible and obvious, a court is not at liberty, by construction, to reproduce the law as it stood before the revision. U. S. 1. Bowen, 100 U. S., 508. See also Wright v. U. S., 15 Ct. Cls., 80, 86; U. S. v. No. Am. Com. Co., 74 Fed. Rep., 145.

Duties of the commissioners.

Sec. 2, ibid.

their nature, which shall be in force at the time such commissioners may make the final report of their doings. Act of June 27, 1866 (14 Stat. L., 74).

455. In performing this duty the commissioners shall bring together all statutes and parts of statutes which, from similarity of subject, ought to be brought together, omitting redundant or obsolete enactments, and making such alterations as may be necessary to reconcile the contradictions, supply the omissions, and amend the imperfections of the original text; and they shall arrange the same under titles, chapters, and sections, or other suitable divisions and subdivisions, with headnotes briefly expressive of the matter contained in such divisions; also with side notes, so drawn as to point to the contents of the text, and with references to the original text from which each section is compiled, and to the decisions of the Federal courts, explaining or expounding the same, and also to such decisions of the State courts as they may deem expedient; and they shall provide by a temporary index, or other expedient means, for an easy reference to every portion of their report. Sec. 2, ibid.

456. That when the commissioners have completed the revision and consolidation of the statutes, as aforesaid, they shall cause a copy of the same, in print, to be submitted to Congress, that the statutes so revised and consolidated may be reenacted, if Congress shall so determine; and at the same time they shall also suggest to Congress such contradictions, omissions, and imperfections as may appear in the original text, with the mode in which they have reconciled, supplied, and amended the same; and they may also designate such statutes or parts of statutes as, in their judgment, ought to be repealed, with their reasons for such repeal. Sec. 3, ibid.

Work to be submitted to Congress.

Sec. 3, ibill.

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1 The act of June 27, 1866 (14 Stat. L., 74), was revived by the act of May 4, 1870, (16 Stat. L., 96), which authorized the President to appoint three commissioners to prosecute and complete the work prescribed by that statute. The work of revision was to be completed within three years from the date of passage of the act (May 4, 1870). The act of March 3, 1873 (17 Stat. L., 579), authorized the appointment of a joint committee of Congress to accept the draft of the revision of laws, so far as the same was completed at the expiration of the time designated for that purpose (May 4, 1873). The same statute authorized the existing joint committee to contract with some suitable person or persons to prepare a revision of the statutes, already reported by the commissioners, in the form of a bill to be presented at the opening of the Forty-third Congress. The publication of the first edition of the Revised Statutes was authorized liy the act of June 20, 1874 (18 Stat. L., 113); pp. 401-40:3, post.

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