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307. The notes of national banks shall be received at National-bank

notes, when repar for all debts and demands owing by the United States ceivable.

June 3, 1864, C. to any person within the United States, except interest on 106, s. 23, v. 13, p. the public debt, or in redemption of the national currency. Sec. 3475, R.S. (See sec. 5182, R. S.) 308. Treasury notes bearing interest may be paid to

any

Treasury notes

payable for debts creditor of the United States at their face value, excluding of Wanited States. interest, or to any creditor willing to receive them at par, 73,... 2. V, 12, p. including interest.

1864, C. 172, s. 2, v. 13, p. 218.

Sec.3476, R.S. OUTSTANDING CHECKS.

Par.

Par.

309. Checks outstanding over three years

to be covered into the Treasury. 310. Vouchers for drafts remaining un

paid.

311. Payment of outstanding checks.
312. Accounts of disbursing officers re-

maining unchanged forthree years.

309. At the termination of each fiscal year all amounts of Liabilities outmoneys that are represented by certificates, drafts, or more years to be

deposited in the checks, issued by the Treasurer, or by any disbursing offi- Tremez, 1866, c. cer of any Department of the Government, upon the Treas-70, ss1, 4, v. 11, urer or any assistant treasurer, or designated depositary $ cc. 306, R. S. of the United States, or upon any national bank designated as a depositary of the United States, and which shall be represented on the books of either of such offices as standing to the credit of any disbursing officer, and which were issued to facilitate the payment of warrants, or for any other purpose in liquidation of a debt due from the United States, and which have for three years or more remained outstanding, unsatisfied, and unpaid, shall be deposited by the Treasurer, to be covered into the Treasury by warrant, and to be carried to the credit of the parties in whose favor such certificates, drafts, or checks were respectively issued, or to the persons who are entitled to receive pay therefor, and into an appropriation account to be denominated “outstanding liabilities.” 1

310. The certificate of the Secretary of the Treasury, drafts remaining stating that the amount of any draft issued by the Treas- unpaid, urer, to facilitate the payment of a warrant directed to 70,53: : 14. P. 11, him for payment, has remained outstanding and unpaid 16, x: 28.1. 210.

. 307, R. S.

May 2, 1866, c.

When a claim passes into the form of checks, its legal character changes from that of a demand for goods sold and delivered to a claim represented by the checks given in liquidation of the original demand. The fund established by section 306, Revised Statutes, bears upon it the impress of a trust, and the statutes of limitation can not be set up against money credited to the claimant in the permanent appropriation for outstanding liabilities. Such money is held as a trust fund payable on demand without limit of time. 32 Ct. Cls., 30; Ŭ. S. v. Taylor, 104 U. s., 216.

of

drafts.

May 2, 1866, c.

308, R.

for three years or more, and has been deposited and cov-
ered into the Treasury in the manner prescribed by the
preceding section, shall be, when attached to any such
warrant, a sufficient voucher in satisfaction of any such
warrant or part of any warrant, the same as if the drafts
correctly indorsed and fully satisfied were attached to such
warrant or part of warrant.

And all such moneys men-
tioned in this and in the preceding section shall remain as
a permanent appropriation for the redemption and pay-
ment of all such outstanding and unpaid certificates, drafts,

and checks. Payment 311. The payee or the bona fide holder of any draft or outstanding

check the amount of which has been deposited and cov70, 6:3, 6:14, p. 42. ered into the Treasury pursuant to the preceding sections,

shall, on presenting the same to the proper officer of the
Treasury, be entitled to have it paid by the settlement of
an account and the issuing of a warrant in his favor,
according to the practice in other cases of authorized and

liquidated claims against the United States. Sec. 308, R. S.
Accounts 312. The amounts, except such as are provided for in
disbursing
cers unchanged section three hundred and six, of the accounts of every
May 2, 1806, s. kind of disbursing officer, which shall have remained
Sec. 309, k. s. unchanged, or which shall not have been increased by any

new deposit thereto, nor decreased by drafts drawn thereon,
for the

space of three years, shall in like manner be cov-
ered into the Treasury, to the proper appropriation to
which they belong; and the amounts thereof shall, on the
certificate of the Treasurer that such amount has been
deposited in the Treasury, be credited by the proper
accounting officer of the Department of the Treasury on
the books of the Department, to the officer in whose name
it had stood on the books of any agency of the Treasury,
if it appears tbat he is entitled to such credit.

of offi

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CHAPTER VI.

THE POST-OFFICE DEPARTMENT.

Par.

| Par.

313. Establishment of the Post-Office De- 322, 323. Senators, members, etc., may partment.

send documents free. 314. Oath of office.

324, 325. Extension of franking privilege. 315. Oath, before whom taken.

Official mail of Smithsonian In316. Classes of mail matter. First class.

stitution. 317. Rates of postage. Soldiers' letters. 326. Return penalty envelopes. 318. Special-delivery stamps.

327. Mail matter of Executive Depart319. Specially stamped letters to be de

ments, etc., may be registered livered.

free. 320. Letters on official business may be 328. Postmaster-General to contract for sent free. Penalty for using offi

all envelopes for Executive Decial envelopes to avoid payment partments. of postage.

329–331. Post-offices at military camps. 321. Official envelopes to be provided. How franked.

I

Establishment of the Post Office

June 8, 1872, c.

313. There shall be at the seat of Government an Executive Department to be known as the Post-Office Depart-Departments, c. ment, and a Postmaster-General, who shall be the head 23, s. 3, v. 1, p. 357; thereof, and who shall be appointed by the President, hy 335, $. 1, 2, v. 17, and with the advice and consent of the Senate, and who Sec. 358, R. S. may be removed in the same manner; and the term of the Postmaster-General shall be for and during the term of the President by whom he is appointed, and for one month thereafter, unless sooner removed.

314. Before entering upon the duties of his office and path of office. before he shall receive any salary the Postmaster-General 335

, s. 16, v. 17, p. and each of the persons employed in the postal service shall Mar, 5; 1874, . respectively take and subscribe before some magistrate or other competent officer the following oath: “I, A. B., do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully perform all the duties required of me, and abstain from everything forbidden by the laws in relation to the establishment of post-offices and post-roads within the United States; and that I will honestly and truly account for and pay over any money belonging to the said United States which may come into my possession or control; and I also further swear that

15, v. 18, p. 19.

Sec. 301, R. S.

Oath, before whom taken.

I will support the Constitution of the United States; so
help me God.” Sec. 15, act of March 5, 1874 (18 Stat.
L., 19).

315. This oath or affirmation may be taken before any June 8, 1872, c. officer, civil or military, holding a commission under the

United States, and such officer is hereby authorized to
administer and certify such oath or affirmation. Ibid.

335, s. 15, v. 17, p. 287.

Mar. 5, 1874, s. 15, v. 18, p. 19.

Sec. 392, R. S.

CLASSIFICATION OF MAIL MATTER.

Classes of mail matter.

Mar. 3, 1879, 8. 7, v. 20, p. 358.

316. Mailable matter shall be divided into four classes:
First, written matter;
Second, periodical publications;
Third, miscellaneous printed matter;
Fourth, merchandise.

Mailable matter of the first class shall embrace letters,
postal cards, and all matters wholly or partly in writing,
except as hereinafter provided.'

First class,

RATES OF LETTER POSTAGE.

Rates of postage.

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vol, p. 386.

317. On mailable matter of the first class, except postal Mar 3,1885, cards and drop letters, postage shall be prepaid at the rate

of two cents for each ounce or fraction thereof; postal
cards shall be transmitted through the mails at a postage
charge of one cent each, including the cost of manufac-
ture; and drop letters shall be mailed at the rate of two
cents per ounce or fraction thereof, including delivery at
letter-carrier offices, and one cent for each ounce or frac-

tion thereof where free delivery by carrier is not estab-
let- lished. The Postmaster-General may, however, provide

hy regulation, for transmitting unpaid and duly certified
letters of soldiers, sailors, and marines in the service of
the United States to their destination, to be paid on
delivery. Act of March 3, 1885 (23 Stat. L., 386).

Soldiers' ters,

SPECIAL DELIVERY.

Special-deliv. ery stamps. 386.

318. A special stamp of the face valuation of ten cents 35 MAT, 3 may be provided and issued, whenever deemed advisable

or expedient, in such form and bearing such device as may
meet the approval of the Postmaster-General, which, when
attached to a letter, in addition to the lawful postage

For description of matter embraced in the second, third, and fourth classes see the act of March 3, 1879 (20 Stat. L., 358).

? This statute replaces the corresponding provision of the act of March 3, 1879, (20 Stat. L., 358.)

thereon, the delivery of which is to be at a free-delivery office, or at any city, town, or village containing a population of four thousand or over, according to the Federal census, shall be regarded as entitling such letter to immediate delivery within the carrier limit of any freedelivery office which may be designated by the PostmasterGeneral as a special-delivery office, or within one mile of the post-office at any other office coming within the provisions of this section which may in like manner be designated as a special-delivery office. Sec. 3, act of March 3, 1885 (23 Stat. L., 386).

319. Such specially stamped letters shall be delivered Specially from seven o'clock ante meridian up to twelve o'clock mid- to be delivered. night at offices designated by the Postmaster-General under section three of this act. Sec. 4, ibid.

Sec. 4, ibid.

OFFICIAL LETTERS.

1877, v. 19, p.335.

320. It shall be lawful to transmit through the mail, free Letters, etc., on of postage, any letters, packages, or other matters relating may be sent free. exclusively to the business of the Government of the United States: Provided, That every such letter or pack- Sec. 5, Mar. 3, age to entitle it to pass free shall bear over the words "Official business” an endorsement showing also the name of the department, and, if from a bureau or office, the names of the department and bureau or office, as the case may be, whence transmitted. And if any person Penalty for usshall make use of any such official envelope to avoid the opes to avoid

payment of postpayment of postage on his private letter, package, or other go matter in the mail, the person so offending shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and subject to a fine of three hundred dollars, to be prosecuted in any court of competent jurisdiction. Sec. 5, act of March 3, 1877 (19 Stat. L., 335). 321. For the purpose of carrying this act into effect, it oficial envel

opes to be proshall be the duty of each of the Executive Departments vided. of the United States to provide for itself and its subordinate offices the necessary envelopes; and in addition to the indorsement designating the department in which they , Indorsement are to be used, the penalty for the unlawful use of these envelopes shall be stated thereon. Sec. 6, ibid.

Sec. 6, ibid.

thereon.

For regulations respecting the use of penalty envelopes in the transmission of official correspondence, see paragraphs 813-817 Army Regulations of 1895, Circular 12, A. G. O., 1895; Circulars of June 29, 1895; July 13, 1895, and G. O. 8, A. G. O., 1897.

These envelopes are for use in domestic correspondence only, and will not cover the transportation of letters to foreign countries, upon which postage stamps must be used.

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