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THE

New WERNER TWENTIETH CENTURY EDITION

OF THE

ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA

A STANDARD WORK OF REFERENCE IN

ART, LITERATURE, SCIENCE, HISTORY, GEOGRAPHY,
COMMERCE, BIOGRAPHY, DISCOVERY

AND INVENTION

NEW MAPS AND FULLY ILLUSTRATED, WITH THOU-
SANDS OF PORTRAITS, PLATES, AND ENGRAVINGS

THE ENGLISH NINTH EDITION IN TWENTY-FIVE VOLUMES WAS EDITED BY

PROFS. SPENCER BAYNES, LL.D., AND W. ROBERTSON SMITH, LL.D.

ASSISTED BY OVER ONE THOUSAND CONTRIBUTORS

The first twenty-four

New Werner Edition contain thirty-one new later articles, written
by American authors, replacing articles on similar subjects written by different

authors for the original ninth English (Forelgn) Edition

WITH

NEW AMERICAN SUPPLEMENT

COMPLETE IN THIRTY VOLUMES

VOLUME III

THE WERNER COMPANY

AKRON, OHIO

1907
ROBERTA SARAH TWYFORD
MEMORIAL PUBLIC LIBRARY

PARKSLEY, VA.

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Encyclopædia Britannica.

NEW WERNER TWENTIETH CENTURY EDITION.

VOL. III. -(ATH-BOI).

Total number of Articles, 980.

PRINCIPAL CONTENTS.

ATHENS. Rev. EDWARD L. Hicks, M.A., Fellow of Corpus Christi College, Oxford.
ATHLETIC SPORTS. H. F. WILKINSON, one of the Editors of “The Field.”
ATLANTIC. WILLIAM B. CARPENTER, M.D., C.B., LL.D., F.R.S.
ATMOSPHERE. ALEX. BUCHAN, Secretary of the Meteorological Society of Scotland.
ATOM. J. CLERK MAXWELL, D.C.L., F.R.S., late Professor of Experimental Physics, University of

Cambridge.
ATTICA. Rev. HENRY F. Tozer, M.A., F.R.G.S., Author of “Geography of Greece."
ATTRACTION. Prof. G. CLERK MAXWELL.
AUGUSTAN HISTORY. RICHARD GARNETT, LL.D.
AUGUSTINE. Very Rev. Principal Tulloch.
AUGUSTUS. Very Rev. CHARLES MERIVALE, D.C.L., D.D., Dean of Ely.
AUSTRALIA. R. Acton.
AUSTRIA. DAVID KAY, F.R.G.S.
AXIOM. G. CROOM ROBERTSON, Professor of Logic, University College, London.
BABYLONIA. Rev. A. H. SAYCE, M.A., Deputy Professor of Comparative Philology, University of Oxford,
BACON. ROBERT ADAMSON, M.A., Professor of Political Economy, Owens College, Manchester.
BAGHDAD. Major-General Sir HENRY C. RAWLINSON, K.C.B., D.C.L., F.R.S.
BAKING. JAMES PATON, Corporation Galleries of Art, Glasgow.
BALANCE. WILLIAM DITTMAR, F.R.S., Professor of Chemistry, Anderson's College, Glasgow.
BALANCE OF POWER. HENRY REEVE, C.B., Registar of H. M. Privy Council.
BALLADS. ANDREW LANG, Author of “Helen of Troy."
BALLOT. W. C. SMITH, LL.B., ADVOCATE
BALTIC. Dr. CARPENTER, C.B.
BANKING. LEONARD H. COURTNEY, M.P.
BANKRUPTCY. EDMUND Robertson, LL.D., M.P., Professor of Roman Law, University College,

London; (AMERICAN LAW) J. LOWELL.
BAPTISM. Prof. T. M. LINDSAY, D.D.
BAPTISTS. Rev. F. W. Gorch, LL.D.
BARBADOS. J. L. OHLSON, Secretary to West India Committee, London.
BAROMETER. ALEX. BUCHAN, F.R.S.E.
BARRACKS. Col. CHAS. B. Ewart, C.B., Deputy Director of Works for Barracks.
BASILICA. Rev. Canon VENABLES.
BATHS. Dr. JOHN MACPHERSON, Author of “Baths and Wells of Europe."
BATTLE. Col. Charles CHESNEY, R.E.
BEARD. John DORAN, Ph.D., late Editor of "Notes and Queries."
BEAUMONT AND FLETCHER. ALGERNON CHARLES SWINBURNE.
BECHWANA. Rev. Dr. Moffat.
BEE. JOHN HUNTER, late Hon. Secretary British Bee-Keeper's Association.
BEETHOVEN. F. Hueffer, Author of “Wagner and the Music of the Future.”
BELGIUM. David KAY, F.R.G.S.
BELL. Rev. H. R. HaweIS, M.A., Author of “Music and Morals.”
BELLINI. Prof. SIDNEY COLVIN, University of Cambridge.
BELLOWS. A. B. MacDowall, London.
BENGAL. Hon. W. W. HunTER, LL.D., Director-General of Statistics to the Government of India.
BENTHAM. T. E. HOLLAND, M.A., B.C.L., Chichele Professor of International Law, Oxford.
BENTLEY. Rev. MARK PATTISON, late Rector of Lincoln College, Oxford.
BERKELEY. Prof. Robert Adamson, Owens College, Manchester.
BERLIN. Rev. G. P. DAVIES.
BEZIQUE. HEŃRY Jones (“CAVENDISH).
BIBLE. Professor W. ROBERTSON SMITH, LL.D.
BIBLIOGRAPHY. E. FAIRFAX TAYLOR.
BILLIARDS. G. F. PARDON (“Capt. CRAWLEY).
BIOLOGY. Prof. HUXLEY and W. T. THISTLETON Dyer, F.R.S.
BIRDS. Prof. W. K. Parker, Royal College of Surgeons, London; and Prof. ALFRED NEWTON.
BIRMINGHAM. J. T. BUNCE, Editor “Birmingham Daily Post.
BISHOP. Sir TRAVERS Twiss, Q.C.
BISMUTH, H. BAUERMAN, Fellow of the Geological Society.,
BLACK SEA. Dr. CARPENTER, C.B.
BLEACHING. JAMES Paton.
BLIND. F. J. CAMPBELL, Royal Normal College for the Blind.

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

VOLUME III.

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PAGE

PAGE

Athos, Sketch Map of......

14

Basel, Switzerland, Plan of....

352

Atlantic Ocean (6 Descriptive Sections). 21-24 Basilica (19 Descriptive Cuts).

356-362

Atmosphere (2 Charts).

31 Basingstoke, England, Arms of..

364

Attica, Greece, Sketch of.

51 | Bath, England, City Arms and Devies of

Augsburg, Germany, Sketch Plan of..

63 Bishopric..

374,375

Aurora Polaris, Diagram of..

85 Bath, England, Slasteh Ground-Plan of. ... 374

Australia, Sketch Map of.

90 Baths (6 Descriptive Cuts).

376-378

Austria, Sketch Map of..

100 Bavaria, Sketch Mop of.

390

Avebury, England, Plan of

125 Bee and Hive (T Cuts)..

418

432

Avignon, Sketch Plan of.

135 Beethoven .

435

Azores, The, or Western Islands....

147 Belfast, Ireland, Sketch Map of.

442

Baalbec, Syria, Ground-Plan of Great Temple at 154 Belgium, Sketch Map of..

Backgammon Board ..

171 Bellows (% Descriptive Cuts).

474477

Baden, Germany, the Grand Duchy of, Sketch Berlin, Germany, Deseriptive Plan of.. ........ 513

Map of....

193

Bern, Switzerland, Plan of..

519

Baden-Baden, Germany, Ground-Plan of.. 195

Berwick, England, Arms of..

528

Badminton, Diagram Illustrating the Game of 197 Berwick-upon-Tweed, England, Plan of. 527

Baghdad, Asia, Ground-Plan of.

200 Birds (49 Descriptive Cuts).

606-638

Bahama Islands, Sketch Map of.

204 Bird of Paradise, Standard Wing.

675

Baking ( 7 Descriptive Cuts)

217-222
Birmingham, England, Arms of...

679

Balance (9 Diagrams) ..

225-230 Birmingham, England, Sketch Plan of

678

Balearic Islands, Sketch Map of the .

239

Bleaching (17 Descriptive Cuts)...

705-712

Baltic Sea, Sketch Map of the....

253

Blowpipe (6 Descriptive Cuts).

727-730

Baltimore, Maryland, Descriptive Ground-

Bodmin, England, Arms of..

737

Plan of....

257

Baluchistan, Asia, Sketch Map of.

257

Banbury, England, Arms of .

266

Barbados, Sketch Map of.

309

MAPS

Barcelona, Ground-Plan of

316

Barnstaple, England, Arms of.

328 Atlantic Ocean..

16-17

Barometer (5 Descriptive Cuts)
329-331

88-89
Barometrical Measurements of Heights..... 332 Austria-Hungary

112-113
Baseball, Diagram Illustrating the Game of.... 350 Bengal and Assam.

488 489

Australia. .....

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