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hardly be expected that such works would become imme- tinent, as the state of his health hardly permitted him to diately popular; the characters, the motives of action, and reside in England. The Revolution of 1848 drove him the plot itself were too ordinary, one may say too common- from Paris, and on his return to England he settled at place, to appeal strongly to the synıpathies of the general | Weybridge, in Surrey, where he remained till his death in mass of readers. Her colors were not showy enough to December, 1859. Austin wrote one or two pamphlets, but strike the vulgar eye. It is probable, indeed, that her the chief work he published was his Province of Jurispruta admirers will always be few in number; for not only does dence Determined (1832), a treatise on the relation between it require a somewhat cultivated taste to appreciate the ethics and law, which gives a clear analysis of the notion rare skill with which the scanty materials of her tales are of obligation, and an admirable statement of utilitarianism, handled, but the author's experience of life was so limited the ethical theory adopted by the author. After his death, that her works are entirely wanting in certain elements, his widow, Mrs. Sarah Austin, published his Lectures on such as depth of feeling and breadth of sympathy-which Jurisprudence ; or, The Philosophy of Positive Law. These, are indispensable before a work of fiction can exercise any combined with the Province, have been edited, under the ronsiderable influence on the public mind.

same title, by Mr. R. Campbell, and reached in 1875 a fifth The framework in nearly all Miss Austen's novels is the edition. same, taken as they are from ordinary English middle-class AUSTIN, SARAH TAYLOR, translator and miscellaneous life; her characters are in no way distinguished by any writer, was born in 1793. She was one of the Taylor remarkable qualities, they are such persons as one would family of Norwich, several of whose members had distinreadily expect to meet in every-day life; the plot is exceed- guished themselves in the fields of literature and science. ingly simple, and the incidents, never rising above the level She was the youngest child of her family, received a liberal of the most common-place occurrences, flow naturally from and solid education at home, chiefly from her mother, and the characters of the actors. In the hands of most writers had the advantage, too, of enjoying in her father's house such materials would infallibly become monotonous and much intellectual society. She grew up a beautiful and tiresome; but from any danger of this Miss Austen is com- cultivated woman, and in 1820 became the wife of John pletely freed by her wonderful power of exciting interest Austin, noticed above. They settled in London, and in the “involvements and feelings of ordinary life," and among the familiar visitors of their house were Bentham, the skill with which, by a series of imperceptible but the Mills (father and son), the Grotes, Romilly, Buller, effective touches, she discriminates her characters, rounds Sydney Smith, and other eminent men. She accompanied them off, and makes them stand out from the canvas real her husband in 1827 to Bonn, where they spent some and living personages. Her gallery of portraits is certainly months, and made acquaintance with Niebuhr, Schlegel, small

, and the same character appears over and over again, Arndt, and other distinguished Germans. She afterwards but each figure is so distinctly drawn, and has such marked lived some years in Germany and France, and was left a individuality, that one is never struck with a sense of widow in December, 1859. Mrs. Austin is best known as repetition. A warm admirer of her works, Archbishop a singularly skilful translator of German and French Whately, has compared them to the carefully-executed works. In 1832 appeared her version of the Travels of pictures of the Dutch school ; perhaps the analogy of Prince Puckler Muskau. This was followed by Characterminiature painting, suggested by the author herself, is more istics of Goethe from the German of Falk, History of happy and expressive.

the Reformation in Germany and History of the Popes Miss Austen's life has been written by her nephew, Rev. from the German of Ranke, and Dr. Carove's Story withJ. Austen-Leigh (1870, 2d ed., 1871), who has also pub-out an End. She contributed “ Travelling Letters" and lished some extracts from her papers, including a short critical and obituary notices to the Athenceum, edited the tale, Lady Susan, written in the form of letters; a frag- Memoir of_Sydney Smith and her daughter Lady Duff ment of a larger work calied The Watsons ; the first draft Gordon's Letters from Egypt, and for some years of her of a chapter in Persuasion ; and the beginning of a novel, widowhood was occupied in arranging for publication her on which she was engaged at the time of her death. husband's Lectures on Jurisprudence. She was also author

AUSTERLITZ, a small town of Moravia, 12 miles of Germany from 1760 to 1814, National Education, and E.S.E. of Brünn, containing a magnificent palace belonging Letters on Girls' Schools. Mrs. Austin died at Weybridge to the prince of Kaunitz-Rietberg, and a beautiful church. in Surrey, 8th August, 1867. It has been rendered memorable by the great victory ob- AUSTRALASIA, one of the six great geographical tained in its vicinity, on the 2d December, 1805, by the divisions of the globe, is situated, as its name indicates, French under Napoleon, over the united forces of Austria south of Asia, between the equator and 50° S. lat., and 1100 and Russia under their emperors. Population, 3450. and 180° E. long. It comprises the island-continents of

AUSTIN, JOHN, one of the ablest English writers on New Guinea, Australia, Tasmania, and New Zealand, and jurisprudence, was born on the 3d March, 1790. At an the conterminous archipelagoes of New Britannia, Solomon early age he entered the army, and passed five years in Islands, New Hebrides, Loyalty Islands, and New Calemilitary service. He then retired, applied himself to the donia, which will be treated of under special headings. study of law, and was called to the bar in 1814. His AUSTRALIA, or New HOLLAND, the largest Plate II. powers, though admirably adapted for grasping the funda- island-continent of Australasia, is situated within mental principles of law, were not of a nature to render 10° 47' and 39° 11' S. lat., and 113° and 153° 30' E. long. him successful in legal practice. His health, too, was It measures 2500 miles in length from west to east, by delicate, and in 1825 he resigned active employment at the 1950 miles in breadth from north to south, and contains an bar. In the following year, however, he was appointed to area of about 3,000,000 square miles-nearly the same as the chair of jurisprudence in the newly-founded London that of the United States of America, exclusive of Alaska. university. He immediately crossed over to Germany to It is surrounded on the west by the Indian Ocean, and on prepare himself for his new duties, and at Bonn became the east by the South Pacific. 'In the north it is

separated acquainted with some of the most eminent German jurists. from New Guinea by Torres Strait, which is 80 miles His lectures were at first attended by a number and a class broad, and from the Eastern Archipelago by Arafura Sez; of students quite beyond his anticipations. Among his while on the south Bass Strait, 140 miles wide, separates it hearers were such men as Lord Romilly, Sir G. C. Lewis, from Tasmania. The neighboring colony of New Zealand and J. S. Mill. From Mill's notes some of the lectures lies 1200 miles opposite its south-east coast. Fere afterwards published, and he has given an admirable Owing to its position at the antipodes of the civilized account of Austin in his Dissertations (vol. iii.). But it world, Australia has been longer a terra incognita than soon became apparent that there would be no steady demand any other region of the same extent. Its first discovery for training in the science of law, which, though useful, is involved in considerable doubt, from confusion of the was not of immediate utility in practice. Under these names which were applied by the earlier navigators and circumstances Austin, who was almost too conscientious in geographers to the Australasian coasts. regard to his own work, thought it right to resign the chair The ancients were somehow impressed with the idea of in 1832. An attempt to institute lectures at the Inner a Terra Australis which was one day to be revealed. The Temple also failed, and, as his health was delicate, he Phænician mariners had pushed through the outlet of the retired to Boulogne, where he remained for nearly two Red Sea to eastern Africa, the Persian Gulf, and the coasts years. In 1837 he acted as royal commissioner in Malta, of India and Sumatra. But the geographer Ptolemy, in and discharged the duties of that office most efficiently, the 2d century, still conceived the Indian Ocean to be an The next ten years were spent in travelling on the Con- | inland sea, bounded on the south by an unknown land,

"{By convention of April, 1891, sitting at Sydney, the Australian colonies confederated under a constitution similar to that of the United States, but the governor-general is to be a crown appointment.-Am. Ed.]




















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which connected the Chersonesus Aurea (Malay Peninsula) | east. By taking this latter course he reached the island with the promontory of Prasum in eastern Africa. This which now bears his name, but which he called Van erroneous notion prevailed in medieval Europe, although Diemen's Land, after the Dutch governor of Batavia. In some travellers like Marco Polo heard rumors in China of 1644 Tasman made another attempt, when he explored the large insular countries to the south-east.

north-west coast of Australia, from Arnhem Land to the The investigations of Mr. R. H. Major make it appear 22d degree of latitude, approaching the locality of Dirk probable that the Australian mainland was known as Hartog's discoveries of 1616. He seems to have landed at “Great Java" to the Portuguese early in the 16th century; Cape Ford, near Victoria River, also in Roebuck Bay, and and the following passage in the Descriptionis Ptolemaicce again near Dampier's Archipelago. But the hostile attiAugmentum of Cornelius Wytfliet, printed at Louvain in tude of the natives, whom he denounced as a malicious and

miserable race of savages, prevented his seeing much of the new country; and for half a century after this no fresh discoveries were made.

The English made their first appearance on the Aus

tralian coast in 1688, when the north-western shores Amor

were visited by the famous buccaneer Captain William Dampier, who spent five weeks ashore near Roebuck Bay. A few years later (1697) the Dutch organized another expedition under Vlamingh, who, first touching at Swan River on the west coast, sailed northward to Shark's Bay, where Hartog had een in 1616. Dampier, two years later, visited the same place, not now

as a roving adventurer, but with a commission from QUEENSLAND

the English Admiralty to pursue his Australian reConector

searches. This enterprising navigator, in the narra

tive of his voyages, gives an account of the trees, birds, SO DE

and reptiles he observed, and of his encounters with the natives. But he found nothing to invite a long stay. There was yet another Dutch exploring squad

ron on that coast in 1705, but the results were of little O AUSTRALIAN


It was Captain Cook, in his voyages from 1769 to 1777, who communicated the most important discoreries, and first opened to European enterprise and set

tlement the Australasian coasts. In command of the :0 bark “Endeavor," 370 tons burden, and carrying 85

persons, amongst whom were Sir Joseph Banks and UT A RN

Dr. Solander, returning from the Royal Society's ex

pedition to observe the transit of Venus, Cook visited Sketch-Map of Australia.

both New Zealand and New South Wales. He came

upon the Australian mainland in April, 1770, at a 1598, is perhaps the first distinct account that occurs of point named after Lieutenant Hicks, who first sighted it, the country :-"The Australis Terra is the most southern on the shore of Gipps' Land, Victoria, S. lat. 38°, E. long. of all lands, and is separated from New Guinea by a 148° 53'. From this point, in a coasting voyage not without narrow strait. Its shores are hitherto but little known, peril when entangled in the barrier reefs of coral, the little since, after one voyage and another, that route has been vessel made its way up the whole length of the eastern side deserted, and seldom is the country visited, unless when of Australia, rounding Cape York, and crossing Torres Strait sailors are driven there by storms. The Australis Terra to New Guinea. In his second expedition of Australasian begins at one or two degrees from the equator, and is discovery, which was sent out in 1773, Cook's ship, the ascertained by some to be of so great an extent, that if it “Resolute,” started in company with the “Adventure," com. were thoroughly explored it would be regarded as a fifth manded by Captain Furneaux. The two vessels separated, part of the world.”

and Cook went to New Zealand, while Furneaux examined It was in 1606 that Torres, with a ship commissioned some parts of Tasmania and Bass Strait. The third voyage by the Spanish Government of Peru, parted from his com- of Cook brought him, in 1777, both to Tasmania and to panion Quiros (after their discovery of Espiritu Santo and New Zealand. the New Hebrides), and sailed from east to west through Next to Cook, twenty or thirty years after his time, the the strait which bears his name; while in the same year names of Bass and Flinders are justly honored for conthe peninsula of Cape York was touched at by a vessel tinuing the work of maritime discovery he had so well called the “Duyfhen” or “Dove” from the Dutch colony begun. To their courageous and persevering efforts, begun of Bantam in Java, but this was understood at the time to at their private risk, is due the correct determination form a part of thé neighboring island of New Guinea. of the shape both of Tasmania and the neighboring The Dutch continued their attempts to explore the un- continent. The French adıniral Entrecasteaux, in 1792, known land, sending out in 1616 the ship “Endraght,” had made a careful examination of the inlets at the south commanded by Dirk Hartog, which sailed along the west of Tasmania, and in his opinion the opening between coast of Australia from lat. 26° 30to 23° S. This expedi- Tasmania and Australia was only a deep bay. It was tion left on an islet near Shark's Bay a record of its visit Bass who discovered it to be a broad strait, with numerous engraved on a tin plate, which was found there in 1801. small islands. Captain Flinders survived his friend Bass, The “Pera” and “ Arnhem,” Dutch vessels from Amboyna, having been associated with him in 1798 in this and other in 1618 explored the Gulf of Carpentaria, giving to its useful adventures. Flinders afterwards made a complete westward peninsula, on the side opposite to Cape York, survey in detail of all the Australian coasts, except the the name of Arnhem Land. The name of Carpentaria west and north-west. He was captured, however, by the was also bestowed on this vast gulf in compliment to Peter French during the war, and detained a prisoner in MauriCarpenter, then governor of the Dutch East India Com- tius for seven years. pany. In 1627 the “Guldene Zeepard,” carrying Peter The shores of what is now the province of Victoria were Nuyts to the embassy in Japan, sailed along the south explored in 1800 by Captain Grant, and in 1802 by coast from Cape Leeuwin, and sighted the whole shore of Lieutenant Murray, when the spacious land-locked bay of the Great Bight. But alike on the northern and southern Port Phillip was discovered. New South Wales had alsea-board, the aspect of New Holland, as it was then called, ready been colonized, and the town of Sydney founded at presented an uninviting appearance.

Port Jackson in 1788. West Australia had long remained An important era of discovery began with Tasman's neglected, but in 1837, after the settlement at Swan voyage of 1642. He, too, sailed from Batavia; but, first River, a series of coast surveys was commenced in H.M.S. crossing the Indian Ocean to the Mauritius, he descended Beagle.” These were continued from 1839 to 1843 by to the 44th parallel of S. lat., recrossing that ocean to the Mr. Stokes, and furnished an exact knowledge of the western, north-western, and northern shores, including four large rivers flowing north-west and south-west into the large rivers.

interior was still unsolved. With a view to determine this Inland Exploration. The geographical position of the question, Governor Sir Ralph Darling, in the year 1828. Australian continent had now been sufficiently determined, I sent out the expedition under Captain Charles Sturt, who and what remained for discovery was sought, not as hith- proceeding irst to the marshes at the end of the Macerto by coasting along its shores and bays, but by striking quarie River, found his progress checked by the dense mass into the vast tract of terra incognita that occupied the in- of reeds in that quarter. He therefore turned westward, terior. The colony of New South Wales had been founded and struck a large river, with many affluents, to which he in 1788, but for twenty-five years its settlers were ac- gave the name of the Darling. This river, flowing from quainted only with a strip of country 50 miles wide, be- north-east to south-west, drains the marshes in which the tween the Blue Mountains and the sea-coast, for they Macquarie and other streams from the south appeared to scarcely ever ventured far inland from the inlets of Port be lost. The course of the Murrumbidgee, a deep and Jackson and Botany Bay. Mr. Bass, indeed, once while rapid river, was followed by the same eminent explorer in waiting for his vessel, made an attempt to cross the Blue his second expedition in 1831 with a more satisfactory Mountains, and succeeded in discovering the river Grove, result. He travelled on this occasion nearly 2000 miles, a tributary of the Hawkesbury, but did not proceed further. and discovered that both the Murrumbidgee, carrying with An expedition was also conducted by Governor Hunter it the waters of the Lachlan morass, and likewise the along the Nepean River west of the settlement, while Darling, from a more northerly region, finally joined anLieutenant Bareiller, in 1802, and Mr. Caley, a year or other and larger river. This stream, the Murray, in the two later, failed in their endeavor to surmount the Blue upper part of its course, runs in a north-westerly direction, Mountain range. This formidable ridge attains a height but afterwards turning south wards, almost at a right angle, of 3400 feet, and being intersected with precipitous ravines expands into Lake Alexandrina on the south coast, about 1500 feet deep, presented a bar to these explorers' passage 60 miles S.E. of the town of Adelaide, and finally enters inland. At last, in 1813, when a summer of severe drought the sea at Encounter Bay in E. long. 139o. had made it of vital importance to find new pastures, three After gaining a practical solution of the problem of the of the colonists, Messrs. Wentworth and Blaxland and destination of the westward-flowing rivers, Sir Thomas Lieutenant Lawson, crossing the Nepean at Emu Plains, Mitchell, in 1835, led an expedition northward to the gained sight of an entrance, and ascending the summit of upper branches of the Darling; but the party meeting a dividing ridge, obtained a view of the grassy valley of with a sad disaster in the death of Mr. Cunningham, the the Fish River. This stream runs westward into the eminent botanist, who was murdered by the natives on the Macquarie, which was discovered a few months afterwards Bogan River, further exploration of that region was left to by Mr. Evans, who followed its course across the fertile be undertaken by Dr. Leichardt, nine years later, and by plains of Bathurst.

the son of Sir Thomas Mitchell. Meantime, from the new In 1816 Lieutenant Oxley, R.N., accompanied by Mr. colony of Adelaide, South Australia, on the shores of Gulf Evans and Mr. Cunningham the botanist, conducted an St. Vincent, a series of adventurous journeys to the north expedition of great interest down the Lachlan River, 300 and to the west was commenced by Mr. Eyre, who explored miles to the north-west, reaching a point 34o S. lat., and a country much more difficult of access, and more forbid144° 30' E. long. On his return journey Oxley again ding in aspect, than the “Riverina” of the eastern provstruck the Macquarie River at a place he called Welling; inces. He performed in 1840 a feat of extraordinary perton, and from this place in the following year he organized sonal daring, travelling all the way along the barren seaa second expedition in hopes of discovering an inland sea. coast of the Great Australian Bight, from Spencer Gulf to He was, however, disappointed in this, as after descending King George's Sound. Mr. Eyre also explored the interior the course of the Macquarie below Mount Harris, he found north of the head of Spencer Gulf, where he was misled, that the river ended in an immense swamp overgrown however, by appearances to form an erroneous theory about with reeds. Oxley now turned aside-led by Mr. Evans's the water-surfaces named Lake Torrens. It was left to report of the country eastward—crossed the Arbuthnot the veteran explorer, Sturt, to achieve the arduous enterrange, and traversing the Liverpool plains, and ascendir.g prise of penetrating from the Darling northward to the the Peel and Cockburn Rivers to the Blue Mountains, very centre of the continent. This was in 1845, the route gained sight of the open sea, which he reached at Port lying for the most part over a stony desert, where the heat Macquarie. A valuable extension of geographical know- | (reaching 131° Fahr.), with scorching winds, caused much ledge had been gained by this circuitous journey of more suffering to the party. The most northerly point reached than 800 miles. Yet its result was a disappointment to by Sturt on this occasion was about S. lat. 24° 25'. His those who had looked for means of inland navigation by unfortunate successors, Burke and Wills, travelled througla the Macqnarie River, and by its supposed issue in a Medi- the same district sixteen years later; and other expediterranean sea.

tions were organized, both from the north and from the During the next two or three years public attention was south, which aimed at learning the fate of these travellers, occupied with Captain King's' maritime explorations of as well as that of Dr. Leichardt. These efforts completed the north-west coast in three successive voyages, and by our knowledge of different routes across the entire breadth explorations of West Australia in 1821. These steps were of Australia, in the longitude of the Gulf of Carpentaria; followed by the foundation of a settlement on Melville while the enterprising journeys of MacDouall Stuart, a Island, in the extreme north, which, however, was soon companion of Sturt, obtained in 1862 a direct passage abandoned. In 1823 Lieutenant Oxley proceeded to from South Australia northward to the shores of the Moreton Bay and Port Curtis, the first place 7° north of Malayan Sea. This route has been utilized by the conSydney, the other 10°, to choose the site of a new penal struction of an overland telegraph from Adelaide to the establishment. From a shipwrecked English sailor he northern coast. met with, who had lived with the savages, he heard of A military station having been fixed by the British Govthe river Brisbane. About the same time, in the opposite ernment at 'Port Victoria, on the coast of Arnhem Land, direction, south-west of Sydney, a large extent of the in- for the protection of shipwrecked mariners on the north terior was revealed. The river Murrumbidgee-which coast, it was thought desirable to find an overland route unites with the Lachlan to join the great river Murray, between this settlement and Moreton Bay, in what then was traced by Mr. Hamilton Hume and Mr. Hovell into was the northern portion of New South Wales, now called the country lying north of the province of Victoria, through Queensland. This was the object of Dr. Leichardt's expewhich they made their way to Port Phillip. In 1827 and dition in 1844, which proceeded first along the banks of the two following years, År. Cunningham prosecuted his the Dawson and the Mackenzie, tributaries of the Fitzroy instructive explorations on both sides of the Liverpool River, in Queensland. It thence passed farther north to range, between the upper waters of the Hunter and those the Burdekin, ascending to the source of that river, and of the Peel and other tributaries of the Brisbane north of turned westward across a table-land, from which there was New South Wales. Some of his discoveries, including an easy descent to the Gulf of Carpentaria. Skirting the those of Pandora's Pass and the Darling Downs, were of low shores of this gulf, all the way round its upper half to great practical utility.

the Roper, Leichardt crossed Arnhem Land to the Alli. By this time much had thus been done to obtain an gator River

, which he descended to the western shore of acquaintance with

the eastern parts of the Australian con- the peninsula, and arrived at Port Victoria, otherwise Port tinent, although the problem of what could become of the Essington, after a journey of 3000 miles, performed within

1 (Philip Parker King (1791-1856), born on Norfolk Island, entered the navy, employed in exploration of Australian, Patagonian, and Terra del Fuegan coasts. Died in Syduey.-Am. ED.)

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