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AUBIN, a town of France, in the department of Aveyron in the Church of Scotland in 1843. Population of town and arrondissement of Villefranche, principally remarkable in 1871, 2599. for its extensive mines of coal, sulphur, and alum. It also AUCHTERMUCHTY, a royal burgh and parish_of carries on an active trade in sheep, iron goods, &c. A Scotland, county of Fife, & miles W.S. W. of Cupar. The church of the 12th century, with some remarkable sculp- town is irregularly built on an elevated site, and is divided ture, and the ruins of the castle of the counts of Rouergue, by the Leverspool, a rapid streamlet which runs down its are still in existence. Population, 8863.

centre. The manufacture of linen is carried on. PopulaThe name Aubin, or St. Aubin, is one of the most fre- tion of burgh in 1871, 1082. quent in France, being borne by upwards of fifty villages AUCKLAND, a province of New Zealand, consisting of from the Pyrenees to Jersey.

the northern portion of North Island, and bounded for the AUBURN, the capital of Cayuga county, in the state most part on the S. by the 39th parallel of latitude. In of New York, on the railway between Albany and Buffalo, the N.W. it runs out into a peninsula between 200 and 300 174 miles W. of the former. The irregularity of the miles in length, with a very irregular coast-line, especially surface on which the city is built has prevented the com- on the eastern side. The total area of the province is about plete carrying out of the rectangular arrangement of 17,000,000 acres, of which nearly 11,275,000 are still in streets, which is so much in favor in the United States, possession of the Maoris, who are, however, continually but the thoroughfares are wide and lined with trees, and disposing of their claims to the Government. The surthe houses for the most part well built. The principal face of the province is of a very varied character, presentpublic buildings are in Genesee Street. The most remark- ing wide and fertile plains, stretches of fern-heath and able of the institutions is the state prison, founded in 1816 swamp, mountain ranges and isolated peaks, tracts of richlywhich is conducted on the “silent system,” and usually con- wooded jungle, rocky plateaus, and districts of strange voltains upwards of 1000 prisoners, who are employed each in canic activity. All round the coast there are a large numthe work to which he has been trained. Auburn also pos- ber of natural harbors, and the most of the interior is travsesses a Presbyterian theological seminary, founded in 1821, ersed by navigable streams. The principal river-system an academy, five public free schools, sixteen churches, an is that of the Waikato (or Rushing Water), which rises in orphan asylum, two opera houses, and several newspaper the Taupo Lake, in the south of the province, forces its offices. The water-power supplied by the outlet of the neigh- way through an extensive rocky table-land, flows onwards boring lake of Owasco is utilized in a number of manufac- for about 35 miles through a rich but marshy basin, joins tories. Cotton and woollen goods, carpets, agricultural im- its waters with the Waipa (or Peaceful Water), its largest plements and other tools, paper, flour, and beer are the prin- tributary, cuts a passage through the Taupiri range, and cipal products.

after traversing the fertile expanse of its lower basin, turns AUBUSSON, a town of France, situated in a pictu- abruptly to the W. and falls into the sea about 35 miles S. resque valley on the banks of the Creuse, in the department of the city of Auckland. The value of the Waikato as a to which that river gives its name. It is said to have owed commercial highway is greatly lessened by its mouth beits origin to a number of Saracens, who, having escaped ing encumbered with sandbanks, that prevent the entrance from the battle in which their nation was defeated by Charles of ships. To the E. of this river lies the valley of the Martel, were enticed by the beauty and convenience of the Thames, fertile and well watered by several streams, and spot to establish themselves permanently there. It has long still further eastward extends the versant of the Bay of been famous for its carpets and tapestry, the art of weaving Plenty. The course of settlement has hitherto advanced which was probably derived from those Eastern settlers, and for the most part along the valleys of the Waikato and the it also manufactures common cotton and woollen goods, Thames,-Cambridge, about 104 miles S. of the city of leather, tobacco, &c. Population, 6625.

Auckland, being the frontier station in the former, and AUCH, the ancient Climberrum or Augusta Auscorum, one Tapapa, a little further to the S., in the latter. Nearly the of the most ancient cities of France, capital of the depart. whole of the N.W. peninsula is occupied by a scattered ment of Gers. In Cæsar's time this was the chief town of population, and various flourishing townships are situated the Ausci. In the 8th century it became the capital of along the coast on all sides. In 1873 there were 3842 holdGascony; and when that district was divided into count- ings in the province, and about 225,000 acres had been ships, was the capital of Armagnac. The site of the mod- broken up. Hitherto the cultivation of the cereals has not ern town does not exactly coincide with that of the ancient, proved sufficiently remunerative, though climate and soil being on the opposite (the left) bank of the river Gers. are equally favorable, and the attention of the farmer has Auch was probably destroyed by the Saracens about 724 A.D., principally been turned to the rearing of the various deand was afterwards rebuilt in its present picturesque situa- scriptions of live stock, more especially sheep. The natution on the slope of a hill. On the opposite side of the ral wealth of the province consists principally in its gold river, and occupying the site of the ancient city, is a con- and timber. Coal has been found in several districts, and siderable suburb, which is connected with the town by a a few mines have been successfully worked, as Kawakawa bridge; and communication between the lower and the up- (at the Bay of Islands), Drury, and Whangarei; but the per town is afforded by long flights of steps. The streets, most important deposits are comparatively undisturbed. It though narrow, are generally well built, and a fine prome- is believed that iron may eventually be found in considernade in the upper part of the town gives a magnificent view able quantities, and various minerals have been pointed out of the surrounding country. Auch is the seat of an arch in the interior by scientific travellers. The chief seats of the bishopric, which was founded in the 4th century, and gave, gold-diggings are the Coromandel peninsula and the Thames till the Revolution, the title of Primate of Aquitania to the valley. The quantity exported in 1871 was valued at holder of the see. It has tribunals of commerce and pri- £1,888,708. The most important timber tree is the kaurimary jurisdiction, a royal college, an agricultural society, a pine, which is peculiar to Auckland, and does not grow furtheological seminary, with a museum and an extensive ther south than 37° 30'. It is of magnificent dimensions, library, a theatre, &c. The cathedral of St. Mary, one of and valuable, not only as the most extensively used buildthe most magnificent in France, was commenced in the reign ing material, but on account of the fossil gum which is found * of Charles VIII. (1489) and finished in that of Louis XV. wherever the kauri forest has been. This gum forms one It exhibits several styles of architecture, contains many of the chief articles of export, about 14,277 tons being the elegant monuments, and is adorned with fine stained-glass amount in the three years 1870, 1871, and 1872. There are windows, and carved woodwork. The préfecture, formerly various other trees of considerable value, such as the rimu, the archiepiscopal palace, is a vast and noble edifice. The the kahikatca, and the totara. The timber trade, both principal manufactures are hats, various kinds of linen and domestic and foreign, is increasing in importance, and cotton stuffs, leather, &c., and there is a considerable trade, shipbuilding is extensively carried on. There are large especially in the brandies of Armagnac. Population in districts overgrown with the phormium or New Zealand 1872, 13,087.

flax, and the right to cut it on the waste lands is granted AUCHTERARDER, a town and parish of Scotland, by the Government at a low price. In 1873, 1497 tons county of Perth, 15 miles W.S.W. of Perth. The town of the prepared fibre, valued at £27,783, were exported, consists of a single street about a mile in length. It was besides a considerable quantity of 'manufactured rope. formerly a royal burgh, but is now disfranchised. Near it Those great necessities of commerce, roads and railways, is an ancient castle, said to have been a hunting-seat of Mal- are being constructed in various directions. A line is in colm Canmore. It was in connection with this parish that course of formation from Auckland up the valley of the the ecclesiastical dispute arose which led to the Disruption / Waikato, as far as Newcastle, at the confluence of the Waipa, and a survey has been made for about 20 miles Besides numerous pamphlets on political matters of the further. A road runs from Bowen, on the Bay of Plenty, day, Lord Auckland wrote a treatise on the Principles of across the country, through the wonderful lake district, the Penal Law, 1771. His political conduct has been fre with its boiling fountains, steam geysers, and mud-baths, quently censured; he was a skilful diplomatist, and as a round by the east coast of Taupo Lake, and over the high- statesman was specially remarkable for his clear grasp of lands to Napier, in Hawke's Bay Province. The history economic principles. His Journal and Correspondence, 4 of Auckland was for long the history of New Zealand, vols., 1860-1862, published by his son, the bishop of Bath and will be fully treated under that heading. (See New and Wells

, throws considerable light on the political history ZEALAND.)

of his time. For a descriptive account of a large part of the province, AUCKLAND, GEORGE EDEN, EARL OF, Governorthe reader is referred to Dr. Hochstetter's valuable works, General of India, born 20th August, 1784, was the second especially to his New Zealand, 1863.. A very graphic son of the subject of the preceding notice. He completed sketch of some of the natural curiosities is furnished by his education at Oxford, and was admitted to the bar in Anthony Trollope in his Australia and New Zealand, vol. ii. 1809. His elder brother was drowned in the Thames in

AUCKLAND, the capital of the above province, is finely the following year; and in 1814, on the death of his situated on an isthmus in the N.W. peninsula, on the $. father, he took' his seat in the house of Lords as Baron shore of the Waitemata harbor, which is formed by an Auckland. He supported the Reform party steadily by his inlet of the Hauraki Gulf. Lat. 36° 51' S., long. 174° 50'. vote, and in 1830 was made president of the Board of Trade On the other side of the isthmus lies the harbor and town and master of the Mint. In 1834 he held office Dr a few of Manukau, which serves as a supplementary port to the months as first lord of the Admiralty, and in 1835 he was city. Auckland was founded in 1840 by Governor Hobson, appointed Governor-General of India. He proved himself and became a burgh in 1851. It was till 1865 the seat of to be a painstaking and laborious legislator, and devoted the Government, which is now situated at Wellington. The himself specially to the improvement of native schools, and city has a fine appearance, especially from the harbor, and the expansion of the commercial industry of the nation is surrounded by a number of flourishing suburban villages, committed to his care. These useful labors were interwith several of which it is connected by railway. Among rupted in 1838 by the hostile movements of the Persians, the public buildings in the city and neighborhood may be which excited the fears not only of the Anglo-Indian Govmentioned the governor's house, the cathedral, St. John's ernment but of the home authorities. Lord Auckland Episcopal college, about 4 miles distant, the Auckland col- resolved to enter upon a war in Afghanistan, and on the lege and grammar school, the Episcopal grammar school, in 1st October, 1838, published at Simla his famous manifesto. the suburb of Parnell, the provincial hospital, the provincial The early operations were crowned with success, and the lunatic asylum, and the orphanage at Parnell. “A wharf, | Governor-General received the title of Earl of Auckland. 1690 feet in length, has been built opposite the centre of But reverses followed quickly, and in the ensuing camthe city, and affords excellent accommodation for the grad paigns the British troops suffered the most severe disasters. ually increasing traffic of the harbor. In 1872, 170 non- Lord Auckland had the double mortification of seeing his colonial vessels, with a tonnage of 54,257 tons, entered the policy a complete failure, and of being superseded before port, besides a large number of coasting ships. There are his errors could be rectified. In the autumn of 1841 he registered at Auckland 167 sailing vessels and 20 steam- was succeeded in office by Lord Ellenborough, and returned ships, most of them of provincial build. The population, to England in the following year. In 1876 he was made which was 7989 in 1862, had increased by 1871 to 12,937 first lord of the Admiralty, which office he held until his (with the suburbs to 18,000), and is now estimated at about death, 1st January, 1849. He died unmarried, and the 21,000.

earldom became extinct. AUCKLAND ISLANDS, a group discovered in 1806 AUCTION, a mode of selling property by offering it by Captain Briscoe, of the English whaler “Ocean,” about to the highest bidder in a public competition. By 8 Vict. 180 miles S. of New Zealand, in lat. 50° 24', long. 166o c. 15, the uniform duty of £10 per annum is imposed on 7' E. The islands, of volcanic origin, are very fertile, and every license to carry on the business of auctioneer, but are covered with forest. They were granted to the Messrs. duties on sales by auction are abolished. It is the duty Enderby by the British Government as a whaling station, of an auctioneer to sell for the best price he can obtain, but the establishment was abandoned in 1852. (See Ray- and his authority cannot be delegated to another unless by nal's Auckland Islands, 1874.)

special permission of his employer. The auctioneer's name AUCKLAND, WILLIAM EDEN, Baron, an eminent must be exhibited on some conspicuous place during the diplomatist and politician, third son of Sir Robert Eden, sale, under a penalty of £20. Sales by auction usually Bart., of West Auckland, was born in 1744. He was edu- take place under certain conditions, which it is the duty cated at Eton and Oxford, and adopted the profession of the of the auctioneer to read to the bidders before the sale law. At the age of twenty-seven he resigned his practice at begins. To complete a sale by auction there must be a the bar, and engaged in political life as under-secretary to bidding by, or on behalf of, a person capable of making a Lord Suffolk. By the favor of the duke of Marlborough, contract, and an acceptance thereof by the auctioneer, and he obtained a seat for Woodstock, and soon gave proof of his until the bidding is accepted both vendor and bidder are ability in the House. He attached himself to Lord North's free, and may retract if they choose. If due notice is party, and after serving under Lord Carlisle on the unsuc- given, an agent may be employed to bid on behalf of the cessful commission to the colonists in America, acted as seller, but the employment of several bidders is improper, secretary to that nobleman, when he held the post of and if the sale is declared to be without reserve, any bidding viceroy in Ireland. During this time he had obtained the on the behalf of the seller will vitiate the sale. Puffing, offices of director and auditor of Greenwich Hospital, which it has been said, is illegal, even if there be only one puffer. probably yielded him an income sufficient for carrying on On the other hand, any hindrance to a free sale, either by his political career. In 1783 he took a leading part in a bidder deterring competitors from offering against him, negotiating the remarkable coalition between North and or by an engagement among the competitors to refrain Fox, and was rewarded by being made vice-treasurer of from bidding, in order to keep down the price of the goods Ireland. In 1784 he opposed Pitt's proposal for commer- and then share the profit, is a fraud upon the vendor. Two cial reciprocity with Ireland, but in so doing contrived to persons, however, may agree not to bid against each other. separate himself to some extent from his own party, and Auctioneers are entitled by their license to act as appraisers shortly after accepted from Pitt the office of plenipotentiary also. at Paris. Here he successfully negotiated the important AUDÆUS, or AUDIUS, a reformer of the 4th century, commercial treaty with France; and after his appointment by birth a Mesopotamian. He suffered much persecution as ambassador to Spain, he rendered valuable service in from the Syrian clergy for his fearless censure of their settling the dispute between the British and French Gov- | irregular lives, and was expelled from the church. He ernments with regard to the affairs of Holland. In 1789 was afterwards banished into Scythia, where he gained he was made an Irish peer, with the title of Baron Auck- many followers and established the monastic system. He land, and in 1793 he was raised to the British peerage as died there at an advanced age, about 370 A.D. The Baron Auckland, of West Auckland, Durham. For three Audæans celebrated the feast of Easter on the same day years, 1798-1801, he held office as postmaster-general. He as the Jewish Passover, and they were also charged with died suddenly in 1814. In 1776 he married the sister of attributing to the Deity a human shape. They appear to the first earl of Minto, by whom he had a large family. I have founded this opinion on Genesis i. 26.

AUDE, a southern department of France, forming part troller and auditor-general “shall ascertain first whether of the old province of Languedoc, bounded on the E. by the payments which the account department has charged the Mediterranean, N. by the departments of Hérault and to the grant are supported by vouchers or proofs of pay. Tarn, N.W. by Upper Garonne, w. by Ariége, and S. by ments; and second, whether the money expended has been that of Eastern Pyrenees. It lies between lat. 42° 40' and applied to the purpose or purposes for which such grant 34° 30' N., and is 80 miles in length from E. to W., and 60 was intended to provide.” The Treasury may also submit miles in breadth from N. to S. Area, 2341 square miles. certain other accounts to the audit of the comptrollerThe department of Aude is traversed on its western general. All public moneys payable to the Exchequer are boundary from S. to N. by a mountain range of medium to be paid to the "account of Her Majesty's Exchequer" height, which unites the Pyrenees with the Southern at the Bank of England, and daily returns of such payments Cevennes; and its northern frontier is occupied by the must be forwarded to the comptroller. Quarterly accounts Black Mountains, the most western part of the Cevennes of the income and charge of the consolidated fund are to chain. The Corbières, a branch of the Pyrenees, runs in be prepared and transmitted to the comptroller, who, in a S.W. and N.E. direction along the southern district. case of any deficiency in the consolidated fund, may certify The Aude, its principal river, has almost its entire course to the bank to make advances. The accounts of local in the department. Its principal affluents on the left are boards, poor-law unions, &c., must be passed in a similar the Fresquel, Orbiel, Argent-Double, and Cesse; on the manner by an official auditor. It is the duty of the auditor right, the Guette, Salse, and Orbieu. The canal of Lan- to disallow all illegal payments, and surcharge them upon guedoc, which unites the Atlantic with the Mediterranean, the person making or authorizing them; but such disallowtraverses the department from E. 10 W. The lowness of ances may be removed by certiorari into the Court of the coast causes a series of large lagunes, the chief of which Queen's Beuch, or an appeal may be made to the local are those of Bages, Sigean, Narbonne, Palme, and Leucate. Government Board. In municipal corporations two burThe climate is variable, and often sudden in its alterations. gesses must be chosen annually as auditors of the accounts. The wind from the N.W., known as the Cers, blows with AUDOUIN, JEAN VICTOR, a distinguished French engreat violence, and the sea breeze is often laden with pesti- tomologist, was born at Paris, April 27, 1797. He began lential effluvia from the lagunes. Various kinds of wild the study of law, but was diverted from it by his strong animals, as the chamois, bear, wild boar, wolf, fox, and predilection for natural history, which subsequently led badger, inhabit the mountains and forests; game of all him to enter the medical profession. In 1824 he was apkinds is plentiful; and the coast and lagunes abound in pointed assistant to Latreille in the entomological chair at fish. Mines of iron, copper, lead, manganese, cobalt, and the Paris museum of natural history, and succeeded him antimony exist in the department; and, besides the beauti- in 1833. He established in 1824, in conjunction with ful marbles of Cascastel and Caunes, there are quarries of Dumas and Adolphe Brongniart, the Annales des Sciences lithographic stone, gypsum, limestone, and slate. The Naturelles, to which he made numerous valuable contribucoal mines are for the most part abandoned. The moun- tions, generally in co-operation with M. Milne-Edwards. tains contain many mineral springs, both cold and thermal. The greater part of his other papers are contained in the The agriculture of the department is in a very flourishing Transactions of the Entomological Society, of which he was condition. The meadows are extensive and well watered, one of the founders, and for many years president. In and are pastured by numerous flocks and herds. The grain 1838 he became a member of the Academy of Sciences. produce, consisting mainly of wheat, oats, rye, and Indian He died in 1841, more from the effects of mental than of corn, considerably exceeds the consumption, and the vine- bodily exhaustion. His principal work, Histoire des Inyards yield an abundant supply of both white and red sectes nuisibles à la Vigne, was continued after his death by wines. Olives and almonds are also extensively cultivated, Milne-Edwards and Blanchard, and published in 1842. and the honey of Aude is much esteemed. Besides import- AUDRAN, the name of a family of French artists and ant manufactures of woollen and cotton cloths, combs, jet engravers, who for several generations were distinguished ornaments , and casks, there are paper-mills

, distilleries, in the same line. The first who devoted himself to the art tanneries, and extensive iron and salt works. The chief of engraving was Claude Audran, born in 1592, and the town is Carcassonne, and the department is divided into last was Benoit, Claude's great-grandson, who died in 1712. the four arrondissements of Carcassonne, Limoux, Nar- The two most distinguished members of the family are the bonne, and Castelnaudary. Population in 1872, 285,927. following:

AUDEBERT, JEAN BAPTISTE, a distinguished French AUDRAN, GÉRARD, or GIRARD, the most celebrated naturalist and artist, was born at Rochefort in 1759. He French engraver, was the third son of Claude Audran, and studied painting and drawing at Paris, and gained con- was born at Lyons in 1640. He was taught the first prin-' siderable reputation as a miniature painter. In 1787 he ciples of design and engraving by his father; and, followwas employed to make drawings of some objects in a ing the example of his brother, went to Paris to perfect natural history collection, and was also a contributor in himself in his art. He there, in 1666, engraved for Le the preparation of the plates for Olivier's Histoire des Brun Constantine's Battle with Maxentius, his Triumph, and Insectes." He thus acquired a taste for the study of natural the Stoning of Stephen, which gave great satisfaction to the history, and devoted himself with great eagerness to the painter, and placed Audran in the very first rank of ennew pursuit. In 1800 appeared his first original work, gravers at Paris. Next year he set out for Rome, where L'Histoire Naturelle des Singes, des Makis, et des Galéo he resided three years, and engraved several fine plates, pithèques, illustrated by 62 folio plates, drawn and engraved That great patron of the arts, M. Colbert, was so struck by himself. The coloring in these plates was unusually with the beauty of Audran's works, that he persuaded beautiful, and was laid on by a method devised by the Louis XIV. to recall him to Paris. On his return he ap. author himself. Audebert died in 1800, but he had left plied himself assiduously to engraving, and was appointed complete materials for another great work, Histoire des engraver to the king, from whom he received great enColibris, des Oiseaux-Mouches, des Jacamares, et des Pro- couragement. In the year 1681 he was admitted to the merops, which was published in 1802. 200 copies were council of the Royal Academy. He died at Paris in 1703. printed in folio, 100 in large quarto, and 15 were printed His engravings of Le Brun's Battles of Alexander are rewith the whole text in letters of gold. Another work, left garded as the best of his numerous works. “He was," unfinished, was also published after the author's death, says the Abbé Fontenai, “the most celebrated engraver L'Histoire des Grimpereaux, et des Oiseaux de Paradis. that ever existed in the historical line. We have several The last two works also appeared together in two volumes subjects, which he engraved from his own designs, that with the title Oiseaux dorés ou à reflets metalliques, 1802. manifested as much taste as character and facility. But in

AUDITOR, a person appointed to examine the accounts the Battles of Alexander he surpassed even the expectations kept by the financial officers of the Crown, public corpora- of Le Brun himself.” Gérard published in 1683 a work tions, or private persons, and to certify as to their accuracy. entitled Les proportions du corps humain mesurées sur les The multifarious statutes regulating the audit of public plus belles figures de l'antiquité, which has been translated accounts have been superseded by the 29 and 30 Vict. c. into English. 39, which gives power to the Queen to appoint a “comp- AUDRAN, JEAN, nephew of Gérard, was born at Lyons in troller and anditor-general,” with the requisite staff to 1667. After having received instructions from his father, examine and verify the accounts prepared by the different he went to Paris to perfect himself in the art of engraving departments of the public service. In examining accounts under his uncle, next to whom he was the most distinof the appropriation of the several supply grants, the comp- guished member of his family. At the age of twenty his genius began to display itself in a surprising manner; and York in the end of the year 1830, the second in 1834, the his subsequent success was such, that in 1707 he obtained third in 1837, and the fourth and last in 1839. The whole the title of engraver to the king, Louis XIV., who allowed consists of 435 colored plates, containing 1055 figures of him a pension, with apartments in the Gobelins; and birds the size of life. It is certainly the most magnificent the following year he was made a member of the Royal work of the kind ever given to the world, and is well charAcademy. He was eighty years of age before he quitted acterized by Cuvier, “C'est le plus magnifique monument the graver, and nearly ninety when he died. The best que l'Art ait encore élevé à la Nature.” prints of this artist are those which appear not so pleasing During the preparation and publication of his great work to the eye at first sight. In these the etching constitutes Audubon made several excursions from Great Britain. a great part; and he has finished them in a bold, rough In the summer of 1828, he visited Paris, where he made style. The Rape of the Sabines, after Poussin, is considered the acquaintance of Cuvier, Humboldt, and other celebrated his masterpiece.

naturalists, and received from them every mark of honor AUDUBON, JOHN JAMES, a well-known naturalist, was and esteem. The following winter he passed in London. born in 1781 in Louisiana, where his parents, who were In April of 1830 he revisited the United States of American French Protestants, had taken up their residence while it and again explored the forests of the central and southern was still a Spanish colony. They afterwards settled in federal territories. In the following year he returned to Pennsylvania. From his early years he had a passion for London and Edinburgh, but the August of 1831 found him observing the habits and appearances of birds, and attempt again in New York. The succeeding winter and spring ing delineations of them from nature. At the age of fifteen he spent in Florida and South Carolina; and in the sumhe was sent to Paris, and remained there about two years, mer of 1832 he set out for the Northern States, with an inwhen among other studies he took some lessons in the tention of studying the annual migrations of birds, particudrawing-school of David. On returning to America his larly of the passenger pigeon, of which he has given a father established him in a plantation in Pennsylvania, and striking description; but his career was arrested at Boston he soon after married. But nothing could damp his ardor by a severe attack of cholera, which detained him there for natural history. For fifteen years he annually explored till the middle of August. After that he explored the the depths of the primeval forests of America in long and coasts, lakes, rivers, and mountains of North America, hazardous expeditions, far from his family and his home from Labrador and Canada to Florida, during a series of In these excursions he acquired the facility of making those laborious journeys, that occupied him for three years. spirited drawings of birds that give such value to his From Charleston, accompanied by his wife and family, he magnificent work, The Birds of America. At that period took his third departure for Britain. During his earlier he had not dreamed of any publication of his labors; as residence in Edinburgh he had begun to publish his Amerihe informs us, “it was not the desire of fame that prompted can Ornithological Biography, which at length filled five to those long exiles; it was simply the enjoyment of na- large octavo volumes. The first was issued there by Adam ture.He afterwards remov with his family to the Black in 1831 ; the last appeared in 1839. This book is village of Henderson on the banks of the Ohio, where he admirable for the vivid pictures it presents of the habits continued his researches in natural history for several of the birds, and the adventures of the naturalist. The years, and at length set out for Philadelphia with a port- descriptions are characteristically accurate and interesting: folio containing 200 sheets filled with colored delineations In 1839 Audubon bade a final adieu to Europe, and of about 1000 birds. Business obliged him to quit Phila- returning to his native country, he published, in a more delphia unexpectedly for some weeks, and he deposited his popular form, his Birds of America, in seven octavo volporifolio in the warehouse of a friend; but to his intense umes, the last of which appeared in 1844. His ardent dismay and mortification he found, on his return, that love of nature still prompted him to new enterprises, and these precious fruits of his wanderings and his labors had he set out on fresh excursions; but in these he was always been totally destroyed by rats. The shock threw him into accompanied by his two sons, and one or two other naturala fever of several weeks' duration, that well-nigh proved ists. The result of these excursions was the projection of fatal.

But his native energy returned with returning a new work, The Quadrupeds of America, in atlas folio, health; and he resumed his gun and his game-bag, his and also a Biography of American Quadrupeds, both of pencils and his drawing book, and plunged again into the which were commenced at Philadelphia in 1840. The recesses of the backwoods. În about three years he had latter was completed in 1850, and is, perhaps, even superior again filled his portfolio, and then he rejoined his family, to his Ornithological Biography. who had in the mean time gone to Louisiana.

After a

To great intelligence in observing, and accuracy in short sojourn there he set out for the Old World, to exhibit delineating nature, to a vigorous, handsome frame, and to the ornithologists of Europe the riches of America in pleasing expressive features, Audubon united very estimthat department of natural history.

able mental qualities, and a deep sense of religion with In 1826 Audubon arrived at Liverpool, where the merits out a trace of bigotry. His conversation was animated of his spirited delineations of American birds were imme- and instructive, his manner unassuming, and he always diately recognized. An exhibition of them to the public spoke with gratitude to heaven for the very happy life he in the galleries of the Royal Institution of that town was so had been permitted to enjoy. He died, after a short illness, successful that it was repeated at Manchester and at Edin, in his own residence on the banks of the Hudson, at New burgh, where they were no less admired. When he proposed York, on the 27th of January, 1851. See Life and Advento publish a work on the birds of America, several natural- tures of J.J. Audubon the Naturalist, edited, from materiale ists advised him to issue the work in large quarto, as the supplied by his widow, by Robert Buchanan, London, 1868. most useful size for the lovers of natural history, and the AUGEIAS (Αύγείας, Αυγέας, cf. ηλίου αυγή), in Greek most likely to afford him a sufficient number of subscribers to Legend, a son of Helios, the sun. He was a prince of remunerate his labors. At first he yielded to this advice, Elis, and, consistently with his being a descendant of the and acknowledged its soundness; but

finally he decided that sun-god, had an immense wealth of herds, including twelve his work should eclipse every other ornithological publica- bulls sacred to Helios, and white as swans. He lived tion. Every bird was to be delineated of the size of life, beside the stream Menios (Mýv=moon); and his daughter and to each species a whole page was to be devoted ; con- Agamede was, like Medeia and Circe, skilled in witchcraft

, sequently, the largest elephant folio paper was to receive and connected with the moon goddess. The task of the impressions. This necessarily increased the expense Hercules was to clear out all his stalls in one day, and of the work so much as to put it beyond the reach of without help. This he did by making an opening in the most scientific naturalists—which accounts for the small wall and turning the stream through them. *Augeias had number of persons who, for a considerable time, could be promised him a tenth of the herd, but refused this, reckoned among his supporters in the gigantic under alleging that Hercules had acted only in the service of taking. The exceptionally high character of the work, Eurystheus. however, gradually became known; and a sufficient AUGEREAU, PIERRE FRANÇOIS CHARLES, Duke of number of subscribers was at length obtained in Great Castiglione, was the son of obscure parents, and born in Britain and America, during the ten or twelve years that 1757. After serving for a short period in the armies of the work was going through the press, to indemnify him France, he entered the Neapolitan service, and for some for the great cost of the publication-leaving him, however, time supported himself by teaching fencing at Naples. a very inadequate compensation for his extraordinary in- In 1792 he joined the Republican army that watched the dustry and skill. The first volume was published at New movements of Spain. He rose rapidly to the rank of

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brigadier-general, and commanded a division in the army from the 10th century. There are also various churches of Italy. Here he distinguished himself in numerous and chapels, a school of arts, a polytechnic institution, engagements by his energy, skill, and vigorous rapidity of a picture gallery in the former monastery of St. Catherine, action. To him were due in great measure the brilliant a museum, observatory, botanical gardens, an exchange, victories of Millesimo, Dego, and Castiglione, and he led gymnasium, deaf-mute institution, orphan asyluni, pubthe decisive charges at the bloody combats of Lodi and lic library, several remarkable fountains, dating from Arcola. In 1797 he took part with Barras and the Direc- the 16th century, &c. The “Fuggerei,” built in 1519 by tory, and was an active agent in the revolution of the the brothers Fugger, consists of 106 small houses, let to 18th of Fructidor; but his jealousy of his former com- indigent Roman Catholic citizens at a merely nominal rade, Bonaparte, prevented their intimacy; and he was rent. The manufactures of Augsburg are various and imone of the general officers not privy to the noted revolution portant, consisting of woollen, linen, cotton, and silk goods, of the 18th of Brumaire (Nov. 9), 1799. He received, watches, jewelry, and goldsmith-work, mathematical instruhowever, the command of the army of Holland and the ments, machinery, leather, paper, chemical stuffs, types, Lower Rhine, but was superseded in 1801. From that &c. Copper-engraving, for which it was formerly noted, time he lived in retirement, till 1804, when he was made a is no longer carried on; but printing, lithography, and marshal of the French empire, and in the following year he publishing have acquired a considerable development, one was appointed to the command of the expedition against of the best known Continental newspapers being the Allgethe Vorarlberg, which he quickly subdued. He also dis | meine Zeitung or Augsburg Gazette. Augsburg is an im. tinguished himself greatly in the battles of Jena and Eylau. In 1809–10 he commanded the French in Catalonia, and tarnished his laurels by his great cruelty to the Spaniards; but he was again more honorably conspicuous in the campaign of 1813, especially in the terrible battle of Leipsic. In 1814 he had the command of a reserve army at Lyons, and might have made a diversion in favor of Napoleon, but he preferred to submit, and retained a command under the Bourbons. In the following year he at first refused to join Napoleon on his escape from Elba, and when he would afterwards have accepted a command his services were declined. He also failed to obtain military office under the new dynasty, and after having had the painful task of being one of the commission on the trial of Ney, he returned to his estates, where he died of dropsy in 1816.

AUGSBURG, a celebrated city of Germany, capital of the circle of Swabia and Neuburg in Bavaria, the principal seat of the commerce of South Germany and of commercial transactions with the south of Europe. It derives its name from the Roman Emperor Augustus, who, on the conquest of Rhætia

RADAY by Drusus, established a Roman colony named Augusta Vindelicorum (about 14 B.c.). In the 5th century it was sacked by the Huns, and afterwards came under the power of the Frankish kings. It was almost entirely destroyed in the war of Charlemagne against Thassilon, duke of Bavaria; and after the dissolution and division of that empire, it fell into the hands of the dukes of Swabia. After this it rose rapidly into importance as a manufacturing and commercial town, and its merchant princes, the Fuggers and Welsers, rivalled the Medici of Florence; but the alterations produced in the currents of trade by the discoveries of the 15th and 16th centuries occasioned a great decline. In 1276 it was raised to the

Sketch Plan of Augsburg. rank of a free imperial city, which it retained, with

A, St. Stephen's Platz. K, Maximilian's Platz. many changes in its internal constitution, till 1806, B, Carolinen Platz. 1. Cathedral. when it was annexed to the kingdom of Bavaria. C, Fruit Market.

11. St. Moritz Church Meanwhile, it was the scene of numerous events of

D, Metzger Platz.


Nunnery. historical importance. It was besieged and taken by F, Ludwig's Platz.

14. St. Ulrich's Church. Gustavus Adolphus in 1632, and in 1635 it surren

G, Fish Market.
6. Shambles.

15. Military Stables. dered to the imperial forces; in 1703 it was bom

H, Horse Market. 7. Town-Hall.

16. Holy Ghost HosJ, St. Anna Platz. 8. Exchange (Börse).

pital. barded by the electoral prince of Bavaria, and forced to pay a contribution of 400,000 dollars; and in the war | portant railway junction. On the opposite side of the of 1803 it suffered severely. Of its conventions the most river, which is here crossed by a bridge, lies the little vilmemorable are those which gave birth to the Augsburg con- lage of Lechhausen. Population in 1871, 51,270. fession (1530) and to the Augsburg alliance (1686).

AUGSBURG CONFESSION. See CREEDS. The city is pleasantly situated in an extensive and fer- AUGURS, in Roman Antiquities, a college or board aptile plain, between the rivers Wertach and Lech, 36 miles pointed to interpret, according to the books (libri augurales) W.N.W. of Munich, lat. 48° 21' 44' N., long. 10° 54' 42"' in which the science of divination was laid down, the E. Its fortifications were dismantled in 1703, and have auspicia or signs of approval or disapproval sent by Jupisince been converted into public promenades. Maximilian ter on the occasion of any public transaction. At first, it Street is remarkable for its breadth and architectural mag- is said, there were only two augurs, one from each of the nificence. One of its most interesting edifices is the Fug- tribes Ramnes and Tities. Two more were added by Numa, ger House, of which the entire front is painted in fresco. and again other two for the third tribe of Luceres, that is Among the public buildings of Augsburg most worthy of six altogether. But in the year 300 B.c. it is certain that notice is the town hall, said to be one of the finest in Ger- there were only four, to which number five plebeian places many, built by Elias Holl in 1616–20. One of its rooms, were added by the lex Ogulnia. Sulla increased the numcalled the “Golden Hall.” from the profusion of its gild- ber to fifteen, at which it continued, with the exception ing, is 113 feet long, 59 broad, and 63 high. The palace that Cæsar appointed a sixteenth, and the emperors freof the bishops, where the memorable Confession of Faith quently added as supra numerum persons of distinction, or was presented to Charles V., is now used for Govern- of their own family. An augur retained his office and ment offices. The cathedral dates in its oldest portions sacred character for life. The college had the right of


9. Police.
10. Firehouse.

2. Frohnhof. 3. Palace. 4. Court Garden. 5. Barefoot Church,

13. St.

E Perlachthurm.

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