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king and the Queen Louise in the mausoleum in the Park. / exports to the Brazils, the Argentine Republic, and Japan A second group of monuments on the Wilhelm's Platz are also increasing. Berlin is growing in importance as commemorates the generals of the Seven Years' War; a money market and centre of industrial undertakings, and a third, in the neighborhood of the Opera, the gen- The Berlin Cassenverein, through which the banking houses erals who fought against Napoleon I. On the Kreuzberg, transact their business, passed £1,351,988,967 Sterling the highest spot in the neighborhood of Berlin, a Gothic through its books in 1872, as compared with £644,431,255 monument in bronze was erected by Frederick William sterling in 1871. In 1872, 23 new banking establishIII. to commemorate the victories of 1813-15; and in the ments were enrolled in the trade register, with a capital Königsplatz the present emperor has erected a column of of £7,565,000 sterling; and in the same year 144 new victory in honor of the triumphs of 1864, 1866, and 1870. joint-stock companies were enrolled, representing a capital This monument rises to the height of 197 feet, the gilded of £18,000,000 sterling; Since that time the tide of enterfigure of Victory on the top being 40 feet high. Litera- prise has ebbed, but the majority of these undertakings ture, science, and art are represented in different parts of continue to exist. the city by statues and busts of Rauch, Schinkel, Thaer, In the progress of its growth Berlin has lost much of Beuth, Schadow, Winckelmann, Schiller, Hegel, Jahn; | its original character. The numerical relations of class to while the monuments in the cemeteries and churches bear class have been greatly modified. New political insti. the names of distinguished men in all depariments of po- tutions have sprung into existence, of which the Berlin of litical, military, and scientific life.

the early years of Frederick William IV. had not a trace. Publica

Next to Leipsic, Berlin is the largest pub- It has become the seat of a parliament of the realm, and lishing centre in Germany. In the year 1872 of a parliament of the empire. Manufacture and trade

there were 1540 works published in Berlin, of have come to absorb 70 per cent. of the entire population. which 20 per cent had to do with literature, 15 per cent. But these have also changed their character; old branches with philology and pedagogy, 14 per cent. with law and which constituted a marked feature of its commercial and politics, 7 per cent. with history, 6 per cent. were military manufacturing activity have almost suddenly died out, works, 5 per cent. theological, 5 per cent. had to do with while new branches have with equal rapidity more than agriculture, and 4 per cent. with medicine. Turning to supplied their place. While the commercial and manufacjournals and periodical literature, 265 newspapers and turing element has thus increased, other elements have magazines, daily, weekly, or monthly, appeared in the undergone a relative decline. The learned professions and same year. The political journals in Berlin do not, how the civil service numbered in 1867 7.9 per cent of the ever, sustain the same relation to the political life of Ger- population. In 1871 the proportion had sunk to 6:11, many as do the political journals of London and Paris to and since then the percentage has gone on decreasing. In that of England and France.

this altered state of affairs Berlin will have to cherish and Berlin is not only a centre of intelligence, nurture the scientific, educational, ethical, and religious but is also an important centre of manufacture elements in her life with double care, not only to keep up

and trade. Its trade and manufactures appear her old reputation abroad, but also for the purpose of preto be at present in a transition state-old branches are venting the degeneration of her people at home. dying out, and new branches are springing into existence. Sources of information :- Von Klöden, Handbuch der Direct railway communication between the corn lands of Länder- und Staatenkunde von Europa ; Daniel, Handbuck north-eastern Germany, Poland, and Russia on the one der Geographie, vol. iv.; Fidicin, Historisch-Diplomatische hand, and the states of Central and Western Germany on Beiträge zur Geschichte der Stadt Berlin, 5 vols.; Köpke, the other, have deprived Berlin of much of its importance Die Gründung der Fred. Wilhelm Universitat zu Berlin; as a centre of trade in corn and four. In like manner Wiese, Das Höhere Schulwesen in Preussen, 3 vols. Das the spirit trade and manufactures have suffered. The Statistische Jahrbuch von Berlin, 1867 to 1874. Dr. H. 20,892,493 litres exported in 1870 had sunk to 9,737,597 Schwabe, Resultate der Volkszählung und Volksbeschreibung litres in 1872. On the other hand, for petroleum, Berlin vom 1son December, 1871, Berlin, Simion. (G. P. D.) has become an emporium for the supply of the Mark of BERLIOZ, HECTOR, by far the most original composer Brandenburg, part of Posen, Silesia, Saxony, and Bohe- of modern France, was born in 1803 at Cote-Saint-André, a mia. Silk and cotton manufacture, which in former times small town near Grenoble, in the department of Isère. His constituted a principal branch of Berlin manufacture, has father was a physician of repute, and by his desire our died out. As late as 1849 Berlin had 2147 silk looms; composer for some time devoted himself to the study of the now it has few or none. Woollen manufacture maintained same profession. At the same time he had music lessons, its ground for a time, occupying about 8000 looms and and, in secret, perused numerous theoretical works on coun11,404 workmen as late as 1861. In 1874 the number of terpoint and harmony, with little profit it seems, till the hands employed in spinning and weaving in all branches hearing and subsequent careful analysis of one of Haydn's had sunk to 2918. The chief articles of manufacture and quartets opened a new vista to his unguided aspirations. commerce are locomotives and machinery; carriages; A similar work written by Berlioz in imitation of Haydn's copper, brass, and bronze wares; porcelain; and the req- masterpiece was favorably received by his friends. From uisites for building of every description. The manu- Paris, where he had been sent to complete his medical facture of sewing-machines has assumed large proportions, studies, he at last made known to his father the unalterfrom 70,000 to 75,000 being manufactured annually. Ac- able decision of devoting himself entirely to art, the answer cording to the report of the Government inspector of to which confession was the withdrawal of all further factories for the city of Berlin, presented to the minister pecuniary assistance. In order to support life Berlioz had of trade and commerce, the number of persons employed to accept the humble engagement of a singer in the chorus in all the Berlin factories in the year 1874 was 64,466. of the Gymnase theatre. Soon, however, he became recon By a “factory” was understood any wholesale manufac- ciled to his father and entered the Conservatoire, where he turing establishment employing more than 10 persons. studied composition under Reicha and Lesueur. His first In 1874 there were 1906 such factories at work, employ- important composition was an opera called Les Francsing 51,464 males and 11,004 females above 16 years of Juges, of which, however, only the overture remains age; 1137 males and 760 females under 16 and above 14 extant. In 1825 'he left the Conservatoire, disgusted, it is years of age; and 66 male and 14 female children under said, at the dry, pedantry, of the professors, and began : 14 years of age. The manufacture of steam-engines and course of autodidactic education, founded chiefly on the machinery occupied 14,737 persons; brass-founding, me- works of Beethoven, Gluck, Weber, and other German tallic belt and lamp manufacture, 9074; carpentry, joinery, masters. About this period Berlioz saw for the first time and wood-carving, 4548; printing, 3620; spinning and on the stage the talented Irish actress Miss Smithson, weaving, 2918; sewing-machines and telegraphic appa- who was then charming Paris by her impersonations of ratus, 2788; the finer qualities of paper, 2585; porcelain Ophelia, Juliet, and other Shakespearean characters. The and ware, 1741; dyeing, 1712; gas-works, 1518; tobacco young enthusiastic composer became deeply enamored and cigars, 1477; manufacture of linen garments, 1355 ; of her at first sight, and tried, for a long time in vain, to pianos and harmoniums, 1198; dressmaking and artificial gain the responsive love or even the attention of his idol. Howers, 1127; brewing, 1061. None of the other branches To an incident of this wild and persevering courtship found occupation for 1000 persons. The value of the Berlioz's first symphonic work, Episode de la Vie d'un annual exports to the United States of articles of Berlin Artiste, owes its origin. It describes the dreams of an manufacture has risen to about £1,000,000 sterling. The artist who, under the influence of opium, imagines that he has killed his mistress, and in his vision witnesses his such circumstances we can hardly be surprised at seeing Berlioz own execution. It is replete with the spirit of contem- appreciated sooner and more lastingly in Germany than in bis porary French romanticism and of self-destructive Byronic own country. Schumann and Liszt were, as we have mendespair. A written programme is added to each of the tioned, at various periods amongst the foremost promoters of five movements to expound the imaginative material on

his music. We subjoin a list of the more important works by which the music is founded. By the advice of his friends Berlioz not mentioned above, viz., the symphonies Roméo et Berlioz once more entered the Conservatoire, where, after Béatrice et Bénédict (1862), and Les Troyens (1866); a Requiem,

Juliette (1834), and Damnation de Faust (1846); the

operas several unsuccessful attempts, his cantata Sardanapalus and Tristia, a work for chorus and orchestra, written on the (1830) gained him the first prize for foreign travel, in spite death of his wife. Of his spirited literary productions we menof the strong personal antagonism of one of the umpires. tion his Voyage musical en Allemagne et en Italie (1845), Les During a stay in Italy Berlioz composed an overture to Soirées d'Orchestre (1853), A travers Chant (1862), and his inKing Lear, and Le Retour à la Vie,-a sort of symphony, comparable Traité d'Instrumentation (1844). The characteriswith intervening poetical declamation between the single tics of Berlioz's literary style are French verve and esprit, occamovements, called by the composer a melologue, and sionally combined with English humor and German depth of written in continuation of the Episode de la Vie d'un idea. The time has hardly yet arrived for judging finally of Artiste, along with which

work it was performed at the Berlioz's position in the history of his art. His original ideas, Paris Conservatoire in 1832. Paganini on that occasion he possesses genuine creative power to carry out these intentions,

his poetical intentions, nobody can deny; the question is whether spoke to Berlioz the memorable words: “Vous commencez and, first of all, that broad touch of nature which leads from par où les autres ont fini.” Miss Smithson, who also subjective feeling to objective rendering, and which alone can was present on the occasion, soon afterwards consented to establish a lasting rapport between a great artist and posterity. become the wife of her ardent lover. The artistic success To decide this question the performances of his works have as achieved on that occasion did not prove to be of a lasting yet, unfortunately, been too few and far between. In England, kind. Berlioz's music was too far remote from the cur- particularly, only a very small fraction of his compositions has rent of popular taste to be much admired beyond a small

been heard.

(F. H.) 'circle of esoteric worshippers. It is true that his name BERMUDAS, SOMERS'S ISLANDS, or SUMMER ISLANDS, became known as that of a gifted though eccentric com- a group in the Atlantic Ocean, the seat of a British colony, poser; he also received in the course of time his due share in lat. 32° 20' N. and long. 64° 50' W., about 600 miles E. of the distinctions generally awarded to artistic merit, such by S. from Cape Hatteras on the American coast. They lie as the ribbon of the Legion of Honor and the member- to the south of a coral reef or atoll, which extends about ship of the Institute. But these distinctions he owed, 24 miles in length from N.E. to S.W. by 12 in breadth. perhaps, less to a genuine admiration of his compositions The largest of the series is Great Bermuda, or Long than to his influential position as the musical critic of the Island, enclosing on the east Harrington or Little Sound, Journal des Débats (a position which he never used or and on the west the Great Sound, which is thickly studded abused to push his own works), and to his successes abroad. with islets, and protected on the north by the islands of In 1842 Berlioz went for the first time to Germany, where Somerset, Boaz, and Inland. The remaining members of he was hailed with welcome by the leading musiciaus of the group, St. George's, Paget's, Smith's, St. David's, the younger generation, Robert Schumann foremost amongst Cooper's, Nonsuch, &c., lie to the east, and form a semithem. The latter paved the way for the French composer's circle round Castle Harbor. The islands are wholly comsuccess, by a comprehensive analysis of the Episode in posed of a white granular limestone of various degrees of his musical journal, the Neue Zeitschrift für Musik. Berlioz hardness, from the crystalline“ base rock," as it is called, to gave successful concerts at Leipsic and other German friable grit. It seems that they are in a state of subsicities, and repeated his visit on various later occasions in dence and not of elevation. The caves which usually appear 1852, by invitation of Liszt, to conduct his opera, Ben- in limestone formations are well represented, many of them venuto Cellini (hissed off the stage in Paris), at Weimar; running far into the land and displaying a rich variety of and in 1855 to produce his oratorio-trilogy, L'Enfance du stalagmites and stalactites. Among the less ordinary geoChrist, in the same city. This latter work had been pre- logical phenomena may be mentioned the “sand glacier” viously performed at Paris, where Berlioz mystified the at Elbow Bay. The surface soil is a curious kind of red critics by pretending to have found one part of it, the earth, which is also found in ochre-like strata throughout "Flight into Egypt,” amongst the manuscript scores of a the limestone. It is generally mixed with vegetable matter composer of the 17th century, Pierre Ducré by name. and coral sand. There is a total want of streams and Berlioz also made journeys to Vienna (1866) and St. wells of fresh water, and the inhabitants are dependent on Petersburg (1867), where his works were received with the rain, which they collect and preserve in tanks. The great enthusiasm. He died in Paris, March 9, 1869. climate of the Bermudas has a reputation for unhealthiness

which is hardly borne out, for the ordinary death-rate is only Berlioz has justly been described as the French representative 22 per 1000. 'Yellow fever and typhus, however, have on of musical Romanticism, and his works are in this respect some occasions raged with extreme violence, and the former closely connected with the contemporary movement in literature has appeared four times within the space of thirty years. known by that name. Hugo, for instance, is undeniable, and must be looked for The maximum reading of the thermometer is about 85-8, deeper than in the fantastic eccentricities and breaches of the and its minimum 49,—the mean annual temperature being established form common to both. His ready acknowledgment 70°. Fahr., and that of March 65°. Vegetation is very of congenial aspirations in foreign countries, so adverse to rapid, and the soil is clad in a mantle of almost perpetua. Frencb natural prejudice, may be cited as another essentially green. The principal kind of tree is the so-called "Ber" romantic” feature in Berlioz's character. In bis case, how- mudas cedar,” really a species of juniper, which furnishes ever, the predilection for English literature, as shown in the timber for small vessels. The shores are fringed with the choice of several of his most important subjects from Shakes- mangrove; the prickly pear grows luxuriantly in the most peare, Byron, and Walter Scott, may be to some extent explained from his connection with Miss Smithson, a striking in the sage-bush springs up profusely. The citron, sour

barren districts; and wherever the ground is left to itself stance of the relation between life and art in a man of high orange, lemon, and lime grow wild; but the apple and creative faculty.

The second powerful element in Berlioz's compositions is the peach do not come to perfection. The loquat, an introducinfluence of Beethoven's gigantic works. The grand forms of

tion from China, thrives admirably; The gooseberry, curthe German master's symphonies impressed him with competi. rant, and raspberry, all run to wood. The oleander bush, tivo zeal, and what has been described as the “poetical idea" in with all its beauty, is almost a nuisance. The soil is very Beethoven's creations soon began to run riot in the enthusiastic fertile in the growth of esculent plants and roots; and a mind of the young medical student. But, in accordance with considerable trade has grown up within recent years bethe aversion of his national character to indistinct ideal notions, tween Bermudas and New York, principally in arrowroot, be tried to condense the poetical essence of his inspiration in of excellent quality, onions, Irish potatoes, and tomatoes. the tangible shape of a story, and in this manner became the Regular steam communication between the island and that father of what is generally called“ programme-music.". Whether city is maintained, the Government subsidizing the vessels. the author of such

works as Harold en Italie, or the Episode de The total value of the export of these articles in 1872 was la Vie d'un Artiste, may lay claim to the prophet's cloak is difficult to decide; he must at any rate be accepted as a man £64,030. Medicinal plants, as the castor oil plant, aloe, and strong in his own convictions, "å swallower of formulas,” and jalap, come to great perfection without culture; and coffee, faithful ally in the great cause of nature, versus traditional indigo, cotton, and tobacco are also of spontaneous growth. artificiality, of Shakespeare against pseudo-classicism Under Tobacco curing ceased about 1707. Few oxen or sheep

are reared in the colony, a supply being obtained from BERN, or BERNE, a canton of Switzerland, situated North America ; but goats are kept by a large number of between 46° 19' and '47° 30' N. lat., and between 6° 50 the inhabitants. The ass is the usual beast of burden. The and 8° 28' E. long. It extends from the French and Al. indigenous Mammalia are very few, and the only Reptilia sace frontier south-east through the heart of the Confedare a small lizard, and the green turtle. Birds, however, eracy to Valais, by which it is bounded on the S., while it especially aquatic species, are very numerous, --one of has the cantons of Basel, Soleure, Aargau, Lucerne. Unthe commonest being the cardinal-grosbeak. The list in- terwalden, and Uri on the E., and Vaud, Freiburg, Neufcludes the cat-bird, blue-bird, kingfisher, ground-dove, blue châtel on the W. Bern is the second largest canton of heron, sandpiper, moorhen, tropic bird, and Carolina crake. Switzerland, its surface being estimated at 2562 square Insects are comparatively few; butants swarm destructively miles. The population in 1870 amounted to 506,465, of in the heat of the year, and a species of ant-lion, a cicada whom 436,304 were Protestants, and 66,015 Catholics, while (scissor-grinder), and the chigre or jigger, are common. 1401 were Jews. German was spoken in 83,693 families, Fish are plentiful round the coasts, and the whale-fishery and French in 16,646, the latter language prevailing in the was once an important industry.' Gold-fish, introduced N.W. The canton is naturally divided into three regions, from Demerara, swarm in the ditches.

in which the climate varies with the elevation. The southThere are two towns in the Bermudas, St. George's, ern part, called the Oberland, is for its scenery the most founded in 1794, and Hamilton, founded in 1790, and in- attractive part of all Switzerland. Many of the grandest corporated in 1793. The former was the capital till the mountains of the Alpine system-such as the Grimsel

, the senate and courts of justice were removed by Sir James Finsteraarhorn, the Schreckhorn, the Wetterhorn, the Cockburn to Hamilton, which being centrally situated, is Eiger, and the Jungfrau--lie along the frontier chain, and much more convenient. The streets of St. George's are numerous offshoots and valleys of great beauty stretch close and narrow, and the drainage bad. It is a military northward towards the central part of the canton. This station, the barracks lying to the east of the town. The latter district consists for the most part of an undulating population is about 2000. Hamilton, in the Great Ber- plain, interspersed with lesser chains and hills,-the soil muda, at the bottom of a bay which is entered by Trenblin's being fertile and well cultivated. The north is occupied Narrows, consists of an irregular half-street fronting a line with the ranges of the Jura system. The principal river of wharves. Its principal buildings include a court-house, in the canton is the Aar, which drains by far the larger a legislative assembly house, a council room, a library proportion of its surface, either directly or by means of its (1839), a jail, and a large church. About a mile from the numerous tributaries. Of these, the most important are town is Langton, the governor's residence. In Inland the Saane, from the S.; the Thiele, which forms the outlet Island is situated the royal dockyard and naval establish- of the lakes of Bienne and Neufchâtel ; and the Emme, ment. A hospital stands on the highest point, and a which gives its name to the beautiful Emmenthal. The lunatic asylum has also been built. The bay is defended northern corner of the canton is divided between the by a breakwater. On Boaz Island there is a convict station. basins of the Rhone and the Rhine. On the upper course A causeway, opened in 1871, runs from St. George's through of the Aar are the two lakes of Brienz and Thun. The Longbird Island westward, across Castle Harbor. The mineral wealth of the country is neither extensive nor harbor of St. George's has space enough to accommodate varied; but iron-mines are worked, and gold is found in the whole British navy; yet, till deepened by blasting, the the River Emme. Quarries of sandstone, marble, and entrance was so narrow as to render it almost useless. A granite are abundant. The pastures in the Oberland and marine slip was constructed in 1865, with a capacity of the Emmenthal are excellent, and cattle and horses of the 1200 tons. The chief military establishment is at Prospect best description are largely reared. The latter district Hill. The Government consists of a governor appointed also produces cheese of excellent quality, which is ex: by the Crown, and a privy council of nine members ap- ported to Germany and Italy. Fruit is extensively cultipointed by the governor. The House of Assembly con- vated in the central region and in the neighborhood of the sists of thirty-six members, who receive salaries. The lakes of Brienz and Thun; the vine is principally grown Acts are usually passed for a definite period, and require to the north of Lake Bienne. In the forests, which are of to be renewed from time to time. Much of the judicial considerable importance, the prevailing trees are the fir, administration is left to unpaid magistrates. The currency the pine, and the beech. The industrial productions of of the colony, which had formerly been twelve shillings the canton are cotton, woollen and flaxen stuffs, leather, to the pound sterling, was assimilated to that of England watches, and wooden wares of all kinds. Bern is divided in 1842. The colony is ecclesiastically attached to the into thirty bailiwicks or prefectures, each with a local ad. diocese of Newfoundland. Both Presbyterians and Wes-ministrator. The capital is Bern, and the other chief leyans are endowed. There are numerous schools, and in towns are Bienne or Biel, Thun, Burgdorf or Berthoud, 1847 an educational board was established; but the general Porrentruy or Pruntruit, and Délémont or Delsberg. The educational condition is unsatisfactory. Of 2600 children highest legislative authority is the Great Council

, the between the ages of five and six, only about 1500 attend members of which are chosen in proportion to the number school. Sunday schools are of much greater importance of the people; and the executive power is in the hands of than in England, and most of them have libraries. The a lesser council of nine members, chosen by the Great revenue of the islands in 1872 was £33,256, inclusive of Council for a space of four years. The educational insti£1500 raised by loan; the gross expenditure was £32,236; tutions in the canton comprise a university and two gymand the public debt amounted to £17,330. The population nasiums in the capital, and progymnasiums and colleges in 1850 was 11,092, of whom 4669 were whites; by the at Biel, Thun, Burgdorf, Neuenstadt. Porrentruy, and census of 1871 it had increased to 12,121.

Délémont. There is a deaf and dumb institution at FrienThe discovery of the Bermudas resulted from the shipwreck isberg, and a cantonal lunatic asylum at Waldau, about s of Juan Bermudez, a Spaniard (whose name they now bear), mile from Bern. when on a voyage from Spain to Cuba with a cargo of hogs, about the year 1522. Henry May, an Englishman, suffered the the pernianent seat of the Government and Diet of the Swis

Bern, the capital of the above canton, and, since 1848, same fate in 1593; and lastly, Sir George Somers shared the Confederation. It is situated in 46° 47 N. lat. and 7° 25 destiny of the two preceding navigators in 1609. Sir George E. long., at an elevation of 1710 feet above the sea, on: was the first who established a settlement upon them, but he died before he had fully accomplished his design. In 1612 the sandstone peninsula, formed by the windings of the Aar, Bermudas were granted to an offshoot of the Virginia Company, which is crossed on the south side of the city by an extenwhich consisted of 120 persons, 60 of whom, under the com sive weir, and further down passes under four bridges mand of Mr. Henry More, proceeded to the islands; and an connecting the peninsula with the right bank. It is one accession of inhabitants was gained during the civil wars, many of the most characteristically Swiss towns; some of the having sought a refuge from the tyranny of the ruling party in streets are broad and regular, the houses being well builo this distant sanctuary. Into the details of the history we can with hewn stone; in others a peculiar effect is pro not enter, but the following items are important. The first duced by the presence of lines of arcades down the sides

, source of colonial wealth was the growing of tobacco; and at a later period the produce of the salt-lagoons at Turk's Island Prominent among the public buildings is the Federal became a main article of trade. In 1726 Berkeley chose the Council Hall, or Bundes-Rathhaus, a fine structure in the Summer Islands as the seat of his projected missionary estab- Florentine style, which was completed in 1857 The up lishment. The first newspaper, the Bermuda Gazette, was pub- per story is occupied by a picture gallery of some value lished in 1784. See W. F. Williams, Hist. and Stat. Account The town-hall dates from 1406, and was restored in 1861. of the Bermudas, 1848; Godet, Bermuda, its History, &c., 1860. Among the ecclesiastical buildings the first place is held by

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the cathedral, a richly-decorated Gothic edifice, begun in evident in a formidable conspiracy, of which the unfortunate 1421 and completed in 1573, from the neighborhood of Herzi was one of the leaders. The conspiracy was crushed, which a splendid view of the Alps is obtained. Educa- but the opposition broke out through other channels. At last tional institutions are very numerous, comprising a univer- the French Revolution came to submerge the aristocracy in a sity, founded in 1834, which is attended by 250 students, a general Helvetian republio; and when the flood had passed tho gymnasi::m, and a veterinary school. Attached to the ancient landmarks could not be replaced, though a restoration university are a botanical garden and an observatory; and liberal party has long been the strongest in the canton, which

was attempted with at first an appearance of success. Tho there are, besides, a valuable museum, a public library has at last returned almost to democracy; for, in 1870, the refof 45,000 volumes, especially rich in works relating to erendum was introduced, by which it is agreed that all laws, Swiss History, and several literary and scientific societies. after being discussed by the Great Council, shall first receive tho Among the charitable establishments are two large hos- sanction of the people before they come into force. pitals (the Inselspital and the Bürgerspital), a foundling hospital, two orphan asylums, and a lunatic asylum. An. BERNADOTTE, JEAN-BAPTISTE-JULES, afterwards other asylum was erected in 1854, about 24 miles from the KING CHARLES XIV. of Sweden and Norway, was the son city. The penitentiary is capable of containing 400 pris- 1 of a lawyer at Pau in Béarn, and was born January 26,

1764. He was destined by his parents for the law, but chose the profession of arms, and enlisted in 1780 as a private in the royal marines. When the Revolution swept away the arbitrary distinction of classes, and opened up to all alike the path of preferment, the abilities of Bernadotte were speedily acknowledged. In 1792 he was made a colonel, in the following year a general of brigade, and soon after a general of divis. ion. In the campaigns of the Rhine and of Italy his military talents found ample scope for display;

and his diplomatic abilities had also been tested as Observatory

ambassador at the court of Vienna. During Bonaparte's absence in Egypt Bernadotte was appointed minister of war. He reorganized the whole army, and prepared the way for the conquest of Holland.

Notwithstanding the rivalry that all along existed 88

between him and Napoleon, Bernadotte was made a marshal on the establishment of the empire. He was also nominated to the government of Hanover, and took part in the campaign of 1805 at the head of a force of 20,000 men. 'He distinguished himself at the battle of Austerlitz, and in 1806 he was created prince of Ponte-Corvo. In 1810 the death of Prince Augus. tenburg of Sweden having left the throne of that king.

dom without an heir, the Swedish States in Council Plan of Bern.

nominated Bernadotte as successor to Charles XIII.

of Sweden, a distinction for which he was scarcely oners. Among other buildings of interest are the granary, less indebted to his nobility of character than to his miliwhich, till 1830, used to be stored with corn in case of tary talents. During the great campaigns of 1813 and famine; the clock tower, with its automatic pantomime; 1814 Bernadotte joined the coalition against Napoleon, the arsenal, with its mediæval treasures; the mint; and and it was his Swedish contingent that mainly decided the Murtner Gate. The most frequent ornament through the battle of Leipsic. It is stated, on good authority, out the city is the figure of the bear, in allusion to the that he had formed the ambitious design of succeeding mythical origin of the name of Bern; and the authorities the emperor on the French throne. As crown prince of still maintain a bear's den at municipal expense. Al Sweden he devoted his whole energies to the welfare of his though, properly speaking, not a commercial city, Bern adopted country: Owing to the infirmities of the king he carries on some trade in woollen cloth, printed calico, mus- was entrusted with the entire conduct of the government. lin, silk stuffs, straw hats, stockings, and other articles of On the death of Charles XIII., in February, 1818, Bernahome manufacture. The climate is severely cold in win- dotte ascended the throne. For the events of his administer, owing to the elevation of the situation. The popula- tration, so conducive to the prosperity of that country, tion, which is mainly Protestant, was 36,000 in 1870. reader is referred to the article SWEDEN. He died at StockBern was founded, or at least fortified, by Berthold v. of holm, March 8, 1844, leaving an only son, Oscar, who suc

ceeded him. Zähringen, about the end of the 12th or beginning of the 13th century, and gradually became a refuge for those who were op; teachers and representatives of monasticism in the Middle

BERNARD, St., one of the most illustrious Christian pressed by feudal exactions in the neighboring countries. In 1218 it was declared a free imperial city by the Emperor Frederick Ages, was born at Fontaines, near Dijon, in Burgundy, in II. At first its constitution was purely democratic; but in 1293 1091. The son of a knight and vassal of the duke of Bur. a legislative body of 200 citizens was appointed, which formed gundy who perished in the first crusade, Bernard may have the germ of one of the most remarkable oligarchies in modern felt for a time the temptations of a military career, but the European history. The extension of territory, gradually ef- influence of a pious mother and his own inclinations fected by the valor of the Bernese, rendered necessary a more towards a life of meditation and study led him to the elaborate and rigid organization than that which had sufficed cloister. While still a youth he is said to have been“ mar. while the limits of the city were almost the limits of the state; vellously cogitative” (“mire cogitativus,” St. Bern. Op., vol. every new success against the enemies of the city. The blow ii. col. 1063), and the ascendency of his mind and characthat decided the fate of Bern was struck at Laupen on June ter were soon shown. He joined the small monastery of 21, 1339, when Rudolph von Erlach beat the allied army of the Citeaux in 1113 when twenty-two years of age, and such Deighboring states. Il continued to flourish, and in 1352 joined were the effects of his own devotion and eloquent enthusithe Swiss Confederation. A fire destroyed the city in 1405, but asm in commending a religious life, that he drew after him it was rebuilt on the same plan. In the 17th century the grad- not only his two younger brothers, but also his two elder ually increasing aristocratio tendency reached its climax. The ones, Guido

and Gerard, both of whom had naturally taken adoption of new burgbers was forbidden, and the burghers to soldiering, and the elder of whom was married and had proper wore carefully distinguished from those who were merely children. The effect of his preaching is said to have been permanent inhabitants of the city; the burghers were divided that “mothers hid their sons, wives their husbands, comtitute of that privilege; and the privileged class itself, which, panions their friends," lest they should be drawn away by by 1785, numbered only 69 families, was subdivided into a

his persuasive earnestness. higher and a lower grade. This élite grew more and more ex

The monastery of Citeaux had attracted St. Bernard not clusive and domineering, and at last became upendurable to only on account of its neighborhood (it was only a few their humbler fellow-citizens. In 1748 the discontent made itself miles distant from Dijon), but by its reputation for aus

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terity. The monks were few and very poor. They were the words of St. Bernard, was "accepted by the world." under an Englishman of the name of Stephen Harding, He travelled from place to place with the powerful abbot originally from Dorsetshire, whose aim was to restore the by his side, who also received him in his humble cell at Benedictine rule to its original simplicity and give a new Clairvaux. Apparently, however, the meanness of the acimpulse to the monastic movement." In Bernard, Harding commodation and the scantiness of the fare (one small found a congenial spirit. No amount of self-mortification fowl was all that could be got for the Pope's repast), left could exceed his ambition. He strove to overcome his no wish on the part of Innocent or his retinue to continue bodily senses altogether and to live entirely absorbed in their stay at Clairvaux. He found a more dainty recepreligious meditation. Sleep he counted a loss, and com- tion elsewhere, but nowhere so powerful a friend. Through pared it to death. Food was only taken to keep him from the persuasions of Bernard the emperor took up arms for fainting. The most menial offices were his delight, and Innocent; and Anacletus was driven to shut himself up even then his humility looked around for some lowlier in the impregnable castle of St. Angelo, where his death employment. Fortunately he loved nature, and found a opened the prospect of a united Christendom. A second constant solace in her rocks and woods. "Trust one who anti-pope was elected, but after a few months retired from has tried it,” he writes in one of his epistles, "you will the field, owing also, it is said, to St. Bernard's influence. find more in woods than in books; trees and stones will A great triumph was gained not without a struggle, and teach you what you can never learn from masters.” the abbot of Clairvaux remained master of the ecclesias. (“Experto crede: aliquid amplius invenies in silvis quam tical situation. No name stood higher in the Christian in libris; ligna et lapides docebunt te quod a magistris world. audire non possis," Epist. 106.)

The chief events which fill up his subsequent life atSo ardent a nature soon found a sphere of ambition for test the greatness of his influence. These were his contest itself. The monks of Citeaux, from being a poor and with the famous Abelard, and his preaching of the second unknown company, began to attract attention after the crusade. accession of St. Bernard and his friends. The fame of their Peter Abelard was twelve years older than Bernard, and self-denial was noised abroad, and out of their lowliness had risen to eminence before Bernard had entered the and abnegation came as usual distinction and success. The gates of Citeaux. His first intellectual encounter had been · small monastery was unable to contain the inmates that with Bernard's aged friend William of Champeaux, whom gathered within it, and it began to send forth colonies in he had driven from his scholastic throne at Paris by the various directions. St. Bernard had been two years an in- superiority of his dialectics. His subsequent career, his mate, and the penetrating eye of the abbot had discovered ill-fated passion for Heloise, his misfortunes, his intellectbeneath all his spiritual devotion a genius of rare power, ual restlessness and audacity, his supposed heresies, had and especially fitted to aid his measures of monastic re- all shed additional renown on his name; and when a counform. He was chosen accordingly to head a band of de- cil was summoned at Sens in 1140, at which the French votees who issued from Citeaux in 1115 in search of a king and his nobles and all the prelates of the realm new home. This band, with Bernard at their head, jour. were to be present, Abelard dared his enemies to impuga neyed northwards till they reached a spot in the diocese of his opinions. St. Bernard had been amongst those most Langres—a thick-wooded valley, wild and gloomy, but with alarmed by Abelard's teaching, and had sought to stir up a clear stream running through it. Here they settled and alike Pope, princes, and bishops to take measures against laid the foundations of the famous abbey of Clairvaux, him. He did not readily, however, take up the gauntlet with which St. Bernard's name remains associated in his thrown down by the great hero of the schools. He protory. The hardships which the monks endured for a time fessed himself a “stripling too unversed in logic to meet in their new abode were such as to drive them almost to the giant practised in every kind of debate." But "all despair, and their leader fell seriously ill, and was only were come prepared for a spectacle," and he was forced rescued from what seemed impending death by the kind into the field. To the amazement of all, when the comcompulsion of his friend William of Champeaux, the great batants met and all seemed ready for the intellectual fray, doctor of the age, who besought and received the direction Abelard refused to proceed with his defence. After sev. of Bernard for a year from his superior at Citeaux. Thanks eral passages considered to be heretical had been read to his considerate friend the abbot of Clairvaux was forced from his books he made no reply, but at once appealed to to abandon the cares of his new establishment, and in re- Rome and left the assembly. Probably he saw enough in tirement and a healthful regimen to seek renewed health. the character of the meeting to assure him that it formed The effect was all that could be desired, and in a few years a very different audience from those which he had been Bernard had not only recovered his strength, but had begun accustomed to sway by his subtilty and eloquence, and had that marvellous career of literary and ecclesiastical activity, recourse to this expedient to gain time and foil his adverof incessant correspondence and preaching, which was to saries. Bernard followed up his assault by a letter of inmake him in some respects the most influential man of dictment to the Pope against the heretic. The Pope re

sponded by a sentence of condemnation, and Abelard was Gradually the influence of Bernard's character began to silenced. Soon after he found refuge at Cluny with the extend beyond his monastery. His friendship with William kindly abbot, Peter the Venerable, who brought about of Champeaux and others gave currency to his opinions, something of a reconciliation betwixt him and Bernard. and from his simple retreat came by voice or pen an author- The latter, however, never heartily forgave the heretic. ity, before which many bowed, not only within his own He was too zealous a churchman not to see the danger order but within the church at large. This influence was there is in such a spirit as Abelard's, and the serious connotably shown after the death of Pope Honorius II. in sequences to which it might lead. 1130. 'Two rival popes assumed the purple, each being In all things Bernard was enthusiastically devoted to able to appeal to his election by a section of the cardinals. the church, and it was this enthusiasm which led him at Christendom was divided betwixt the claims of Anacletus last into the chief error of his career. Bad news reached II. and Innocent II. The former was backed by a strong France of the progress of the Turkish arms in the East. Italian party, and drove his adversary from Rome and even The capture of Edessa in 1144 sent a thrill of alarm and from Italy. Innocent took refuge in France. The king, indignation throughout Christian Europe, and the French Louis the Fat, espoused his cause, and having summoned king was urged to send forth a new army to reclaim the a council of archbishops and bishops, he laid his commands Holy Land from the triumphant infidels. The Pope was on the holy abbot of Clairvaux to be present also and give consulted, and encouraged the good work, delegating to St. the benefit of his advice. With reluctance Bernard obeyed Bernard the office of preaching the new crusade. Weary the call, and from the depths of seclusion was at once with growing years and cares the abbot of Clairvaux seemed plunged into the heart of the great contest which was afflict- at first reluctant, but afterwards threw himself with all his ing the Christian world. The king and prelates put the accustomed power into the new movement, and by his question before him in such a way as to invite his decision marvellous eloquence kindled the crusading madness once and make him arbiter. After careful deliberation he gave more throughout France and Germany. Not only the his judgment in favor of Innocent, and not only so, but French king, Louis VII., but the German emperor, Conrad from that time forward threw himself with characteristic III., placed himself at the head of a vast army and set out fervor and force into the cause for which he had declared. for the East by way of Constantinople. Detained there too Not only France, but England, Spain, and Germany were long by the duplicity of the Greeks, and divided in counwon to the side of Innocent, who, banished from Rome, in sel, the Christian armies encountered frightful hardships

his age.

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