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chief part in framing that artful and eloquent speech After having been long in indirect communication with which the accused divine pronounced at the bar of the the exiled family, he, in 1717, began to correspond Lords, and which presents a singular contrast to the absurd directly with the Pretender. The first letter of the corand scurrilous sermon which had very unwisely been respondence is extant. In that letter Atterbury boasts of honored with impeachment. During the troubled and having, during many years past, neglected no opportunity anxious months which followed the trial, Atterbury was of serving the Jacobite cause. My daily prayer," he among the most active of those pamphleteers who inflamed says, “is that you may have success. May I live to see the nation against the Whig ministry and the Whig Parlia- that day, and live no longer than I do what is in my ment. When the ministry had been changed and the power to forward it.” It is to be remembered that he Parliament dissolved, rewards were showered upon him. who wrote thus was a man bound to set to the church of The Lower House of Convocation elected him prolocutor. which he was overseer an example of strict probity; that The Queen appointed him dean of Christ Church on the he had repeatedly sworn allegiance to the House of Brunsdeath of his old friend and patron Aldrich. The college wick; that he had assisted in placing the crown on the would have preferred a gentler ruler. Nevertheless, the head of George I, and that he had abjured James III., new head was received with every mark of honor. A " without equivocation or mental reservation, on the true congratulatory oration in Latin was addressed to him in faith of a Christian.” the magnificent vestibule of the hall; and he in reply It is agreeable to turn from his public to his private professed the warmest attachment to the venerable house life. His turbulent spirit, wearied with faction and in which he had been educated, and paid many gracious treason, now and then required repose, and found it in compliments to those over whon he was to preside. But domestic endearments, and in the society of the most it was not in his nature to be a mild or an equitable gov- illustrious of the living and of the dead. Of his wife little ernor. He had left the chapter of Carlisle distracted by is known; but between him and his daughter there was quarrels. He found Christ Church at peace; but in three an affection singularly close and tender. The gentleness months his despotic and contentious temper did at Christ of his manners when he was in the company of a few Church what it had done at Carlisle. He was succeeded friends was such as seemed hardly credible to those who in both his deaneries by the humane and accomplished knew him only by his writings and speeches. The charm Smalridge, who gently complained of the state in which of his “softer hour” has been commemorated by one of buth had been left.

Atterbury goes before, and sets those friends in imperishable verse. Though Atterbury's everything on fire. I come after him with a bucket of classical attainments were not great, his taste in English water.” It was said by Atterbury's enemies that he was literature was excellent; and his admiration of genius was made a bishop because he was so bad a dean. Under his so strong that it overpowered even his political and administration Christ Church was in confusion, scandalous religious antipathies. His fondness for Milton, the mortal altercations took place, opprobrious words were exchanged; enemy of the Stuarts and of the church, was such as to and there was reason to fear that the great Tory college many Tories seemed a crime. On the sad night on which would be ruined by the tyranny of the great Tory doctor. Addison was laid in the chapel of Henry VII., the WestHe was soon removed to the bishopric of Rochester, which minster boys remarked that Atterbury read the funeral was then always united with the deanery of Westminster. service with a peculiar tenderness and solemnity. The Still higher dignities seemed to be before him. For, favorite companions, however, of the great Tory prelate though there were many able men on the Episcopal bench, were, as might have been expected, men whose politics there were none who equalled or approached him in parlia- had at least a tinge of Toryism. He lived on friendly mentary talents. Had his party continued in power it is terms with Swift, Arbuthnot, and Gay. With Prior he not improbable that he would have been raised to the had a close intimacy, which some misunderstanding about archbishopric of Canterbury. The more splendid his public affairs at last dissolved. Pope found in Atterbury prospects the more reason he had to dread the accession of not only a warm admirer, but a most faithful, fearless, and å family which was well known to be partial to the Whigs. judicious adviser. The poet was a frequent guest at the There is every reason to believe that he was one of those episcopal palace among the elms of Bromley, and enterpoliticians who hoped that they might be able, during the tained not the slightest suspicion that his host, now declinlife of Anne, to prepare matters in such a way that at her ing in years, contined to an easy chair by gout, and appardecease there might be little difficulty in setting aside the ently devoted to literature, was deeply concerned in criminal Act of Settlement and placing the Pretender on the throne. and perilous designs against the Government. Her sudden death confounded the projects of these The spirit of the Jacobites had been cowed by the events conspirators. Atterbury, who wanted no kind of courage, of 1715. It revived in 1721. The failure of the South implored his confederates to proclaim James III., and Sea project, the panic in the money market, the downfall offered to accompany the heralds in lawn sleeves. But he of great commercial houses, the distress from which no found even the bravest soldiers of his party irresolute, part of the kingdom was exempt, had produced general and exclaimed, not, it is said, without interjections which discontent. It seemed not improbable that at such a ill became the mouth of a father of the church, that the moment an insurrection might be successful. An insurbest of all causes and the most precious of all moments had rection was planned. The streets of London were to be been pusillanimously thrown away. He acquiesced in barricaded; the Tower and the Bank were to be surprised; what he could not prevent, took the oaths to the House of King George, his family, and his chief captains and counHanover, and at the coronation officiated with the outward cillors were to be arrested, and King James was to be show of zeal, and did his best to ingratiate himself with proclaimed. The design became known to the duke of the royal family. But his servility was requited with Orleans, regent of France, who was on terms of friendship cold contempt. No creature is so revengeful as a proud with the House of Hanover. He put the English Governman who has humbled himself in vain. Atterbury became ment on its guard. Some of the chief malcontents were the most factious and pertinacious of all the opponents of committed to prison; and among them was Atterbury. the Government. In the House of Lords his oratory, No bishop of the Church of England had been taken into lucid, pointed, lively, and set off with every grace of pro- castody since that memorable day when the applauses and nunciation and of gesture, extorted the attention and prayers of all London had followed the seven bishops to admiration even of a hostile majority. Some of the most the gate of the Tower. The Opposition entertained some remarkable protests which appear in the journals of the hope that it might be possible to excite among the people peers were drawn up by him; and, in some of the bitterest an enthusiasm resembling that of their fathers, who rushed of those pamphlets which called on the English to stand into the waters of the Thames to implore the blessing of up for their country against the aliens who had come from Sancroft. Pictures of the heroic confessor in his cell were beyond the seas to oppress and plunder her, critics easily exhibited at the shop windows. Verses in his praise were detected his style. When the rebellion of 1715 broke out, sung about the streets. The restraints by which he was he refused to sign the paper in which the bishops of the prevented from communicating with his accomplices were province of Canterbury declared their attachment to the represented as cruelties worthy of the dungeons of the Protestant succession. He busied himself in electioneering, Inquisition. Strong appeals were made to the priesthood. especially at Westminster, where as dean he possessed Would they tamely permit so gross an insult to be offered great influence; and was, indeed, strongly suspected of to their cloth? Would they suffer the ablest, the most having once set on a riotous mob to prevent his Whig eloquent member of their profession, the man who had so fellow-citizens from pulling.

often stood up for their rights against the civil power, to VOL. III.-100

oe treated like the vilest of mankind? There was con- | the invitation. During some months, however, he might siderable excitement; but it was allayed by a temperate fatter himself that he stood high in the good graces and artful letter to the clergy, the work, in all probability, of James. The correspondence between the master of Bishop Gibson, who stood high in the favor of Walpole, and the servant was constant. Atterbury's merits were and shortly after became minister for ecclesiastical affairs. warmly acknowledged, his advice was respectfully re

Atterbury remained in close confinement during some ceived, and he was, as Bolingbroke had been before months. He had carried on his correspondence with the him, the prime minister of a king without a kingdom. exiled family so cautiously that the circumstantial proofs But the new favorite found, as Bolingbroke had found of his guilt, though sufficient to produce entire moral con- before him, that it was quite as hard to keep the shadow viction, were not sufficient to justify legal conviction. He of power under a vagrant and mendicant prince as to could be reached only by a bill of pains and penalties. keep the reality of power at Westminster. Though James Such a bill the Whig party, then decidedly predominant had neither territories nor revenues, neither army nor navy, in both houses, was quite prepared to support. Many hot- there was more faction and more intrigue among his headed members of that party were eager to follow the courtiers than among those of his successful rival. Atterprecedent which had been set in the case of Sir John bury soon perceived that his counsels were disregarded, if Fenwick, and to pass an act for cutting off the bishop's not distrusted. His proud spirit was deeply wounded. head. Cadogan, who commanded the army, a brave sol. He quitted Paris, fixed his residence at Montpellier, gave dier, but a headstrong politician, is said to have exclaimed up politics, and devoted himself entirely to letters. In the with great_vehemence, “Fling him to the lions in the sixth year of his exile he had so severe an illness that his Tower.” But the wiser and more humane Walpole was daughter, herself in very delicate health, determined to run always unwilling to shed blood, and his influence prevailed. all risks that she might see him once more. Having When Parliament met, the evidence against the bishop was obtained a license from the English Government, she went laid before committees of both Houses. Those committees by sea to Bordeaux, but landed there in such a state that reported that his guilt was proved. In the Commons a she could travel only by boat or in a litter. Her father, resolution pronouncing him a traitor was carried by nearly in spite of his infirmities

, set out from Montpellier to meet two to one. A bill was then introduced which provided her; and she, with the impatience which is often the sign that he should be deprived of his spiritual dignities, that of approaching death, hastened towards him. Those who he should be banished for life, and that no British subject were about her in vain implored her to travel slowly should hold any intercourse with him except by the royal She said that every hour was precious, that she only wished permission. This bill passed the Commons with little dif- to see her papa and to die. She met him at Toulouse, ficulty; for the bishop, though invited to defend himself, embraced him, received from his hand the sacred bread chose to reserve his defence for the assembly of which he and wine, and thanked God that they had passed one day was a member. In the Lords the contest was sharp. The in each other's society before they parted for ever. She young duke of Wharton, distinguished by his parts, his died that night. dissoluteness, and his versatility, spoke for Atterbury with It was some time before even the strong mind of Attergreat effect; and Atterbury's own voice was heard for the bury recovered from this cruel blow. As soon as he was last time by that unfriendly audience which had so often himself again he became eager for action and conflict; for listened to him with mingled aversion and delight. He grief, which disposes gentle natures to retirement, to inacproduced few witnesses, nor did those witnesses say much tion, and to meditation, only makes restless spirits more that could be of service to him. Among them was Pope. restless. The Pretender, dull and bigoted as he was, had He was called to prove that, while he was an inmate of the found out that he had 'not acted wisely in parting with palace at Bromley, the bishop's time was completely occu- one who, though a heretic, was, in abilities and accompied by literary and domestic matters, and that no leisure plishments, the foremost man of the Jacobite party. The was left for plotting. But Pope, who was quite unaccus- bishop was courted back, and was without much difficulty tomed to speak in public, lost his head, and, as he after- induced to return to Paris

, and to become once more the wards owned, though he had only ten words to say, made phantom minister of a phantom monarchy. But his long two or three blunders.

and troubled life was drawing to a close. To the last, The bill finally passed the Lords by eighty-three votes to however, his intellect retained all its keenness and vigor. forty-three. The bishops, with a single exception, were in He learned, in the ninth year of his banishment, that he the majority. Their conduct drew on them a sharp taunt had been accused by Oldmixon, as dishonest and malignant from Lord Bathurst, a warm friend of Atterbury and a a scribbler as any that has been saved from oblivion by zealous Tory. "The wild Indiang," he said, "give no the Dunciad, of having, in concert with other Christ quarter, because they believe that they shall inherit the Churchmen, garbled Clarendon's History of the Rebellion. skill and prowess of every adversary whom they destroy. The charge, as respected Atterbury, had not the slightest Perhaps the animosity of the right reverend prelates to foundation; for he was not one of the editors of the their brother may be explained in the same way.” History, and never saw it till it was printed. He pub

Atterbury took leave of those whom he loved with a lished a short vindication of himself, which is a model ia dignity and tenderness worthy of a better man. Three its kind, luminous, temperate, and dignified. A copy of fine lines of his favorite poet were often in his mouth- this little work he sent to the Pretender, with a letter Some natural tears he dropped, but wiped them soon:

singularly eloquent and graceful. It was impossible, the The world was all before him, where to chuse

old man said, that he should write anything on such a His place of rest, and Provideuce his guide."

subject without being reminded of the resemblance between

his own fate and that of Clarendon. They were the only At parting he presented Pope with a Bible, and said, two English subjects that had ever been banished from with a disingenuousness of which no man who had studied their country and debarred from all communication with the Bible to much purpose would have been guilty, “If their friends by Act of Parliament. But here the resem. ever you learn that I have any dealings with the Pretender, blance ended. One of the exiles had been so happy as to I give you leave to say that my punishment is just.” bear a chief part in the restoration of the royal house. All Pope at this time really believed the bishop to be an that the other could now do was to die asserting the rights injured man. Arbuthnot seems to have been of the same of that house to the last. A few weeks after this letter opinion. Swift, a few months later, ridiculed with great was written Atterbury died. He had just completed his bitterness, in the Voyage to Lapute, the evidence which seventieth year. had satisfied the two Houses of Parliament. Soon, how- His body was brought to England, and laid, with great ever, the most partial friends of the banished prelate ceased privacy, under the nave of Westminster Abbey. Only to assert his innocence, and contented themselves with three mourners followed the coffin. No inscription marks lamenting and excusing what they could not defend. After the grave. That the epitaph with which Pope honored a short stay at Brussels he had taken up his abode at Paris, the memory of his friend does not appear on the walls of and had become the leading man among the Jacobité the great national cemetery is no subject of regret, for refugees who were assembled there. He was invited to nothing worse was ever written by Colley Cibber. Rome by the Pretender, who then held his mock court

Those who wish for more complete information about Atterunder the immediate protection of the Pope. But Atterbury may easily collect it from his sermons and his controbury felt that a bishop of the Church of England would versial writings, from the report of the parliamentary proceedbe strangely out of place at the Vatican, and declined | ings against him, which will be found in the State Trials; from






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the five volumes of his correspondenoo, edited by Mr. Nichols, inhabitants; and when they had once taken to the sea, the and from the first volume of the Stuart papers, edited by Mr. string of neighboring islands, Ceos, Cythnos, and others, Glover. A very indulgent but a very interesting account of some of which lay within sight of their coasts, and from the bishop's political career will be found in Lord Stanhope's one to another of which it was possible to sail without valuable History of England.


losing sight of land, served to tempt them on to further ATTICA, the most famous district of ancient Greece, is enterprises. Similarly on land, the post it occupied bea triangular piece of ground projecting in a south-easterly tween Northern Greece and the Peloponnese materially direction into the Ægean Sea, the base line being formed influenced its relation to other states, both in respect of its by the continuous chain of Mounts Cithæron and Parnes, alliances, such as that with Thessaly, towards which counthe apex by the promontory of Sunium. It is washed on try it was drawn by mutual hostility to Bæotia, which lay

between them,--a friendship of great service to Athens, because it brought to her aid the Thessalian cavalry, an arm with which she herself was feebly provided; and also in respect of offensive combinations of other powers, as that between Thebes and Sparta, which

throughout an important part of Greek history were Rhamnus Aphidna

closely associated in their politics, through mutual

dread of their powerful neighbor. Elettera

The mountains of Attica, which form its


most characteristic feature, are to be re-
garded as a continuation of that chain which, starting

from Mount Tymphrestus at the southern extremity

of Pindus, passes through Phocis and Bæotia under

the well-known names of Parnassus and Helicon;


from this proceeds the range which, as Cithæron in

its western and Parnes in its eastern portion, separates Salamisa

o Sphettus

Attica from Boeotia, throwing off spurs southward towards the Saronic Gulf in Ægaleos and Hymettus, which bound the plain of Athens. Again, the east

ern extremity of Parnes is joined by another line of ( (Lampra sop

hills, which, separating froin Mount Eta, skirts the Apagyrus Prasia

Euboic Gulf, and, after entering Attica, throws up the

lofty pyramid of Pentelicus, overlooking the plain of Lampra iof.

Marathon, and then sinks towards the sea at Sunium

to rise once more in the outlying islands. Finally, at Agilia

the extreme west of the whole district, Cithæron is bent round at right angles in the direction of the

isthmus, at the northern approach to which it abuts Thoricus

against the mighty mass of Mount Geraneia, which Layriun

is interposed between the Corinthian and the Saronic Gulf. The elevation reached by some of these is con

siderable, both Cithæron and Parnes being about 4600 Sketch-Map of Attica.

feet, Hymettus 3360, and Pentelicus 2560, while Æga

leos does not rise higher than 1536 feet. At the present two sides by the sea, and this feature seems to have given , day they are extremely bare, and to one who is accustomed rise to the name; for, notwithstanding the unusual letter- to Italian scenery, their severity is apt at first to be almost change, 'Artih probably stands for 'Aktih, since Strabo repellent; but after a time the eye is delighted with the deland other ancient writers inform us that the country origi- icacy of the outlines, the minute articulation of the minor nally bore both this name and that of 'Arth. The latter ridges and valleys, and the symmetrical way in which nadesignation was frequently used by the Greeks to describe ture has grouped the several mountains so as to form a an extensive tract reaching into the sea, especially when, balance between them. The appearance thus produced can. as in the case of Attica and the Argolic Acte, it was joined be best described as classical. to the continent by a broad base. The coast is broken up The soil of Attica is light and thin, and re

Soil. into numerous small bights and harbors, which, however, quires very careful agriculture to develop its are with few exceptions exposed to the south wind; the produce. This feature belongs not only to the rocky irregularity of the outline accounts for its great length in mountain sides, but to some extent also to the maritime comparison of the superficial area of the country. The plains, and had considerable influence on the development surface of Attica, as of the rest of Greece, is very moun- of the inhabitants, both by enforcing industrious habits, tainous, and between the mountain chains lie several plains and in leading them at an early period to take to the sea. of no great size, open on one side to the sea. On the west Still, the level ground was sufficiently fertile to form a its natural boundary is the Corinthian Gulf, so that it marked contrast to the rest of the district, and this fact is would include the district of Megaris; and, as a matter of represented in the mythical genealogy of the early kings, fact, before the Dorian invasion, which resulted in the which embodies several geographical features. Thus, while foundation of Megara, the whole of this country was po- first we find the name of Actæus or Actæon, who represents litically one, being in the hands of the Ionian race. This theárth or sea-coast, later on occurs Cranaus, a personification is proved by the column which, as we learn from Strabo, of the rocky ground, whence both Pindar and Aristophanes once stood on the Isthmus of Corinth, bearing on one side apply the epithet kpavaai to Athens; and further we meet the inscription, “This land is Peloponnesus, not Ionia”. with Erichthonius, whose name is intended to express the τάδ' έστι Πελοπόννησος, ούκ Ιωνία

fruitful plains. Thucydides attributes to the nature of the

thin soil (i. 2, TÒ NETTóyewv), which presented no attracand on the other, “This land is not Peloponnesus, but tion to invaders, the permanence of the same inhabitants lonia"

in the country, whence arose the claim to indigenousness τάδ' ουχί Πελοπόννησος, αλλ' Ιωνία.

on which the Athenians so greatly prided themselves;

while at the same time the richer ground fostered that The central position of Attica in Greece was fondness for country life, which is proved by the enthusiasCentral position.

one main cause of its historical importance. tic terms in which it is always spoken of by Aristophanes,

When K.O. Müller compares Greece to a body, and by the discontent of the people of Attica at being whose members are different in form, while a mutual con- forced to betake themselves to the city at the commencenection and dependence naturally exist between them, he ment of the Peloponnesian War. That we are not jusspeaks of Attica as one of the extremities which served as tified in judging of the ancient condition of the soil by the active instruments the body of Greece, and by the aridity which prevails at the present day, is shown which it was kept in constant connection with other coun- by the fact that out of the 174 demes into which Attica was tries. Hence in part arose the maritime character of its | divided, at least one-tenth were named from trees or plants.




Plain of


But whatever drawbacks the people of Attica | the neighboring deme of Acharnæ to be famous for its

experienced in respect of the soil were more charcoal--the åvipakec Mapvhoto of the Acharnians of then compensated by the fineness of the climate. In this Aristophanes (348). It was the thymy slopes of Hymettus, point they enjoyed a great advantage over their neighbors too, from which came the famous Hymettian

Minerals. the Bæotians; and while at the present day travellers honey. Among the other products we must speak of the excessive heat in summer and cold in winter notice the marble—both that of Pentelicus, which afforded which they have experienced in Boeotia, Attica has always a material of unrivalled purity and whiteness for building been famous for its mildness. In approaching this district the Athenian temples, and the blue marble of Hymettusfrom the north, a change of temperature is felt as soon as a the trabes Hymettic of Horace—which used to be transperson descends from Cithæron or Parnes, and the sea ported to Rome for the construction of palaces. But the breeze, which in modern times is called ó éußárns, or that richest of all the sources of wealth in Attica was the silver which sets towards shore, moderates the heat in summer. mines of Laureium, the yield of which was so considerable Both the Attic comedians and Plato speak with enthu- as to render silver the principal medium of exchange in siasm of their native climate, and the fineness of the Athe- Greece, so that “a silver piece” (6pyúplov) was the Greek nian intellect was attributed to the clearness of the Attic equivalent term for money. Hence Eschylus speaks of atmosphere. It was in the neighborhood of Athens itself the Athenians as possessing a "fountain of silver" (Pers., that the air was thought to be purest. This is what Eu- 235), and Aristophanes makes his chorus of birds promise ripides refers to in the well-known passage where he de- the audience that, if they show him favor, owls from Lauscribes the inhabitants as "ever walking gracefully through reium, i.e., silver pieces with the emblem of Athens, shall he most luminous æther” (Med., 829); and Milton, who never fail them (Av., 1106). In Strabo's time, though the is always an admirable exponent of Greek literature, in mines had almost ceased to yield, silver was obtained in like manner says

considerable quantities from the scoriæ; and at the present “Where, on the Ægean shore, a city stands,

day a large amount of lead is obtained in the same way, Built nobly, pure the air, and light the soil,

the value of what was exported in 1869 having been Athens, the eye of Greece."

£177,000 sterling.

Having thus noticed the general features of Thus it is hardly hyperbole in Xenophon to say one the country, let us proceed to examine it some- General would not err in thinking that this city is placed near the what more in detail. It has been already men

descripcentre of Greece-nay, of the civilized world, -because, the tioned that the base line is formed by the chain farther removed persons are from it, the severer is the cold of Cithæron and Parnes, running from west to east; and or heat they meet with” (Vectigal., į. 6). To the clearness that from this transverse chains run southward, dividing of the atmosphere must be referred the distinctness with Attica into a succession of plains. The westernmost of which distant objects can be discerned, for from the Acrop- these, which is separated from the innermost olis the lines of white marble that streak the sides of bay of the Corinthian Gulf, called the Mare

Megara. Pentelicus are visible, and also the brilliant coloring Alcyonium, by an offshoot of Cithæron, and is which is so conspicuous in an Athenian sunset. Thus bounded on the east by a ridge which ends towards the Dean Stanley speaks of “the flood of fire with which the Saronic Gulf in a striking two-horned peak called Kerata, marble columns, the mountains, and the sea are all bathed is the plain of Megara. It is only for geographical purand penetrated; "the violet hue which Hymettus assumes poses that we include this district under Attica, for both in the evening sky, in contrast to the glowing furnace of the Dorian race of the inhabitants, and its dangerous pros the rock of Lycabettus, and the rosy pyramia of Pentelicus." imity to Athens, caused it to be at perpetual feud with that And M. Bursian says-"Amongst the most beautiful nat-city; but its position as an outpost for the Peloponnesians, ural scenes that I have beheld I reckon the sight or Hymet-together with the fact of its having once been Ionian soil

, tus from Athens at sunset, whilst the entire range, as soon sufficiently explains the bitter hostility of the Athenians as the sun begins to sink, quivers with the loveliest rosy towards the Megarians. The great importance of Megara red, which gradually passes through the most varied gra- arose from its commanding all the passes into the Pelopondations into the deepest violet. No one who has not en- These were three in number: one along the shores joyed this spectacle can understand the purpureos colles of the Corinthian Gulf, which, owing to the nature of the florentis Hymetti of Ovid.” This otherwise perfect climate ground, makes a long detour; the other two starting from is slightly marred by the prevalence of the north wind. Megara, and passing, the one by a lofty though gradual This is expressed on the Horologium of Antonius Cyr- route over the ridge of Geraneia, the other along the rhestes, called the Temple or Tower of the Winds, at Saronic Gulf, under the dangerous precipices of the SciroAthens, where Boreas is represented as a bearded man of nian rocks. The town of Megara, which was built on and stern aspect, thickly clad, and wearing strong buskins; he between two low hills rising out of the plain rather more blows into a conch shell, which he holds in his hand as a than a mile from the sea, had the command of both gulfs sign of his tempestuous character. This also explains the by means of its two ports--that of Pegæ on the Corinthian, close connection between him and this country in myth- and that of Nicæa on the Saronic. The necessities of the ology, especially in the legend of Orithyia, who is the case occasionally brought the Megarians and their powerful daughter of the Cephisus, thus representing the mists that neighbors together; for the former greatly depended on rise from the streams, and whom he carries off with him Athens for their supplies, as we see from their famished and makes his wife. One of their offspring is called Chione, state, as described by Aristophanes in the Acharnians (729 or the Snow Maiden.

seq.), when excluded from the ports and markets of that When we turn to the vegetation of Attica, the country, Vegetation,

olive first calls for our attention. This tree, we To the east of the plain of Megara lies that

learn from Herodotus (v. 82), was thought at of Eleusis, bounded on the one side by the Eleusis. one time to have been found in that country only; and the chain of Kerata, and on the other by that of enthusiastic praises of Sophocles (Ed. Col., 700) teach us Ægaleos, through a depression in which was the line of that it was the land in which it flourished best. So great the sacred way, where the torchlight processions from was the esteem in which it was held, that in the early Athens used to descend to the coast, the “brightly-gleaming legend of the struggle between the gods of sea and land, shores” (naprádeg åktai) of Sophocles (Ed. Col.

, 1049); Poseidon and Athena, for the patronage of the country, Here a deep bay runs into the land, opposite to which, and the sea-god is represented as having to retire vanquished separated from it by a strait, which forms a succession of before the giver of the olive; and at a later period the graceful curves, was the rocky island of Salamis, at all evidences of this contention were found in an ancient olive times an important possession to the Athenians on account tree in the Acropolis, together with three holes in the rock, of its proximity to their city. The scene of the battle of said to have been made by the trident of Poseidon, and to Salamis was the narrowest part of this channel, where the be connected with a salt well hard by. The fig also found island approaches the extremity of Ægaleos; and it was on its favorite home in this country, for Demeter was said to the last declivities of that mountain that, have bestowed it as a gift on the Eleusinian Phytalus, i.e.,

- A king sate on the rocky brov “the gardener.” Both Cithæron and Parnes must have

Which looks o'er sea-born Salamis.”. been wooded in former times; for on the former are laid the picturesque silvan scenes in the Bacchie of Euripides, The eastern portion of this plain was called the Thriasiap and it was from the latter that the wood came which caused plain, and the city of Eleusis was situated in the recesses


Plain of


of the bay. The coast-line of this part, between the ground, formiug the acropolis of the town of Piræeus, sanctuary of Poseidon at the isthmus, which was originally which was once separated from the mainland; for Strabo Ionian, and Athens, is the principal scene of the achieve (i. 3, & 18) speaks of it as having been formerly an island. ments of Theseus, a hero who holds the same relation to On one side of this, towards Hymettus, lay the open roadthe Ionians of Greece proper as Hercules does to the stead of Phalerum, on the other the harbor of Piraeus, a Greeks at large, viz., that of being the great author of completely land-locked inlet, safe, deep, and spacious, the improvements in the country. In this instance his feats approach to which was still further narrowed by moles. seem to describe the establishment of a safe means of The eastern side of the hill was further indented by two communication. On the isthmus itself he destroys the small but commodious havens, which were respectively monster Sidis, the “ravager," otherwise called Pityocamptes, called Zea and Munychia. or the “pine-bender,” which names imply that he is the The north-eastern boundary of the plain of

Eastern embodiment of a violent wind, though the legend grew up Athens is formed by the graceful pyramid of

Attica. that he fastened his victims to the bent branches of two Pentelicus, which received its name from the pines, by the rebound of which they were torn in sunder. deme of Pentele at its foot, but was far more commonly His next exploit is near Crommyon, where he destroys a known as Brilessus, in ancient times. This mountain did wild sow, called Phæa, or “the dusky," which probably not form a continuous chain with Hymettus, for between means that he checked a torrent, since violent water- them intervenes a level space of ground two miles in width, courses are often represented by that animal in Greek which formed the entrance to the Mesogæa, an elevated mythology. Then follows the struggle with the brigand undulating plain in the midst of the mountains, reaching Sciron, who signifies the dangerous wind, which blows with nearly to Sunium. At the extremity of Hymettus, where such violence in this district that at Athens the north-west it projects into the Saronic Gulf, was the promontory of wind received the name of Sciron from the neighboring Zoster, or “the Girdle,” which was so called because it Scironian rocks; the pass, which skirts the sea at the base girdles and protects the neighboring harbor; but in conof the cliffs, is now known by the ill-omened title of Kake sequence of the name, a legend was attached to it, to the Scala, and is still regarded as a perilous transit. Finally, effect that Latona had loosed her girdle there. From this between Eleusis and Athens, Theseus overcomes Procrustes, promontory to Sunium there runs a lower line of moun. or "the racker,” who apparently represents the dangers of tains, and between these and the sea a fertile strip of land the pass between Eleusis and Athens, now called Daphne; intervenes, which was called the Paralia. Beyond Sufor the ridge of Mount Ægaleos hard by was in ancient nium, on the eastern coast, were two safe ports, that of times called Corydallus, and this, we are told by Diodorus Thoricus, which is defended by the island of Helene, (iv. 59), was the scene of the contest.

forming a natural breakwater in front of it, and that of Next in order to the plain of Eleusis came Prasiæ, now called Porto Raphti, or “the Tailor,” from a Plain of

that of Athens, which is the most extensive of statue at the entrance to which the natives have given that

all, reaching from the foot of Parnes to the sea, name. But it still remains to mention the most famous and bounded on the west by Ægaleos, and on the east by spot of ground in Attica, the little plain of Marathon, Hymettus. Its most conspicuous feature is the broad line which lay in the north-east corner, encircled on three sides of dark green along its western side, formed by the olive by Parnes and Pentelicus, while the fourth faces the sea groves of Colonus and the gardens of the Academus, and the opposite coast of Eubea. It was on the mountain which owe their fertility to the waters of the Cephisus, slopes that the Greeks were stationed, while the Persians by which they are irrigated. This river is fed by copious with their ships occupied the coast; and on the two sides sources on the side of Mount Parnes, and thus, unlike the the marshes may still be traced by which the movements other rivers of Attica, has a constant supply of water; of the invader's host were impeded. The mound, which but it does not reach the sea, nor did it apparently in clas- at once attracts the eye in the centre of the level plain, is sical times, having been diverted, then as now, into the probably the burial-place of the Athenians who fell in the neighboring plantations; for this is what Sophocles means battle. The bay in front is sheltered by Euboea, and is when he speaks of “the sleepless fountains of Cephisus, still more protected from the north by a projecting tongue which stray forth from their channels” (Ed. Col.

, 685 seq.). of land, called Cynosura. The mountains in the neighThe position of Colonus itself is marked by two bare borhood were the seat of one of the political parties in knolls of light-colored earth, which caused the poet in Attica, the Diacrii or Hyperacrii, who, being poor mounthe same chorus to apply the epithet “white”. (ápyíra) to taineers, and having nothing to lose, were the principal that place. On the opposite side of the plain runs the advocates of change; while, on the other hand, the Pedieis, other river, the Ilissus, which rises from a beautiful foun- or inhabitants of the plains, being wealthy landholders, tain in Mount Hymettus, and skirts the eastern extremity formed the strong conservative element, and the Parali, or of the city of Athens; but this, notwithstanding its celeb- occupants of the sea-coast, representing the mercantile inrity, is a mere brook, which stands in pools a great part terest, held an intermediate position between the two. of the year, and in summer is completely dry. The situa- Finally, there was one district of Attica, that lay without tion of Athens relatively to the surrounding objects is its natural boundaries, the territory of Oropus, which propsingularly harmonious; for, while it forms a central point, erly belonged to Baotia, as it was situated to the north so as to be the eye of the plain, and while the altar-rock of Parnes; but on this the Athenians always endeavorea of the Acropolis and the hills by which it is surrounded to retain a firm hold, because it facilitated their communi are conspicuous from every point of view, there is no such cations with Eubea. The command of that island was of exactness in its position as to give formality, since it is the utmost importance to them; for, if Ægina could rightly nearer to the sea than to Parnes, and nearer to Hymettus be called “the eyesore of the Piræeus,” Eubea was quite as than to Ægaleos. The most striking summit in the neigh- truly a thorn in the side of Attica; for we learn from Deborhood of the city is that of Lycabettus, now Mount St. mosthenes (De Cor., p. 307) that at one period the pirates George, on the north-eastern side; and the variety is still that made it their headquarters so infested the neighboring further increased by the continuation of the ridge which sea as to prevent all navigation. it forms for some distance northwards through the plain. Of the condition of Attica in mediæval and Three roads lead to Athens from the Bæotian frontier over modern times little need be said, for it has fol. the intervening mountain barrier--the easternmost over lowed for the most part the fortunes of Athens. Parnes, from Delium and Oropus by Deceleia, which was The population, however, has undergone a great change, the usual route of the invading Lacedæmonians during independently of the large admixture of Slavonic blood the Peloponnesian War; the westernmost over Cithæron, that has affected the Greeks of the mainland generally, by by the pass of Dryoscephalæ, or the “Oakheads,” leading the immigration of Albanian colonists, who now occupy a from Thebes by Platæa to Eleusis, and so to Athens, great part of the country. The most important of the which we hear of in connection with the battle of Platæa, classical ruins that remain outside Athens are those of the and with the escape of the Platæans at the time of the temple of Athena at Sunium, which form a conspicuous siege of that city in the Peloponnesian War; the third, object as they surmount the headland, and gave rise to the midway between the two, by the pass of Phyle, near the name which it bore, until lately, of Cape Colonnæ; it is summit of which, on a rugged height overlooking the in the Doric style, of white marble, and 13 columns of the Athenian piain, is the fort occupied by Thrasybulus in the temple and a pilaster are now standing. At Eleusis the days of the Thirty Tyrants. On the sea-coast to the south- foundations of the propylæa of the great temple of Demeter west of Athens rises the hill of Munychia, a mass of rocky I and other buildings have been laid bare by excavation; at

Present condition

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