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THENS ('AOñval, ATHENE) was the name of as many tain of Callirrhoe, afterwards ornamented by the PisistraAmong which Athena Diades, in the N.W. of Euboea, a for sacred purposes long after the city had outgrown these town belonging to the Athenian confederation, is worthy of early limits (Thucyd., ii. 15). The region we have been mention. But it was the capital of Attica which invested describing formed the nucleus of the later city, and therethe name of Athens with an undying charm for the poet, fore, at the subdivision of all Attica into demes, this quarter the artist, the philosopher, the historian, for all time. It was distinguished by the name Kudabhacov. is situated in long. 238 44' E., lat. 37° 58' N., towards the To the west of the Acropolis there extends from N. to south of the central plain (Tediov) of Attica, about 41 miles S. a range of hills, the three most prominent heights of from the harbor of Piræeus, and nearly 4 from the Bay of which are commonly known respectively as the Hill of the Phalerum. The survey of Pausanias (i. 2-30), when com- Nymphs, the Pnyx, and the Museium, the Nymphs' Hill pared with existing remains, and supplemented by the nu- being separated from the Acropolis by the Areopagus, merous incidental notices of ancient authors, enables us to which intervenes between. Everywhere upon form a more perfect conception of the topography of ancient the slopes of the hills just mentioned traces have
dwellings. Athens than of any other Greek city. Recent excavations lately been discovered of ancient dwellings hewn have added greatly to our knowledge of it, and the litera- out of the solid rock. But while all these rock-dwellings ture of the subject is very extensive (see p. 12, infra). Our are extremely ancient, yet some appear less primitive than object in this article will be to treat of the topography of others; it is remarked that those which exist on the AreAthens from an historical point of view, and to show how opagus and on the hill-sides nearest to the Acropolis are the rise, the greatness, the decline of the city may be read of a smaller and ruder type, those more distant from the in the history of its buildings.
citadel being somewhat more convenient in plan and exThere seems little reason to doubt that the tent. Legend declares the Athenians to have originally Earliest
earliest settlement on Athenian soil was upon the dwelt in rock-hewn caves (Dyer's Athens, ch. i.), and it on the
cliff afterward famous as the Acropolis. Such would seem that primitive Athens gradually extended itself Acropolis. is the express statement of Thucydides (ii. 15), from the Acropolis in this W. and S.W. direction. This
whọ observes that the Acropolis was commonly quarter was afterwards known as the intramural deme of termed at Athens 1 Tones, much as the oldest part of Lon- Melite, a name derived, perhaps, from the balm which then don is styled “The City.” The earliest inhabitants appear grew there (the eubons uehitela of Theocr., iv. 25). The to have been Pelasgians; and though it was the boast of historian E. Curtius (Attische Studien, pt. i.) has, indeed, the Athenians that they alone of all Greek states were in- gone so far as to regard these rock-dwellings as earlier than digenous (avtoxdoves), yet their town would from the first the occupation of the Acropolis itself. But the contrary have received accessions from various parts of the conti- opinion of Thucydides is worth something, and the natural nent, the peaceful poverty of Attica affording a welcome strength of the Acropolis would make it the most obvious refuge in those early and unsettled times (Thucyd., i. 2). spot for primitive occupation. Accordingly, we shall not The most accessible portion of the Acropolis is the western be giving too free a license to our imagination if we conside, where it is joined by a neck of hill to the Areopagus.ceive of primitive Athens as a twofold settlement, partly on On this side there existed down to later times the remains the Acropolis and the low ground at its southern foot, and of fortifications built by the earliest inhabitants, with nine partly upon the eastern slopes of the hills on the west. It doorways, one within the other, called tò lledao yıkov, or to may even have been the consolidation of these two villages 'Evveátvior. This fort protected the only entrance to the into one township that gave rise to the legend ascribing to citadel, which was surrounded by a wall, and artificially Theseus the ovvolklouos or consolidation of Atlevelled for the reception of buildings. Within this forti- tica. It would be natural for legend to assign Thesean fied enclosure stood the shrine of Athena Polias (Homer, to one definite time, and connect with one great peos. Iliad, ii. 449; Odyssey, vii. 81)-afterwards known as the mythical name, that process of unification which Erechtheium, -and an altar of Zeus Polieus, where the probably was as gradual as it was spontaneous. As the strange sacrifices of the Dipolia were celebrated. A Pry- population of the early town continued to increase, two taneium, containing the hearth-fire of the state, and sery- more districts seem to have been incorporated-Collytus, ing as the residence of the king, would be another indis- extending from the east of Melite, between the Acropolis pensable feature in the primitive town. But while the king and Areopagus, and Cerameicus, or the “Potters' quarter” and some of the most sacred families probably had dwell- |(“Tuileries"), which extended from the same two hills to ings within the fortress itself
, Thucydides (ii. 15) points out wards the north and north-west. The regions we have now that a great part of the early population dwelt outside its described appear to have made up the Athens of Solonian walls, under the south side of the cliff, probably without times. The earliest historical event which illustrates Athefortification, but retiring to the citadel'in times of peril. nian topography is the rising of Cylon (Herod., v.71; ThuIn this quarter, towards the Ilissus, stood the oldest Athe-cyd., i. 126; Pausan., i. 28). The narratives of that event nian sanctuary of Dionysus, in a region called Aiuvai, imply that the Acropolis was already fortified by the Enfrom having been literally á marsh in early times. Not
1 Many of the names of the Attic demes, and indeed of Greek far off, and nearer the stream, stood the temple of Zeus local names everywhere, were derived from plants and flowers ; see Olympius, said to be founded by Deucalion (Pausan., i. 18), Tozer's Lectures on the Geography of Greece, p. 338: "The most plausiof which more will be said presently, the precinct of Gæa ble derivation that has been suggested for the name Aeqvai is from Olympia, and other sacred places. Here also was the foun. I am the root of voor a flower; and Lobeck proposed to translate it
ean age. The Pelas.
neapylum, that the Areopagus was already the seat of the quarter of which was naturally the Agora itself; and so it court which bore its name (see AREOPAGUS), and that near was common to speak of the Agora as “The Cerameicus."
the entrance of the citadel stood an altar of the How much this market-place may have owed to the designs Altar of the Semnæ.
Semnæ, or Furies, at which Cylon and his par of the Pisistratids we cannot now determine. The statues
tisans wore slain.' This altar has been immor- of Harmodius and Aristogiton formed a conspicuous ornatalized by Æschylus in the splendid conclusion of the ment of the south portion, and Thucydides (vi. 54) informe Eumenides. Another sacred spot in early Athens must us that the grandson and namesake of Pisistratus adorned Leocorium.
have been the Leocorium, wh Hipparchus the Agora by building the altar of the twelve gods. If
was assassinated (Thucyd., i. 20; vi. 57). This the Agora belongs to the age of Pisistratus, some of the was a shrine erected in honor of the daughters of Leo, who civic buildings within it would also be coeval with him. were sacrificed by their father to Athena, in order to avert Such were the Stoa Basileius, or Portico, where the archon a pestilence. The nature of the legend testifies to the an- basileius presided; the Bouleuterium, where the senate of tiquity of the site. The words of Thucydides respecting 500 held its sittings; the Tholus close by it, where the
Cylon imply that the early city was already Prytanes of the senate sacrificed-a circular building with Early city surrounded by a ring-wall, and this probably a dome of stone, from whence it gained its name; and the
remained intact until the invasion of the Per- Prytaneium, said to be founded by Theseus (Thucyd., ii. sians, although the buildings within the walls underwent 15), which contained the hearth-fire of the state, and where great alteration and improvements under the government the Prytanes and public benefactors had the privilege of of Pisistratus and his sons.
dining at the public expense. The statues of the ten heroes The reign of the Pisistratids was recognized (eponymi) who gave their names to the Athenian tribes by the ancients as marking an important era in decorated the Agora probably from the first; against these
Athenian topography. We have already men- statues were affixed public notices and proclamations. tioned the fountain of Enneacrunus as being built by them. Other buildings in the Agora of later and ascertained dates Olympium.
It was Pisistratus who laid the foundations of will be enumerated in their proper place.
Clisthenancient site above mentioned. His magnificent design had tids (510 B.C.), and gave Athens a free governan eventful history: left unfinished by its author, the ment, left its mark upon the topography of the Athenians, perhaps from dislike to the " tyrant,” made no city. The old Pelasgic fortress (To 'Evveátvov),
gicum. effort to complete it. At length, after receiving additions in which the tyrants” had for a time held out, from various foreign princes, it was completed by Hadrian was now broken down, and the site occupied by its ruins (c. 130 A.D.), and formed the grandest edifice in the region was devoted by the Delphic oracle to eternal desolation. of the city which, in acknowledgment of the imperial Only in the Peloponnesian war, when the country populamunificence, was called Hadrianopolis. The Olympium tion was crowded within the city walls, do we read of this was one of the largest temples in the world; but of its 124 spot being occupied by dwellings (Thucyd., ii. 17). AnPythium.
Corinthian columns only 15 are now standing. other work which may probably be assigned to the age of
The Pnya. Apollo, near the Olympium, was also ascribed to Pisis- or place of public assembly. The hill that is tratus, whose grandson and namesake dedicated an altar commonly known as the Pnyx Hill contains one of the within it (Thucyd., vi. 54). To Pisistratus was ascribed most remarkable ruins in Athens; the silence, however, Lyceium.
the founding of the Lyceium, or temple of of Pausanias respecting what was probably in his day
Apollo Lyceius, which stood on the right bank already a mere ruin has occasioned some doubt concerning of the Ilissus, a short distance from the city. The names its proper identification. The spot in question consists of both of Pericles and Lycurgus the orator are also associ- two terraces sloping down the hill towards the Areopagus, ated with this building; yet it is not known who added the from $.W. to N.E. The upper terrace, indeed, does not gymnasium close by, which afterwards became famous as slope, but is levelled out of the solid rock near the summit the favorite haunt of Aristotle, and the birthplace of the of the hill, being about 65 yards in length (E. to W.), and Peripatetic philosophy. The yet more famous seat of the about 43 in breadth at its broadest part (N. to S.). It rival philosophy seems also to have owed something to the is bounded at the back (S.) by a rock-wall, and at the W. Pisistratids, for Hipparchus was said to have enclosed the end there stands a cubical block, allowed to rise out of the Academy.
Academy with a wall. This was a gymnasium solid rock when this upper terrace was leveled. There is
surrounded by pleasant gardens lying to the N. good reason for considering this as the altar for the sacriof the city, about a mile from the Dipylum gate. It owes fices (tà nepiotia) with which every assembly of the eccleall its fame, of course, to its connection with Plato, who sia was opened (Bursian, Philologus, 1854, p. 369, foll.; lived, taught, and was buried there. This site, so full of Dyer, Athens, p. 462). The lower and considerably larger glorious memories, cannot now be identified with certainty. terrace is separated from the upper terrace by another wall Its trees, like those of the Lyceium, were despoiled by cut out of the solid rock. This wall, which is nearly 126 The Agora.
Sulla to make implements of war. The name yards long, is not quite straight, but encroaches slightly
of Pisistratus_is connected with another im- upon the upper terrace, and forms at the centre a very obportant site. Professor E. Curtius (Attische Studien, pt. tuse angle. At this point there rises, projecting from the 2) supposes that the most ancient Athenian market lay on wall, a large cubical mass, cut out of the solid rock, resem. the s. of the Acropolis, and that the Pisistratids superseded bling somewhat, though on a larger scale, the altar described it by a new market at the northern foot of the Areopagus. above. It is itself 11 feet square and 5 feet high, and stands Be this as it may, we are sure that, as early as their times, on a platform consisting of three very massive steps. This this site formed the centre of Athenian commercial and remarkable monument has been recognized by tradition as civic life. The narrow valley between the Pnyx Hill and the oxáha Tou Anucodéveos, and almost every traveller since the Areopagus, where older topographers placed the Chandler's time has regarded it as no other than the famous Agora, is not a spacious enough site for the purpose. The bema of the ancient Athenian assembly. The rock-wall obvious locality for an Agora would be the rectangular from which it projects forms the chord of a vast semicirspace enclosed by the Areopagus on the s., by the cular space, the enclosure of its arc being a wall of “CycloAcropolis on the E., and on the W. by the eminence pean” masonry. The radius of the semicircle measures occupied by the Theseium. To the N. and N.E. no barrier between 76 and 77 yards from this outer wall to the bema. existed; accordingly, the entrance was from the Dipylum Here, then, was the auditorium of the Pnyx. But several gate on the N.W., and on the N.E. the market received difficulties beset the identification. Towards the bottom of extension in Roman times. The Agora thus stood in the the lower bema Prof. E. Curtius (Attische Studien, pt. i.) has region known as Cerameicus. But as the Cerameicus discovered another similar though smaller bema. Again, extended for some miles in a N.W. direction, it became Plutarch asserts that the bema which had originally faced
divided by the city wall into the outer and the towards the sea was by the Thirty Tyrants turned round unter der inner Cerameicus. The outer Cerameicus was the other way, in their hatred of the maritime democracy.
and meicus. an agreeable suburb, lying on the road to the Moreover, if the block of marble above mentioned be rightly
Academy and Colonus, the home of Sophocles; identified as the bema, then it would have the auditorium and it was here that citizens who died in their country's sloping downwards from it, an arrangement ill suited for wars received a public burial. Through gate Dipylum addressing a tumultuous popular assembly. Dr. Curtis one passed into the inner Cerameicus, the most important I accordingly pronounces the entire identification to be a mis.
take, and would regard this spot as a primitive precinct | founder of the greatness of Athens, the works and embeland rock-altar of the Most High Zeus. It would not be lishments carried out by Pericles being only a fulfilment difficult, if space allowed, to disprove Dr. Curtius's theory of the far-sighted aims of Themistocles. Thucydides (ii. Far more reasonable is the view of Dr. Dyer (Athens, App. 13) makes the circuit of the city wall to be 43 stades (about ii.). He thinks that the lower and smaller bema discov- 54 miles), exclusive of the unguarded space between walls ; ered by Dr. Curtius was the bema of Clisthenes, which did this is found to correspond accurately enough with the ex (however much Plutarch's statement is discredited by his isting remains. In tracing the circuit of the ancient walls, own absurd explanation) face in the direction of the sea. we may take our start from the N.W. side of the city, at the The orator would thus speak from the arc of the semicircle, one gate whose site is absolutely certain, the Thriasian gate having the audience above him. The Thirty may well (called also the Sacred gate, as opening upon the sacred have defaced the Pnya, and it would have been natural for way to Eleusis, and also to "Aitvkov, as consisting of two Thrasybulus after the anarchy to restore it on a large scale, gates, perhaps one within the other), which is marked by hewing out what is still known as the bema, giving the semi- the modern church of the Holy Trinity, a little N. of the circular wall a wider sweep, and raising the tiers of seats bottom of Hermes Street-a spot attractive to the modern at least to a level with the new bema, if not above it. For tourist through the beautiful_"street of tombs" here laid there is no reason to suppose that the surface of the lower bare by recent excavations. From the Thriasian gate the terrace has undergone no change in the lapse of centuries, wall of Themistocles ran due E. for some distance; thence, or that the “Cyclopean” wall surrounding it never ex- skirting the modern theatre, it ran N.E. parallel to the ceeded its present height.
modern Piraeus Street as far as the Bank, when it returned A building of greater architectural import- in a 8.E. direction across the site of the present Mint, as The Dionysiac theatre
ance and of equal interest belongs to this same far as the Chamber of Deputies. Thence towards the S.E.
period. Dramatic performances at Athens orig- it included nearly all the modern Royal Gardens, and then inally took place in wooden theatres extemporized for the ran S.W., following the zig-zag of the hills above the north occasion; but the fall of one of these led, in the year 500 bank of the Ilissus, until westwards by a straight course B.C., to the erection of the marble theatre on a site already parallel with the Acropolis it reached the Museium Hill. consecrated to Dionysus as the Lenæum, upon the S.E. Thence it may be traced in a direction N.W. and N., folslope of the Acropolis. (Suidas, 8. v. IIparivas.). We may lowing more or less the contour of the hills, until we return be sure that the first stone theatre was comparatively sim- to our starting-point at the Dipylum gate. Eight
Gates. ple in construction, consisting of a koihov or auditorium, other gates (exclusive of wickets, Tviides, which with tiers of rock-hewn seats, and an opxnorpá, or space must have existed) are mentioned by ancient authorsfor the chorus, while the stage itself and its furniture were the Piræan, Hippades, Melitides, Itonian, Diomeian, Dioof wood. The excavation of the Dionysiac theatre in 1862 charis, Panopis, and Acharnian. Their exact sites cannot has made every one familiar with the row of marble thrones be certainly fixed, but some of them may be determined for the various priests and officers of state, the elaborate within narrow limits, such as the Piræan gate, which led masonry of the stage, the orchestra floor, and other features. out of the Agora, and opened upon the long walls. HavBut these and other interesting decorations of the theatre ing completed the defences of the city proper, among which belong to a later age. It was under the administration of must be included the building of the north wall of the Lycurgus the orator (337 B.c.) that the building was first Acropolis (Dyer, p. 121), Themistocles proceeded to fortify really completed; and many of the sculptures which have the Piræeus. been lately brought to light belong to a restoration of the Athens, like most of the old Greek towns, was
Pirseus theatre in the 2d, or perhaps even in the 3d, century A.D.1 built, for greater security, at a distance from the Enough has now been said of the condition of Athens coast, and only when more settled times brought buildings.
before the Persian War. It was surrounded by a her greater prosperity was a harbor formed at Thesean vall.
ring-wall of narrow circuit, some doubtful traces the nearest bay of Phaleruni, near the modern church of
of which are supposed to remain. At its centre St. George. It is said that Themistocles would gladly have stood the Acropolis, already crowded with temples and transported the Athenian population bodily from the upper
sanctuaries, some upon the summit, some built city to the coast, there to form a great maritime state. Grotto of
at its foot, and others like the famous grotto Though this was impossible, yet he could strengthen
of Pan, on the N.W. slope-mere caves in its Athens on the seaward side. The isthmus of Piræeus, rocky sides.
though somewhat more distant than Phalerum, presented The Persian invasion, which forced the Athe obvious advantages as a seaport. It formed on its north After the
nians to take refuge in their “wooden walls," side the spacious and secure basin of Piræeus (now Port Persian
and to leave their city at the mercy of the bar- Drako), the north and south shores of which towards the
barian, marked an important epoch in the annals entrance fall back into two smaller bays-harbors within the of Athenian building. Upon the retreat of Mardonius, the harbor-known respectively as the woos deum and kávbapos. Athenians returned to Attica to find their city virtually in The neck of the isthmus on the south is formed by Port Zea ruins. Its fortifications and public buildings had been de- (now Phanari), the entrance of which was secured by Phrestroyed or burnt, and the private dwellings had been wan- attys, the headland of Munychia. Round to the east of the tonly defaced or ruined by neglect. Amid the enthusiasm district of Munychia, again, and facing Phalerum, was the of hope which followed upon the great deliverance of harbor known anciently as Munychia, and now as Port Greece, a natural impulse led the Athenians to rear their Stratiotiki. Themistocles thus, in giving up, Port Phalerum, city more glorious from its ruins. Themistocles fanned gave Athens three harbors instead of one. The fortifications their patriotism with the foresight of a statesman, and of Piræeus were conceived on a grand scale, and carried out Athens rose again with marvellous rapidity. This haste, with no sign of hurry. The whole circuit of Piræeus and however, though creditable to their patriotism, and, indeed, of the town of Munychia was enclosed alike on the sea and necessary in order to forestall the jealous opposition of land sides by walls of immense thickness and strength, Sparta, was not without its evils. The houses were rebuilt which were carried up to a height of more than 60 feeton their old sites, and the lines of the old streets, narrow this being only half the height intended by Themistocles ! and irregular as they had been, were too readily followed. (See Grote, Hist. Greece, c. xliv.) The laying out of the A similar haste marked the rebuilding of the city walls, a new seaport belonged rather to the regime of Pericles work in which men and women, old and young, took zeal- (Grote, c. xlvii.). It was then that Hippodamus, the ecous part, not scrupling to dismantle any building or monu- centric architect, planned the Agora which bore his name; ment, private or public, which could supply materials for and the various public buildings which adorned Piræeus
the building. But in rebuilding the walls The doubtless arose with growth of Athenian commerce. The Rebuilding mistocles gave them a wider circuit, especially to- harbor-basin was lined with porticoes, which served as
wards the N. and N.E. (Thucyd., i. 90, 93). At warehouses and bazaars. Two theatres existed in the
the same time he determined to construct new town, and numerous temples. The local deity was Arbarbors, and to fortify the Piraeus, regarding the navy of temis Munychia ; but the large number of foreigners Athens as her principal source of strength. It is doubtful (MÉTOLKOL), who became naturalized at this port led to the shether the “Long Walls” formed a distinct portion of introduction of many foreign forms of worship. Artemis bis designs; but he may certainly be regarded as the herself came to be identified with the Thracian Bendis, and
* The best account yet given of the Dionysiac theatre is to be found her festival (rà Bevoidela) is referred to in the immortal in Dr. Dyer's recent work on Athens.
opening of Plato's Republic.
of the valls.
If not a part of the original designs of Themis- limited area arose buildings and statues, on which he
tocles, it was at least a natural development of genius of Phidias the sculptor, of Ictinus and Mnesicles them, to carry “Long Walls” from the newly-fortified the architects, were employed for years; while multitudes Piræeus to the upper city, and thus combine them both of artists and craftsmen of all kinds were busied in carry. into one grand system of fortification. The experiment of ing out their grand designs. The spoils of the Persian connecting a town by long walls with its port had been War had already been consecrated under Cimon to the already tried between Megara and Nisæa (Grote, Hist. honor of the national goddess, in the erection of a colossal Greece, ç. xlv.), and it was now repeated on a grander statue of Athena by Phidias between the en- Statue of scale under Cimon. From the portion of the city wall be trance of the Acropolis and the Erechtheium; Athena tween the Museium and the Nymphs' Hill a sort of bastion her warlike attitude gained her the title of Proma was thrown out to S.W. so as to form an irregular triangle, Ipoua xos, and the gleam of her helmet's
plume chus. from the apex of which a “long wall,” about 4 miles long, and uplifted spear was hailed by the homeward seaman as was carried down to the N. portion of the Piræean fortifica- he doubled Cape Sunium (Pausan., i. 28). But the national tions; this was termed tò Bópelov teixos. Another “long deity was to receive yet greater honors at the hand of wall" of somewhat shorter length ran down to the wall of Pericles. That an old temple stood on the site afterwards Phalerum, which had hitherto served as the port of Athens; occupied by the Parthenon is proved, less by the doubtful this was to paanpixòv teixos: A third wall, between the expressions of Herodotus (viii. 51, 55), and the testimony two, parallel to the first, and but a few yards from it roof later compilers like Hesychius, than by recent excavavóriov teixos, tò dià uboov teixos), was afterwards added by tions, which reveal that a large temple must have been at Pericles, and the maritime fortifications of Athens became least begun upon this spot when the Persian invaders de complete. But the city owed still more to the munificence stroyed the old buildings of the Acropolis by fire. Here, of Cimon. Out of the spoils of his Persian campaign he then, Pericles proceeded to rear what has ever since been fortified the $. side of the Acropolis with a remarkably known as the Parthenon. The designer of this solid wall, which terminated in a sort of bastion at the W. masterpiece of architecture was Ictinus ; the thenon. end. Here he reared a little temple of Athena Nike (other- foundations of the old temple were at his sug;
wise called the Wingless Victory), although gestion extended in length and breadth, and thus arose Wingless Victory.
the existing sculptures of the frieze are pro- upon the 8. side of the Ăcropolis a magnificent temple of
nounced on account of their style to belong to a the virgin goddess. It was completed in the year 438 B.C. Bomewhat later date (Pausan., i. 28, 3; Corn. Nep., Cimon, It stood upon the highest platform of the Acropolis, so that ü.; Plutarch, Cimon, xiii.). It was Cimon who first set the the pavement of the peristyle of the Parthenon was on a example of providing the citizens with agreeable places for level with the capitals of the columns of the east portico promenade (Plutarch, ibid.), by planting the Agora with of the Propylæa. The temple was built entirely of white plane trees, and laying out the Academy with trees and marble from the quarries of Mount Pentelicus. Ascendwalks. It is probablə that some of the porticoes in the ing a light of three steps, you passed through the great Agora were built by Cimon; at all events, the most beauti- east entrance into the Pronaos, wherein was stored a large
ful one amongst them was reared by Pisianas, collection of sacred objects, chiefly of silver. From the Pæcile.
his brother-in-law, and the paintings with which Pronaos a massive door led into the cello, called Hecatom.
Polygnotus, his sister's lover, adorned it (repre- pedos (vbWF O 'Ekarbuttedos), because it measured in length senting scenes from the military history of Athens, legend- 100 Aitic feet. The treasure here bestowed consisted ary and historical) made it ever famous as the Etoà Toukian. chiefly of chaplets and other objects of gold. The west One more building, the most perfect existing relic of ancient portion of the cella was railed off (by Kıyxhides), and Theselum. Athens, was also built by Cimon. The The formed the Parthenon proper, i.e., the adytum occupied by
seium (as we still may venture to call it, in the chryselephantine statue by Phidias Athena Parthe spite of the doubts lately cast upon its identification) is a nos, a work which yielded the pre-eminence only to one hexastyle Doric temple standing on an eminence due N. other statue by the same artist, viz., the Zeus at Olympia. of the Areopagus, and is the first object which meets the In this adytum were stored a number of silver bowls and eye of the tourist who approaches the city from the Pi- other articles employed at the Panathenaic festivals. The ræeus. Having served in Byzantine times for a Chris- westernmost compartment at the rear of the cella was the tian church, it is now a museum of antiquities, and con- Opisthodomus, which served as the national treasury; tains some of the choicest treasures discovered by recent hither poured in the tribute of the Athenian allies. It is excavations.
important to remember that the Parthenon was never We have now brought this sketch of Athenian intended as a temple of worship; for this purpose there Periclean
topography down to the most distinguished pe already existed another temple, presently to be described
riod of Athenian history and Athenian architec- as the Erechtheium, standing upon the primeval site of ture-the era of Pericles. As the champion of Hellenic that contest between Athena and Poseidon which established freedom against the Persians, as the head of the Ionic confed- the claim of the goddess to the Attic citadel and soil. The eration, Athens had suddenly grown to be the foremost city in Parthenon was simply designed to be the central point of Greece. But when one by one the confederate states sank the Panathenaic festival, and the storehouse for the sacred into the position of subject-allies; when the nyepovía of treasure. The entire temple should be regarded as one Athens passed insensibly into a rupavvic (Thucyd., ii. 63); vast aváðnua to the national deity, not as a place for her when the contribution of ships and men was commuted in worship. Thus directly in front of her statue in the cella most cases for a money payment, and the funds of the con- there stood an erection which has been mistaken for an federation were transferred from the Apollonium at Delos altar, but which is more probably to be regarded as the to the Athenian Acropolis,-an enormous revenue became platform which the victorious competitors in the Panaat the disposal of the Athenian Government. It is to their thenaic contests ascended to receive, as it were from the credit that so little of it found its way into private pockets. hand of the goddess, the golden chaplets and vases of olive It was natural for the thoughts of a Greek, especially of an oil that formed the prizes (see Michaelis's Parthenon, p. 31). Athenian, to turn to the decoration of his city; it was poli. This consideration lends significance to the decorations of tic that the central city of the Ionian confederacy should the building, which were the work of Phidias. Within be adorned with a beauty equal to her prestige. The build the outer portico, along the outside of the top of the wall ings connected with the name of Cimon had been chiefly of the building, ran a frieze 3 feet 4 inches in height, and for utility or defence; those of Pericles were mainly orna- 520 feet in total length, on which were sculptured figures mental. The first edifice completed by_him seems to have in low relief, representing the Panathenaic procession. Odeium.
been the Odeium, on the E. of the Dionysiac Nearly all of these sculptures are in the British Museum,
theatre, to serve as a place for recitations by and the entire series has been recently made complete by rhapsodists, and for musical performances. It was burnt casts from the other fragments, and arranged in the order of by Aristion during Sulla's siege of Athens, but afterwards the original design. The marvellous beauty of these reliefs, rebuilt. Mention has already been made of the building which was heightened originally by color, has been long of the Long Walls and the laying out of the Piræeus by familiar to all the world from numerous illustrated descripPericles; but it was the Acropolis itself which witnessed tions. The procession of youths and maidens, of priesto the greatest splendors of his administration. Within its and magistrates, of oxen for sacrifice, of Aute-players and
See Dyer, Athens, p. 230, soll., who thinks it is really the temple of See the animated description in Plutarch, Pericles, 12, folha the Amazons.
8 See the remarks of Mr. Ruskin, Aratra Pentelica, p. 172
singers, followed by the youthful chivalry of Athens on Among the many glories of the Acropolis, the
Propylaeu. prancing steeds, is represented as wending its way from Propylæa are described by Pausanias as being the west towards the eastern entrance. Outside of the exceptionally magnificent (i. 22). They rivalled even the building, on the N. and S. sides, the metopes between the Parthenon, and were the most splendid of all the buildings Doric triglyphs were filled with sculptures representing of Pericles. The western end of the Acropolis, which furscenes from the mythical history of Athens. But the nished, and still furnishes, the only access to the summit glory of the Parthenon were the sculptures of the E. and of the hill, was about 160 feet in breadth,-a frontage so W. pediments. Unhappily but a few figures remain, and narrow, that to the artists of Pericles it appeared practicam none are wholly perfect, of the statues which formed these ble to fill up the space with a single building, which, in groups; and Pausanias appears to have thought it super- serving the main purpose of a gateway, should contribute Auous to give a minute description of objects so familiar to to adorn as well as to guard the citadel. This work, which every connoisseur and traveller. The sculptures on the rivalled the Parthenon in felicity of execution, and sureastern pediment related to the birth of Athena; the cen- passed it in boldness and originality of design, was begun tral group was early destroyed by the Byzantine Christians in the archonship of Euthymenes, in the year 437 B.C., in converting the Parthenon into a church, with the Pronaos and completed in five years, under the directions of the for its apse. But nearly all the subordinate figures are architect Mnesicles. Of the space which formed the natural preserved in a more or less injured condition in the British entrance to the Acropolis, 58 feet near the centre were left Museum. The noble head of the horse of the car of Night, for the grand entrance, and the remainder on either side the seated female figures of “The Fates," and the grand was occupied by wings projecting 32 feet in front of the torso commonly known as the “Theseus," are familiar to central colonnade. The entire building received the us all. It would be out of place here even to enumerate name of Propylæa from its forming the vestibule to the the many attempts that have been made to reconstruct the five doorways, still in existence, by which the citadel was groups of either pediment The sculptures on the W. entered. The wall in which these doors were pierced was represented the contest between Athena and Poseidon for thrown back about 50 feet from the front of the artificial the possession of Attica; and although scarcely any por- opening of the hill, and the whole may therefore be said to tions of these figures are now existing, yet they are better have resembled a modern fortification, although, in fact, the known to us than the E. pediment by means of the faithful Propylæa was designed, not for defence, but for decoration, (if clumsy) sketches made by the Frenchman Carrey in The whole building was of Pentelic marble. The Megaron 1674, when they were in a comparatively perfect state. or great vestibule in the centre consisted of a front of six Those who desire to know all that is to be known concern- Auted Doric columns, mounted upon four steps, which ing the sculptures of the Parthenon should consult the supported a pediment, and measured 5 feet in diameter and beautiful work of Michaelis, Der Parthenon, while the nearly 29 in height, with an intercolumniation of 7 feet, measurements and architectural details of the edifice have except between the two central columns, which were 13 never been so splendidly given as by our countryman Pen- feet apart, in order to furnish space for a carriage-way. rose, in his Principles of Athenian Architecture.
Behind this Doric colonnade was a vestibule 43 feet in We will turn now to the other buildings of the Acropolis, depth, the roof of which was sustained by six inner columns none of which, however, are so full of significance as the in a double row, so as to divide the vestibule into three Parthenon itself. For, indeed, standing as it does on the aisles or compartments; and these columns, although only highest point of Athenian soil, its erection marked the three feet and a half in diameter at the base, were, includculminating point of Athenian history, literature, politics, ing the capitals, nearly 34 feet in height, their architraves and art. The Birth of Athena," over the eastern entrance, being on the same level with the frieze of the Doric may symbolize to us the sudden growth of Athenian great colonnade. The ceiling was laid upon marble beams, ness, while in the contest between the armed goddess of resting upon the lateral walls and the architraves of the peaceful wisdom and the violent god of sea, which adorned two rows of Ionic columns,—those covering the side aisles the western front, we may see an allegory of the long being 22 feet in length, and those covering the central struggle between the agricultural and the maritime interests aisles 17 feet, with a proportional breadth and thickness. which forms the central thread of Athenian history. Enormous masses like these, raised to the roof of a build
Opposite to the Parthenon, on the northern ing standing upon a steep hill, and covered with a ceiling Erechtheium.
edge of the Acropolis, stands another remark- which all the resources of art had been employed to
able temple, far smaller in size, and built in beautify, might well overcome the reserve of a matter-ofthe most graceful forms of the Ionic order. The Erech- fact topographer like Pausanias, and at once account for theium appears to be designed expressly to contrast with and justify the unusual warmth of his language when he is the severe sublimity of the Parthenon; and on the side speaking of the roof of the Propylæa (i. 22). Of the five which confronts those mighty Doric shafts, the columns of doors at the extremily of the vestibule, the width of the the smaller building are allowel to transform themselves central and largest was equal to the space between the two into Canephori. The temple of Athena Polias, which con- central columns of the Doric portico in front, and the same tained the ancient wooden image of the goddess, and formed also as that between the two rows of Ionic columns in the the centre of her worship, suffered from fire in the Persian vestibule; but the doors on either side of the principal one War (479 B.C.). A building só sacred would hardly have were of diminished height and breadth, and the two beyond been allowed to remain for long in ruins; but it was re- these again were still smaller in both dimensions. These served for Pericles to set about a complete restoration of it. five gates or doors led from the vestibule into a back portico However, the Peloponnesian War seems to have interrupted 18 feet in depth, which was fronted with a Doric colonnade his designs, and in the year 409 B.C. the edifice was still and pediment of the same dimensions as those of the unfinished,' and soon after this it was totally destroyed by western or outer portico, but placed on a higher level, there fire. But soon afterwards it must have been rebuilt, with being five steps of ascent from the western to the level of out doubt retaining all its original features. The temple the eastern portico. From the latter or inner portico there in its present state consists of an oblong cella extending was a descent of one step into the adjacent part of the from E. to W. From each side of the W. end of the cella platform of the Acropolis. projects a portico, forming a sort of transept. The eastern The wings of the Propylæa were nearly symmetrical in portico formed the temple of Athena Polias, upon the site front, each presenting on this side a wall adorned only with of her ancient contest with Poseidon. The west portion a frieze of triglyphs, and with antæ at the extremities. was the Pandroseium, dedicated to Athena Pandrosus. The inner or southernmost column of each wing stood in The building thus formed two temples in one, and is a line with the great Doric columns of the Megaron; and styled by Pausanias a dea howv oiknua. It seems at a later as both these columns and those of the wings were upon time to have been commonly called the Erechtheium, the same level, the three porticoes were all connected because of a tradition that Erechtheus was buried on this together, and the four steps which ascended to the Megaron site.
were continued also along the porticoes of the two wings. 1 He who desires to enjoy these sculptures, should come from a
But here the symmetry of the building ended; for, in perusal of Michaelis's eloquent work Der Parthenon, and spend a day regard to interior size and distribution of parts, the wings in the British Museum with the guide-book in his hand.
were exceedingly dissimilar. In the northern or left wing, An important inscription in the British Museum gives a survey a porch of 12 feet in depth conducted by three doors of the works as they stood in that year, drawn up by a commission into a chamber of 34 feet by 26, the porch and chamber appointed for the purpose. See Greek Inscriptions in the British Mum reum, vol. 1 No. 35
thus occupying the entire space behind the western wall of