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The works of Barbour are interesting in a philological
Gert his men duell on this manner point of view. At one time they were regarded as the
Bot for a pouir lauender."0 first written in what was termed the ancient Scottish, a special language, which was supposed to have been de studies of natural scenery. His description of spring is,
It has been stated that Barbour presents us with but few rived directly from the Suio-Gothic, or the Moso-Gothic however, worthy of his muse, and contrasts favorably with of Ulphilas. The extraordinary circumstance, however, any of the poetry of the
period :was that Barbour and other early Scottish poets, such as Wyntown, James I., and Lyndsay, speak of the language
“This wes in ver, quhen wynter tyde, as "Inglis.” In The Bruce the following passage occurs :
With his blastis hidwyss to byde,
Was our-drywyn, and byrdis smale,
As turturis and the nychtyngale,
Begouth rycht meraly to syng;
And for to mak in thair singyng language founded on the Anglo-Saxon of the northern type,
Swete notis, and sownys ser,
And melodys plesand to her; and nearly identical with that spoken in the northern half
And the treis begouth to ma of England, which was general from the Trent to the Forth,
Burgeons, and brycht blomys alsua, and northwards on the eastern coast as far as Aberdeen.
To wyn the helyng off thair hewid, In this extensive district a Doric dialect of English was
That wykkyt wyntir had thaim rewid.” 1 general, and in the 14th century there was no greater difference between the written language of York and of
Of Barbour's Bruce neither the original manuscript nor Eastern Scotland than there is now between the modern any contemporary copy is known to exist. It is a somespeech of Aberdeen and Edinburgh.”
what remarkable circumstance that the earliest specimen According to Warton, Barbour has adorned the Eng- of Barbour's language is to be found in extracts inserted lish language by a strain of versification, expression, and by Wyntown in his Cronykil, which may be set down as poetical imagery, far superior to the age. Dr. Nott'* re
belonging to the year 1440. A valuable manuscript of marks that he has given his countrymen a fine example of The Bruce is preserved in the Advocates Library, Edin. the simple, energetic style, which resembled Chaucer's best burgh, which was penned by John Ramsay in 1489. manner, and wanted little to make it the genuine language wards prior of the Carthusian monastery at Perth. This
Ramsay is supposed to be the same person that was afterof poetry. Simplicity may be said to be the main feature in the plan and conduct of his poems. His story is through transcript is stated to have been executed at the request of ont his first and chief object, and he shows great anxiety
Simon Lochmalony, vicar of Moonsie. lest in any point of the actual adventures he may mislead
Another manuscript exists in the library of St. John's his reader. He prays that he may say “nought bot suth- College, Cambridge, and is dated 1487. The handwriting fast thing,” and he was the first who did so with some of and from the initials of the transcriber being J. R., it is
very like that of the Advocates' Library manuscript, the graces of the fables of romance. He has, however, a heart for every kind of nobleness. His far-famed enco
supposed that this is another transcript made somewhat mium on political freedom is distinguished by a manly perhaps the best readings, but each serves to correct errors
earlier by the same scribe. This last manuscript affords and dignified strain of sentiment:
and to supply omissions of the other. “A! fredome is a noble thing!
The printed editions are almost a century later. The Fredome mayss man to baitf liking,
first known edition of The Bruce is believed to have been Fredome all solace to man giffis :
printed at Edinburgh in 1570-71, but of this only one He levys at ess that frely levys! A noble hart may haiff nane ess,
imperfect copy is known to exist. The next known edition
is that printed at Edinburgh by Andro Hart in 1616, only Na ellys. Docht that may him pless, Gyff fredome failyhe; for fre liking
one copy of which is extant. Another edition was printed Is yharnyt our all othir thing.
by Hart in 1620. Editions were issued by Andrew AnderNa he that ay hass levyt fre,
son, Edinburgh, 1670, 12mo; Robert Saunders, Glasgow, May nocht knaw weill the propyrte,
1672; Robert Freebairn, Edinburgh, 1715 or 1716 (issued The angyr, na the wrechyt dome
with a false title-page in 1758); Carmichael and Miller, That is cowplyt to foule thyrldome:
Edinburgh, 1737. John Pinkerton issued an edition in Bot gyff he had assayt it,
1790, printed at London, in 3 vols. 8vo, which he styles Than all perquer he suld it wyt,
“the first genuine edition.” It was taken from the AdvoAnd guld think fredome mar to pry89
cates' Library manuscript, but, as his transcript was exeThan all the gold in warld that is.” 6
cuted neither by himself nor under his immediate inspecThe following passage cannot be passed without par- tion, many gross inaccuracies were suffered to remain ticular notice; the annals of heroes furnish but few in- uncorrected. Dr. John Jamieson printed an edition at stances of so pleasing a nature, whether it be that heroes Edinburgh in 1820, in 4to. This was a careful print of seldom stoop to actions of mere benevolence, or that their the Advocates' Library manuscript. Mr. Cosmo Innes historians do not think it of much importance to transmit printed an edition for the Spalding Club in 1856. It was such actions to posterity :
made from a collation of the Advocates' Library and the “The king has hard a woman cry;
Cambridge manuscripts. The Rev. W. W. Skeat is at He askyt qubat that wes in hy.
present (1875) engaged in editing an edition for the Early • It is the layndar, Schyr,' said ane,
English Text Society (extra series), 1870–75. This edi"That her child-ill rycht now has tane,
tion is founded on the Cambridge manuscript, carefully *And mon leve now behind ws her;
collated with the Edinburgh manuscript and with Hart's * Tharfor scho makys yone iwil cher,'
edition of 1616, and occasionally with Anderson's edition The king said, 'Certis it war pite of 1670.
(J. SM.) “That scho in that poynt left suld be;
BARBUDA, one of the lesser Antilles or Caribbean For certis I trow thar is na man
islands, is 10 miles in length by about 8 in breadth, preThat he ne will rew a woman than.' Hiss ost all thar arestyt he,
senting a very flat surface, covered to a great extent with
woods, in which deer abound. Many varieties of shell-fish And gert a tent sone stentit be, And gert hyr gang in hastily,
and other fish are found on the coast, which is also freAnd othyr wemen to be hyr by,
quented by large flocks of water-fowl. The part of the Quhill scho wes deliuer, he baid;
island under cultivation is fertile; corn, cotton, sugar, toAnd syne furth on his wayis raid:
bacco, and indigo are grown; and the rearing of cattle is And how scho furth suld caryit be,
one of the principal occupations. So salubrious is the Or cuir he furth fur, ordanyt he.
climate that Barbuda serves as a kind of sanitarium for the This wes a full gret curtasy,
adjacent islands. The inhabitants, who number less than That swilk a king, and sa mighty,
2000, are mainly negroes. The island was annexed to Barbour's Bruce, iv. p. 252.
Britain in 1628, and was bestowed in 1680 on the Codring, For an estimate of the position of Barbour in the
literature of the ton family, in whose possession it still remains. The north period, see Mätzner's Altenglische Sprachproben, i. p. 371. * Hist. of English Poetry, li. p. 154.
point is in lat. 17° 33' N. and long. 61° 43' W. Diss.on English Poetry pretixed to Surrey and Wyatt's Poems, p. 190. & Barbour's Bruce, p. 320, Jamieson's ed.
7 Ibid., p. 89. s Barbour's Bruce, p. 10, Jamieson's ed.
& Cronykül of Scotland, book viii. c. 2 and 18.
* ENGLISH MILE
BARCA, a maritime district of Northern Africa, which | The site of the former is to be occupied by a large market, formerly belonged to Tripoli, but was raised in 1869 to be while the latter is to be absorbed into the Park. Barcelona a separate province immediately dependent on Constanti- is the see of a bishop, and, like most Spanish towns, has a nople. It extends from the Gulf of Sert (the ancient large number of ecclesiastical buildings, though by no Syrtes) to the Egyptian frontier, between lat. 30° and 33° means so many as it once possessed. If Barceiuneta on N. and between long. 20° and 25° E., and has an area the one hand, and Garcia, a suburban village, on the other, of about 60,700 square miles. This territory is traversed be included, the number of churches amounts to twentyfrom east to west by a mountain chain varying in height seven, and eighteen of these are parroquias, while no fewer from 400 or 500 to upwards of 1800 feet. A great part of than eighteen convents were still standing in 1873. The Barca, particularly towards the coast, is very fertile, abound. cathedral, erected between 1298 and 1448, but not yet fin ing with excellent pasturage, and producing large supplies ished, is a spacious building in the Pointea styie, and conThe chief town is Bengazi.
tains the tomb of Santa Eulalia, the patron saint of the BARCA, an ancient city in Cyrenaica, and within the city. Its stained glass windows are among the finest in above district, to which it gave name. Its ruins are now known as El-Medinah. It was situated between Cyrene (now Grennah) and Hesperides (now Bençazi), about 11 miles distant from the sea, on the top of the rising ground that overlooks the Syrtes. It was fou ded )
( about 554 E.C. by a colony from Cyrene, who fled :rom the ill-treatment of Arcesilaus II., and obtained the )
( co-operation of a number of Libyans. About forty
10. four years after its foundation it suffered severely from
) the revenge of Pheretima, the mother of Arcesilaus III., being captured and pillaged by the Persians, to whom she had appealed for assistance, while large
) numbers of its inhabitants were led captive to Bactria.
) In the time of the Ptolemies the founding of a new
001 city, Ptolemais, on the sea-coast drew away from the
000-00 older site a large part of the population; but Barca
00 continued to exist for several centuries after the Christian era, and even seems to have risen again into im
Projeoreja portance under the Arabs. The ruins are few, and are Thought to be those of the Aras city.
000.00 BARCELONA, formerly the capital of the kingdom of Catalonia, and now the chief town of the
000001 Spanish province to which it gives its name, is a
1000001 flourishing city and seaport on the shore of the Medi
ODOO'001 terranean, in lat. 41° 22' N. and long. 2° 9' E., between the rivers Besos (Botulo) on the north and the
O 0000 001 Llobregat (Rubricatus) on the south. It stands on the
8001 sloping edge of a small but fertile plain now covered
002 with villas and gardens. Immediately to the southeast rise the Montjuich hills to the height of 650 feet,
OCE crowned by an important fortification; while on the
001 west, the north, and the north-east, the view is bounded
0001 by the heights of San Pedro Martio, Valcanca, and Moncada. Barcelona was formerly surrounded by a
20001 strong line of ramparts, and defended, or more cor- ) rectly, overawed by a citadel on the north-east, erected
) in 1715 by Philip. V. on Vauban's principle; but these fortifications being felt as a painful restriction
Gardens on the natural development of the city, were, in spite of the opposition of the central Government, finally abolished by the local authorities in 1845. The walls of the moat were utilized for the cellars of the houses which soon occupied the site of the ramparts, and the ground, which had been covered by the citadel, was laid out in horticultural gardens. A rapid extension of the city to the north-west took place, and in 1860 an elaborate plan for the laying out of new districts received the royal sanction. Barcelona thus comprises
P an old and a new town, differing from each other in many important features, the former still consisting for the most part of irregular and narrow streets, while the latter has all the symmetry and precision of a premeditated scheme. The buildings of the old town are chiefly of brick, from four to tive stories in height, with flat roofs, and other Eastern peculiarities; while in the new town hewn stone is very
Ground-Plan of Barcelona. largely employed, and the architecture is often of a mod- | Spain, and it possesses arenives of great value. Santa Maern English style. To the south-east, on the tongue of ria del Mar, Santos Justo y Pastor, San Pedro de las Puelland that helps to form the port, lies the suburb of Bar- las, and San Pablo del Campo, are all churches worthy of celoneta. It owes its origin to the marquis de la Mina, mention. San Miguel in Barceloneta, which preserved a who, about 1754, did so much for the city, and is regularly curious ancient mosaic and contained the tomb of the mare laid out, the houses being built of brick after a uniform quis de la Mina, has been taken down. pattern. The main street or axis of the old town is the The educational institutions of Barcelona have from an Rambla, a favorite resort of the higher classes, which has a early period been numerous and important. The univers fine promenade planted with plane-trees running down the sity (Universidad Literaria) was originally founded in 1430 middle, and contains the principal hotels and theatres of by the magistracy of the city, and received a bull of conthe city. Among the most important of the squares are firmation from Pope Nicholas V. in 1450, possessing at that the Plaza de Palacio, the Plaza Real, and the
Plaza del time four faculties and thirty-one chairs, all endowed by Teatro. The Paseo de San Juan and the Gardin del the corporation (vide Capmany's Memorias). It was supo General to the north-east of the town are being removed. pressed in 1714, but restored in 1841 and now occupies an
extensive building in the new town. There are, besides, sheltered by the neighboring hills, but at an early period an academy of natural sciences, a college of medicine and the advantage of some artificial protection was felt. In surgery,--confirmed by a bull of Benedict XIII. in 1400,- 1438 we find Don Alphonso V. granting the magistracy an academy of fine arts, a normal school, a theological sem- a license to build a mole; and in 1474 the Moll de Santa inary, an upper industrial school, an institution for the edu- Creu was officially commenced. Long after this, however, cation of deaf-mutes, a school of navigation, and many travellers speak of Barcelona as destitute of a harbor; minor establishments. Gratuitous instruction of a very and it is only in the 17th century that satisfactory works high order is afforded by the Board of Trade to upwards were undertaken. Down to a very recent period all the of two thousand pupils. The principal charitable founda- included area was shut off from the open sea by a sandtions are the Casa de Caridad, or House of Industry, the bank, which rendered the entrance of large vessels imHospital General dating from 1401, and the Foundling possible. An extension of the former mole, and the conHospital. The Montes de Piedad are, in fact, mutual ben-struction of another from the foot of Montjuich, have efit societies; and that of Nostra Señora de la Esperanza embraced a portion of the sea outside of the bank, and a has this peculiarity, that loans on deposits are made with convenient shelter is thus afforded for the heaviest men of out interest to necessitous persons, thousands of whom yearly war. The depth in this part is about 40 feet, while avail themselves of its advantages. The principal civic within the sandbank it is from 18 to 20. Barcelona is well and commercial buildings are the Casa Consistorial, a fine supplied with inland communication by rail, and the traffic Gothic hall, the Lonja, or Exchange, dating from 1383, of its own streets is largely facilitated by tramway lines and the Aduana, or Custom-house, built in 1792. At the running from the port as far as Garcia. seaward end of the Rambla is a large ancient structure, the According to traditions preserved by the Roman writers, Atarazanas, or Arsenals, which was finished about 1243. Barcelona owed its origin, or at least its first importance, A portion of it was recently taken down to give a better to the Carthaginians under Hamilcar Barca, after whom it view to the promenade. Remains of the former royal state was called Barcino. It received a Roman colony, and of Barcelona are found in the Palacio Real of the kings of was known by the name of Faventia. After having shared Aragon, and the Palacio de la Reina. At the highest part in the various vicissitudes of the barbaric invasions, it of the city, in the Calle del Paradis, are some magnificent became the capital of a dukedom under Louis the Pious, columns, and other Roman remains, which, however, are and not long after began to give the title of count to a hidden by the surrounding buildings.
family that soon made itself independent. In 985 the city The inhabitants of Barcelona are not only an intelligent was captured by the Moors, but not long after it was and industrious, but a gay and pleasure-loving people. recovered by Count Borell. In 1151 Raymund Berenguer Means of public recreation are abundantly supplied. There married the daughter of Ramiro II. of Aragon, and thus are no fewer than fourteen theatres of more or less preten- the countship of Barcelona was united to that kingdom by sion, the two most important being the Teatro Principal his son. From the successive princes of the line the city and the Teatro del Liceo. The latter is a very fine build received many privileges. In 1640 Barcelona was the ing, originally erected in 1845 on the site of a convent of centre of the Catalonian rebellion against Philip IV., and Trinitarian monks, and capable of containing 4000 specta- threw itself under French protection. In 1652 it returned tors. A striking feature in Barcelona society is the devel- to its allegiance, but was captured by the duke of Vendôme opment of social life; and the number of restaurants and in 1697. At the peace of Ryswick, in the same year, similar places of evening resort is very great. A pleasant it was restored to the Spanish monarchy. During the promenade is furnished not only by the Rambla but by the War of the Succession Barcelona adhered to the house of Muralla del Mar, or sea-wall, which was largely due to the Austria. The seizure of Montjuich in 1705 and the marquis de la Mina, and is now undergoing extensive alter- subsequent capture of the city by the earl of Peterborough ation by the reclaiming of a strip of land from the port. formed one of his most brilliant achievements. In 1714
Barcelona has long been the industrial and commercial it was taken after an obstinate resistance by the duke of centre of Eastern Spain--a pre-eminence which dates from Berwick in the interests of Louis XIV., and at the close of the 12th and 13th centuries. It was the rival of Genoa and the war was reluctantly reconciled to the Bourbon dynasty. Venice, and in renown its hardy mariners were second to At the commencement of Bonaparte's attempt on the liberty none. The origin of the famous code of maritime laws of Spain, the French troops obtained possession of the known as the Consolado del mar is usually, though not with fortress, and kept the city in subjection. Since then it has absolute certainty, ascribed to its merchants; and it is pretty shared 'in most of the revolutionary movements that have well established that they were the first to employ the swept over Spain, and has frequently been distinguished method of marine insurance. We find them at an early by the violence of its civic commotions. By the census period trading, not only with the ports of the Mediter- of 1857 the population of the city amounted to 180,014, ranean, but with the Low Countries and England, on the and by an enumeration in 1864 the city and suburbs were on hand, and with Constantinople and Damascus, Egypt found to contain 252,000 persons. (See Manifestacion de and Armenia, on the other,-entering into treaties with muichos relevantes servicios de Barcelona, Barcelona, 1697 ; kings and magistracies, and establishing in all important Capmany, Memorias historicas sobre Barcelona, 1779-92; places consuls to look after their interests
. The prosper- Chantreau, Lettres de Barcelonne, 1793; Hare, Wanderings ity so deeply rooted continued through numerous vicis in Spain.) situdes till the emancipation of the Spanish American col- BARCLAY, ALEXANDER, an English poet, was born onies, when a comparative decline set in. This, however, probably about 1476. His nationality has been matter of proved only temporary, and, in spite of the disastrous con- much literary dispute, but the evidence on the whole seems sequences of the French invasion, and the various revolu- to point to the conclusion that, though he spent the greater tions of the country since then, Barcelona has no need to part of his life in England, he was a native of Scotland. look back with regret to the past. A great variety of The place of his education is equally doubtful; he studied industries are now carried on-the most important being at one of the great English universities, but at which has the spinning and weaving of wool, cotton, and silk. Of not yet been settled by his biographers. He received a the numerous guilds that were anciently' formed in the benefice from the provost of Oriel College, Oxford, and it city an interesting list is to be found in Capmany. It might therefore be inferred that he had been a student at carries on a large shipping trade. In 1872 between 700 that place. But Oxford is nowhere referred to in his and 800 foreign vessels, with a tonnage of 360,000 tons, writings, whereas Cambridge is mentioned once. He discharged their cargoes in the port. Of these 160 were appears to have travelled on the Continent after completBritish. The imports from the colonies are sugar, cotton, ing his university course, and on his return received tobacco, rum, wax, dye-wood, &c.; machinery, coals, coke, an appointment as chaplain in the collegiate church at cotton, wool, thread, and other stuffs, are brought from Ottery St. Mary in Devonshire. He afterwards became England; articles of silk, chemical preparations, pastes a Benedictine monk of the monastery of Ely, and at and Aours of all sorts
, objects of fashion, wines, and 'liquors, length assumed the habit of St. Francis at Canterbury. from France; petroleum, cotton, and staves from North Having survived the dissolution of the monasteries, he America; cotton from the Brazils and Smyrna; hides became successively vicar of Much-Badew in Essex, and, in from the River Plate; salt-fish from the North Sea. The 1546, of Wokey in Somersetshire; and a few months beexport trade is not so extensive, consisting largely of fruits fore his death he was presented by the dean and chapter and vegetables, oil, silk, wines, salt, &c. The so-called of Canterbury to the rectory of All Saints in Lombard port of Barcelona was at first only an open beach, slightly Street. As he retained some of his preferments in the reign of Edward VI., it is presumed that he must have value that was put upon it by Barclay's contemporaries complied with the changes of the times. He died at an and immediate successors may be gathered from the critical advanced age in the year 1552, and was interred at Croy- estimate of it given in the Vita Barclaii, prefixed to later don. Barclay wrote at a period when the standard of Eng- editions of the
work. “ Habet enim," says the anonymous lish poetry was extremely low; and, as excellence is always writer of the life,“ heroicum Tullii vigorem, Laconismum et comparative, this circumstance may partly enable us to politicam Taciti, Livii antiquitatem, flosculos puros Petronii, account for the high reputation which he enjoyed among sales fabulosos Nasonis, poéticam Maronica vix inferiorem." his contemporaries. At the same time his best work, There have been numerous editions of the book, which has being a comprehensive and easily understood satire on the been translated into almost erery European language. manners of the times, naturally acquired a wide popularity, BARCLAY, JOHN, M.D., an eminent anatomist, was and was extensively read. The title given to it was the born in Perthshire in 1760, and died at Edinburgh in Ship of Fooles, and it was first printed by Pinson in 1826. After the usual routine of parochial education, he 1509. The original design, and many of the details, were completed his academical course at the United College of derived from Sebastian Brandt, a civilian of Strasburg, St. Andrews. He subsequently studied divinity there, who in 1494 published a poem entitled Das Narren Schuif
, and was licensed as a preacher by the Presbytery of which was so well adapted to the taste of the age that a Dunkeld. Having repaired to Edinburgh in 1789, as Latin and a French version appeared in 1497, and another tutor to the family of Sir James Campbell of Aberuchill, French version in 1498. "Barclay professes to have trans- he began to give his attention to the study of medicine, lated “oute of Laten, Frenche, and Doche;" but to the and particularly to human and comparative anatomy. He original cargo he has added many fools of English growth. became assistant to Mr. John Bell, and took the degree of Under the representation of a ship freighted with fools of M.D. in 1796, after having defended an inaugural dissertavarious denominations, the poet exposes the prevalent vices tion, De Anima seu Principio Vitali, a subject which occuand follies of the age; and although, as Warton remarks, pied his maturer powers towards the close of his life. Imthe poem is destitute of plot and the voyage of adventures, mediately after his graduation, he repaired to London, and the general design was found to possess many attractions. studied for some time under Dr. Marshall, at that time a The work is of considerable importance, as giving a clear very distinguished teacher of anatomy in the metropolis. though by no means pleasing picture of English society and soon after his return to Edinburgh, he commenced his lower class life in the time of Henry VIII., and also as lectures on anatomy in November, 1797, and speedily marking a stage in the progress of the English language. attracted an audience, which increased considerably, in Barclay's vocabulary is essentially that of the people. His numbers until the period of his retirement, a short time other works are The Castell of Laboure, 1506; The before his death. Mirrour of Good Manners, translated from the poem of of Barclay's professional writings, the earliest, we believe, Mancini De quatuor Virtutibus ; The Egloges ; a version was the article PHYSIOLOGY, contributed to the third edition of of Sallust; an Introduction to Write and to Pronounce this work. In 1803 he attempted a reform in the language of Frenche ; and some small pieces. A catalogue of all these, anatomy, with a view to render it more accurate and precise, with full notice of the little that is known concerning a task for which his acquirements as a classical scholar rendered Barclay, and ample bibliographical information, is supplied him peculiarly well qualified. Although the Nomenclature which by Mr. Jamieson in the introduction to his edition of the he published in that year has not been generally adopted, the Ship of Fools, Edin., 1874.
profession acknowledged the importance of the object which he BARCLAY, JOHN, a distinguished scholar and writer, bad in view, as well as the talent and learning with which it was born, January 28, 1582, at Pont-à-Mousson, where his cular Motions of the Human Body, and in 1812 bis Description father William Barclay (see below) was professor of civil of the Arteries of the Human Body, a work displaying much law. Educated at the Jesuits' college, he gave evidence acute observation and laborious research, which may be con. of remarkable ability at an early age, and was only sidered the most practically useful of all his writings. His last nineteen when he published a commentary upon the publication, completed only a few years before his death, was Thebais of Statius. The Jesuits were naturally desirous An Inquiry into the Opinions, Ancient and Modern, concerning that he should enter their order, but to this both himself Life and Organization, a work replete with learning and sound and his father were averse. The jealous enmity of the original criticism. His introductory lectures published after his order was roused against them in consequence of this death contain a valuable abridgment of the history of anatomy. refusal, and in 1603 both left France and crossed over to BARCLAY, JOHN, founder of a small sect in the Scotch England. In the following year they returned and settled Church called "Bereans or Barclayites, was born in Perthat Angers, where Barclay's father had been appointed pro- shire in 1734, and died at Edinburgh in 1798. He gradufessor of law. Soon after the death of his father in 1605, ated at St. Andrews, and after being licensed became assistant Barclay appears to have married, and to have settled in to the parish minister of Errol in Perthshire. He developed London, where in 1606 he published the second part of his some very peculiar views, which led to a difference with Satyricon, the first part having appeared on his previous the minister; and in 1763 he left and was appointed assistvisit to England. In 1610 he edited an important treatise ant to Mr. Dow of Fettercairn. In this parish he became left by his father, De Potestate Pupa, which involved him very popular, but his opinions, whether as expounded from in controversy with the famous Cardinal Bellarmin. In the pulpit, or as set forth in a paraphrase of some Psalms 1614 appeared the wittiest and most interesting part of the which he published, failed to give satisfaction to his Pres Satyricon, entitled Icon Animorum, which gives a critical bytery. In 1772 he was rejected as successor to Mr. Dow, survey of the varied manners and characteristics of the and was even refused by the Presbytery the testimonials several European nations. It has been frequently reprinted. requisite in order to obtain another living. The refusal of In 1616, after a short stay in Paris, he proceeded to Rome, the Presbytery was sustained by the General Assembly, where he continued to reside till his death on 12th August, and Mr. Barclay thereupon left the Scotch Church. He 1621. His romance, Argenis, was passing through the preached in Edinburgh, London, Bristol, and other places, press at the period of his death, and it appeared in the but with no great success. Neither his writings, which were course of the same year. Barclay, from what reason is collected in three volumes, nor the sect formed by him, are not apparent, failed to attain the position to which his of much importance. His adherents were called Bereans, talents seemed fairly to entitle him. His reputation as a because they regulated their conduct as the inhabitants of writer and scholar was remarkably high among his con- Berea are said to have done, by diligently searching the temporaries. Grotius and others have lavished praises on Scriptures (Acts xvii. 11). the purity and elegance of his Latin style; his romance BARCLAY, ROBERT, one of the most eminent writers was extremely popular; and some of his Latin poems are belonging to the Society of Friends, or Quakers, was born very happy. The idea of the Satyricon, one of his two in 1648 at Gordonstown in Morayshire. He was sent to extensive compositions, is borrowed from Petronius; in finish' his education in Paris, and it appears he was at one the details, however, the work fortunately does not follow time inclined to accept the Roman Catholic faith. In that author so closely. It was very extensively read, and 1667, however, he followed the example of his father, has passed through several editions. The Argenis, a long Colonel Barclay of Urie, and joined the recently formed Latin romance, sometimes looked on as a political allegory, Society of Friends. He was an arlent theological student, was very popular. It is said to have been warmly admired a man of warm feelings and considerable mental power, by Richelieu and Leibnitz, while Cowper, Disraeli, and and he soon came prominently forward as the leading Coleridge speak of it in terms of high admiration. The apologist of the new doctrine. His greatest work, An
Apology for the True Christian Divinity, was published in BAR-COCHEBAS, or BAR-COCHAB (Son of a Stur), a Latin in 1676, and was an elaborate statement of the celebrated Jewish leader in the insurrection against Hagrounds for holding certain fundamental positions, laid drian, 131-135 A.D., whose real name was Simeon. The down in the Theses Theologicae which had been put forward events of his life belong to the history of the Jews. in the preceding year. The most prominent of the Theses BARD, from the Welsh bardd, is the name applied to was that bearing on Immediate Revelation, in which the the ancient Celtic poets, though the word is sometimes superiority of this Inner Sight to Reason or Scripture is loosely used as synonymous with poet in general. So far sharply stated. Barclay experienced to some extent the as can be ascertained, the title bards, and some of the persecutions inflicted on the new society, and was several privileges peculiar to that class of poets, are to be found times thrown into prison. He died in 1690 at the early only among Celtic peoples. The name itself is not used age of forty-two. His Apology, which is still the most by Cæsar in his account of the manners and customs of important manifesto of the Quaker society, was translated Gaul and Britain, but he appears to ascribe the functions by himself into English in 1678. Translations of it into of the bards to a section of the Druids, with which class foreign languages have also appeared.
they seem to have been closely connected. Later Latin BARCLAY, WILLIAM, LL.D., a writer on civil law, was authors, such as Lucan (Phar., p. 447), Festus (De Verb. born in Aberdeenshire in the year 1541. He spent the Sign. s.v.), and Ammianus Marcellinus" (bk. xv.), used the early part of his life, and much of his fortune, at the term Bardi as the recognized title of the national poets or court of Mary queen of Scots, from whose favor' he had singers among the peoples of Gaul and Britain. În Gaul reason to expect preferment.' In 1573 he went over to however, the institution soon disappeared; the purely France, and at Bourges began to study civil law under the Celtic peoples were swept back by the waves of Latin and famous Cujas. He continued some years in that semi- Teutonic conquest, and finally settled in Wales, Ireland, nary, where he took his doctor's degree; and was soon after Brittany, and the north of Scotland There is clear eviappointed professor of civil law in the university of Pont- dence of the existence of bards in all these places, though -Mousson, recently founded by the duke of Lorraine. The the known relics belong almost entirely, to Wales and prince afterwards made him counsellor of state and master Ireland, where the institution was more distinctively naof requests. In the year 1581 Barclay married Anne de tional. In Wales they formed an organized society, with Malleville, a French lady. Their son was the celebrated hereditary rights and privileges. They were treated with John Barclay, anthor of the Argenis. This youth the the utmost respect, and were exempt from taxes or miliJesuits would gladly have received into their society; but tary service. Their special duties were to celebrate the his father refused his consent, and thereby incurred their victories of their people, and to sing hymns of praise to bitter enmity. He was compelled to leave France, and re-God. They thus gave poetic expression to the religious turned to Britain, where King James offered him a consider- and uational sentiments of the people, and therefore exable preferment, provided he
would become a member of the ercised a very powerful influence. The whole society of Church of England. He would not accept the post on this bards was regulated by laws, said to have been first discondition, and went back again to France in 1604. Soon tinctly formulated by Hywell Dha, and to have been afterafter his arrival he was appointed first professor of the wards revised by Gruffydd ap Conan. At stated intervals civil law in the University of Angers, where he died the great festivals were held, at which the most famous bards year following, and was buried in the Franciscan church. from the various districts met and contended in song, the Barclay was a man of considerable ability, and his legal umpires being generally the princes and nobles. Even writings are still valued. In his political opinions he was after the conquest of Wales, these festivals, or Eisteddfodau, directly opposed to his illustrious countryman Buchanan, as they were called, continued to be summoned by the and was a strenuous defender of the rights of kings; his English sovereigns, but from the reign of Elizabeth the own speculations on the principles of government are best custom has been allowed to fall into abeyance. They have known to some from an incidental confutation by Locke, not since been summoned by royal authority, but have been in his Treatises on Government. His most important writ- revived, and are held regularly at the present time. In ings were :
Ireland also the bards were a distinct class with peculiar De Regno et Regali Potestate, adversus Buchananum, Brutum, and hereditary privileges. They appear to have been Boucherium, et reliquos Monarchomachos, libri sex, Paris, 1600, divided into three great sections: the first celebrated vic4to; In Titulum Pandectarum de Rebus creditis et Jurejurando tories and sang hymns of praise; the second chanted the Commentarii, Paris, 1605, 8vo; De Potestate Papæ ; an et quatenus laws of the nation; the third gave poetic genealogies and in Reges et Principes seculares jus et imperium habeat: Liber post family histories. The Irish bards were held in high repute, humus, Mussiponti, 1610, 8vo. This work was translated into and frequently were brought over to Wales to give instrucFrench, and an English version is printed with the treatise of tion to the singers of that country. Sheldon, Of the Laufulness of the Oath of Allegiance, Lond., 1611, 4to. Barclay's two treatises, De Regno and De Potestate Pape, See Ed. Jones, Relics of the Welsh Bards, 1784 ; Walker, bave repeatedly been printed in the same volume : Hanover, Memoirs of the Irish Barde, 1786; Owen Jones, Myvyrian 1612, 8vo; Hanover, 1617, 8vo.
Archeology of Wales, 3 vols., 1801-7; W. F. Skene, Four AnBARCLAY DE TOLLY, MICHAEL, a Russian prince cient Books of Wales, 2 vols., 1868. and general, highly distinguished in the wars with Napoleon, BARDESANES, or BAR DEISAN, a celebrated Gnostic, was born in Livonia in 1759. He was a descendant of the was a native of Edessa Mesopotamia, and appears to old Scotch family
of Barclay, a branch of whom had settled have flourished during the reign of Marcus Aurelius. Very in Russia in the 17th century. He was adopted by General little is known of his life. He is said to have held a diše Vermoulen, and entered a Russian cuirassier regiment when putation with Apollonius, a philosopher in the train of very young. In 1788 and 1789 he served against the Turks, Lucius Verus, and he is known to have written against the and in the following years against the Swedes and Poles
. Marcionite and other heresies. There is considerable doubt in 1806, when Russia took up arms against Napoleon, he whether he was ever a disciple of Valentinus, but it is commanded the advanced guard at the battle of Pultusk. acknowledged that he never ceased to belong to the At Eylau he lost an arm, and was promoted to the rank Christian church. However seriously his principles, if of lieutenant-general. In 1808 he commanded against the rigidly interpreted, might conflict with the doctrines of Swedes, and in 1809 by a rapid and daring march for two Christianity, he did not regard himself as opposed to days over the ice he surprised and seized Umeo. In 1810 that faith, and he was generally considered one of its best he was made minister of war, and retained the post till defenders. He was especially famed for his hymns, 1813. There was very keen opposition to the appointment fragments of which are still extant. Of his other works of a foreigner as commander-in-chief, and after the defeat there seems to remain only a treatise On Fate, a portion of Smolensk, the outcry was so great that he resigned his of which was preserved by Eusebius (Prep. Evan., vi. 10), office and took a subordinate place under the veteran while the whole has been printed from a Syriac MS. with Kutusoff. On the death of the latter he was reappointed English translation by Cureton (Spicilegium Syriacum, w the supreme command, and fought at the battles of Lond., 1855). The system of Bardesanes, so far as it can Bautzen, Dresden, and Leipsic. He was unable to bring be gathered from the scanty notices of other writers, had up his forces in time for the battle of Waterloo, but many points in common with that of Valentinus, but shows marched into France and took part in the occupation of to an alınost greater extent the influence of Oriental mysParis. He was rewarded for his services by being made ticism and imagery. He begins, as do all the other Gnosprince and field-marshal. He died in 1818 at Insterburg, tics, with postulating the existence of the Unknown God in Prussia, while on his way to the Bohemian baths. or Father, the ground of all the forms of being. Alongside