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its abominations, amongst which are included all papistical from the company of other men. In Philpott's sixth exand semi-papistical works. The fifth relates to pastors of amination in 1555 we are told that Lord Riche said to him, the church. They assert that the pastor should be some “ All heretics do boast of the Spirit of God, and every one one of the flock who has a good report from those who would have a church by himself, as Joan of Kent and the are without. “His office is to read, adınonish, teach, learn, Anabaptists." Philpott was imprisoned soon after Mary's exhort, correct, or excommunicate in the church, and to accession in 1553; and it is very pleasing to find, amidst preside well over all the brethren and sisters both in the records of intense bitterness and rancor which characprayer and in the breaking of bread; and in all things terized these times, and with which Romanist and Protestant that relate to the body of Christ, to watch that it may be alike assailed the persecuted Baptists, a letter of Philpott's; established and increased so that the name of God may by to a friend of his," prisoner the same time in Newgate," us be glorified and praised, and that the mouth of blas- who held Baptist opinions. His friend had written to ask phemers may be stopped." The sixth article relates to his judgment concerning the baptism of infants. Philpott the power of the sword. “The sword,” they say, " is the in a long reply, whilst maintaining the obligation of infant ordinance of God outside the perfection of Christ, by baptism, yet addresses his correspondent as," dear brother, which the bad is punished and slain and the good is de- saint, and fellow-prisoner for the truth of Christ's gospel;" fended." They further declare that a Christian ought not and at the close of his argument he says, “I beseech thee, to decide or give sentence in secular matters, and that he dear brother in the gospel, follow the steps of the faith of ought not to exercise the office of magistrate. The seventh the glorious martyrs in the primitive church, and of such article relates to oaths, which they declare are forbidden as at this day follow the same.” During the whole of the by Christ.

16th century, and through the greater part of the 17th, However much we may differ from the points maintained whatever changes took place in the state church, the Bapin these articles, we cannot but be astonished at the ve- tists in England, together with other dissenters, continued hemence with which they were opposed, and the epithets to suffer persecution. Archbishop Sandys, about the year of abuse which were heaped upon the unfortunate sect that 1576, says: “It is the property of froward sectaries,” maintained them. Zwingli, through whom they come amongst whom he classes Anabaptists, “whose inventions down to us, and who gives them, as he says, that the world cannot abide the light, to make obscure conventicles;" may see that they are " fanatical, stolid, audacious, impious," and though he admits that “when the gospel is persecan scarcely be acquitted of unfairness in joining together cuted, secret congregations are allowed,” he declares that two of them,-the fourth and fifth, -thus making the as the gospel,"strengthened with the civil hand,” is now article treat “of the avoiding of abominable pastors in the publicly and sincerely preached, “such stray sheep as will church” (Super devitatione abominabilium pastorum in not of their own accord assemble themselves to serve the Ecclesia), though there is nothing about pastors in the Lord in the midst of this holy congregation, may lawfully fourth article, and nothing about abominations in the fifth, and in reason ought to be constrained thereunto.” There and though in a marginal note he himself explains that the is no doubt that a large number of the Baptists in England first two copies that were sent him read as he does, but the at this time came from Holland, but there is little reason other copies make two articles, as in fact they evidently to think that Fuller is correct when, after speaking of cerare. To us at the present day it appears not merely strange tain Dutch Anabaptists being seized in 1575, some of but shocking, that the Protestant Council of Zürich, which whom were banished and two burnt at Smithfield, he adds, had scarcely won its own liberty, and was still in dread of we are glad that English as yet were free from that the persecution of the Romanists, should pass a decree infection." ordering, as Zwingli himself reports, that any person who About the beginning of the 17th century the severe laws administered anabaptism should be drowned; and still against the Puritans led many dissenters to emigrate to more shocking that, at the time when Zwingli wrote, this Holland. Some of these were Baptists, and an English cruel decree should have been carried into effect against Baptist Church was formed in Amsterdam about the year one of the leaders of the Anabaptists, Felix Mantz, who 1609. In 1611 this church published " a declaration of had himself been associated with Zwingli, not only as a faith of English people remaining at Amsterdam in Holstudent, but also at the commencement of the work of land." The article relating to baptism is as follows:Reformation. No doubt the wild fanaticism of some of “That every church is to receive in all their members by the opponents of infant baptism seemed to the Reformers baptism upon the confession of their faith and sins, wrought to justify their severity. In 1537 Menno Simonis joined by the preaching of the gospel according to the primitive himself to the Anabaptists and became their leader. His institution and practice. And therefore churches constimoderation and piety, according to Mosheim, held in tuted after any other manner, or of any other persons, are check the turbulence of the more fanatical amongst them. not according to Christ's testament. That baptism or washHe died in 1561, after a life passed amidst continual ing with water is the outward manifestation of dying unto dangers and conflicts. His name remains as the designa- sin and walking in newness of life ; and therefore in no tion of the Mennonites, who eventually settled in the Neth- wise appertaineth to infants.” They hold“ that no church erlands under the protection of William the Silent, Prince ought to challenge any prerogative over any other;" “ that of Orange.

magistracy is a holy ordinance of God;" "that it is lawful Of the introduction of Baptist views into England we in a just cause for the deciding of strife to take an oath by have no certain knowledge. Fox relates that “the regis- the name of the Lord.”. ters of London make mention of certain Dutchmen counted The last execution for heresy in England by burning for Anabaptists, of whom ten were put to death in sundry alive took place at Lichfield, April 11, 1612. The conplaces in the realm, anno 1535; other ten repented and demned person, Edward Wightman, was a Baptist. Much were saved." In 1536 King Henry VIII., as“ in earth uncertainty rests on the history of the Baptists during the supreme head of the Church of England,” issued a proc- next twenty years. It would seem that many members lamation together with articles concerning faith agreed of the Brownist or Independent denomination held Baptist upon by Convocation, in which the clergy are told to in- views. An independent congregation in London, gathered struct the people that they ought to repute and take "the in the year 1616, included several such persons, and as the Anabaptists' opinions for detestable heresies and to be ut- church was larger than could conveniently meet together terly condemned.” The document is given in extenso by in times of persecution, they agreed to allow these persons Fuller, who further tells us from Stow's Chronicles that, in to constitute a distinct church, which was formed on the the year 1538, "four Anabaptists, three men and one 12th September, 1633; and upon this most, if not all, the woman, all Dutch, bare faggots at Paul's Cross, and three members of the new church were baptized. Another Bapdays after a man and woman of their sect was burnt in tist church was formed in London in 1639. These churches Smithfield.” In the reign of Edward VI., after the return were “Particular" or Calvinistic Baptists. The church of the exiles from Zürich, Hooper writes to his friend formed in 1609 at Amsterdam held Arminian views. In Bullinger in 1549, that he reads“ a public lecture twice 1644 a Confession of Faith was published in the names of in the day to so numerous an audience that the church seven churches in London “commonly (though falsely) cannot contain them," and adds, "the Anabaptists flock called Anabaptist,” in which were included the two (confluunt) to the place and give me much trouble.” It churches just mentioned. The article on baptism is as would seem that at this time they were united together in follows:-"That baptism is an ordinance of the New Tescommunities separate from the Established Church. Lati-tament given by Christ to be dispensed only upon persons mer, in 1552, speaks of them as segregating themselves professing faith, or that are disciples, or taught, who, upon

VOL. III.-116

e profession of faith, ought to be baptized." "The way occasions an address to the sovereign in state, a privilege and manner of dispensing this ordinance the Scripture which they still enjoy. holds out to be dipping or plunging the whole body under The Baptists were early divided into two sections,—those water." They further declare that "a civil magistracy is who in accordance with Arminian views held the doctrine an ordinance of God,” which they are bound to obey. of “General Redemption,” and those who, agreeing with How well they understood the distinction between the the Calvinistic theory, held the doctrine of “Particular rights of conscience and the rights of the civil magistrate Redemption;" and hence they assumed respectively the is shown with remarkable clearness :

names of General Baptists and Particular Baptists. In the

last century many of the General Baptists had gradually “We believe,” they say, “ that in all those civil laws which adopted the Arian, or perhaps the Socinian theory;

whilst, have been acted by them (the supreme magistracy), or for the on the other hand, the Calvinism of the Particular Baptists present are or shall be ordained, we are bound to yield subjec- had in many of the churches become more rigid, and tion and obedience unto in the Lord, as conceiving ourselves approached or actually became Antinomianism. In 1770 bound to defend both the persons of those thus chosen, and all the orthodox portion of the General Baptists formed themcivil laws made by them, with our persons, liberties, and estates, selves into a separate association, under the name of the much from them in not actively submitting to some ecclesiasti. General Baptist New Connection, since which time the cal laws, which might be conceived by them to be their duties “Old Connection" has gradually merged into the Unitarto establish, which we for the present could not see, nor our con- ian denomination. Somewhat later many of the Particular sciences could submit unto; yet are we bound to yield our per- Baptist churches became more moderate in their Calvinism, 8ons to their pleasures."

a result largely attributable to the writings of Andrew

Fuller. Up to this time the great majority of the Baptists They go on to speak of the breathing time which they have admitted none either to membership or communion who had of late, and their hope that God would, as they say, were not baptized, the principal exception being the "incline the magistrates' hearts so for to tender our con- churches in Bedfordshire and Hertfordshire, founded or sciences as that we might be protected by them from wrong, influenced by Bunyan, who maintained that difference of injury, oppression, and molestation;", and then they proceed: opinion in respect to water baptism was no bar to com"But if God withhold the magistrates

' allowance and further- munion. At the beginning of the present century this ance herein, yet we must, notwithstanding, proceed together question was the occasion of great and long-continued in Christian communion, not daring to give place to suspend discussion, in which the celebrated Robert Hall took a our practice, but to walk in obedience to Christ in the pro- principal part. The practice of mixed communion gradufession and holding forth this faith before mentioned, even ally spread in the denomination. Still more recently many in the midst of all trials and afflictions, not accounting our Baptist churches have considered it right to admit to full goods, lands, wives, children, fathers, mothers, brethren, membership persons professing faith in Christ, who do not sisters, yea, and our own lives, dear unto us, so that we agree with them respecting the ordinance of baptism. Such may finish our course with joy; remembering always that churches justify their practice on the ground that they we ought to obey God rather than men.” They end their ought to grant to all their fellow Christians the same right confession thus: “If any take this that we have said to of private judgment as they claim for themselves. It may be heresy, then do we with the apostle freely confess, that not be out of place here to correct the mistake, which is by after the way which they call heresy worship we the God no means uncommon, that the terms Particular and General of our fathers, believing all things which are written in the as applied to Baptist congregations are intended to express Law and in the Prophets and Apostles, desiring from our this difference in their practice, whereas these terms relate, souls to disclaim all heresies and opinions which are not as has been already said, to the difference in their doctrinal after Christ, and to be stedfast, unmovable, always abound- views. The difference now under consideration is expressed ing in the work of the Lord, as knowing our labor shall by the terms “strict” and “open,” according as communion not be in vain in the Lord.” The breathing time of which (or membership) is or is not confined to persons who, accord. they speak was not of long continuance. Soon after the ing to their view, are baptized. Restoration (1660) the meetings of Nonconformists were The Baptists early felt the necessity of providing an continually disturbed by the constables, and their preachers educated ministry for their congregations. Some of their were carried before the magistrates and fined or imprisoned. leading pastors had been educated in one or other of the One instance of these persecutions will, perhaps, be more English universities. Others had by their own efforts impressive than any general statements. In the records of obtained a large amount of learning, amongst whom Dr. one of the churches at Bristol still existing, and having, John Gill was eminent for his knowledge of Hebrew. He now and for perhaps nearly two centuries, their place of is said to have assisted Bishop Walton in the preparation meeting in Broadmead, but at this time meeting in divers of his Polyglot. Mr. Edward Terrill, from whose Records places, we find this remark: “On the 29th of November, we have already quoted, and who died in 1685, left a 1685. our pastor, Brother Fownes, died in Gloucester jail, considerable part of his estate for the instruction of young having been kept there for two years and about nine months men for the ministry, under the superintendence of the a prisoner, unjustly and maliciously, for the testimony of pastor of the church now meeting in Broadmead, Bristol, Jesus and preaching the gospel. He was a man of great of which he was a member. Other bequests for the same learning, of a sound judgment, an able preacher, having purpose were made, and from the year 1720 the Baptist great knowledge in divinity, law, physic, &c.; a bold and Academy, as it was then called, received young men as patient sufferer for the Lord Jesus and the gospel he students for the ministry amongst the Baptists. Fifty preached.” From the same records we learn that on the years later, in 1770, a society, called the Bristol Education 25th March, 1683, whilst Mr. Fownes was preaching in the Society, was formed to enlarge this academy; and it was wood where they were accustomed secretly to meet, they still further enlarged by the erection of the present Bristol were surrounded by horse and foot. Mr. Fownes was taken Baptist College about the year 1811. In the North of and committed "to Gloucester jail for six months on the England a similar Education Society was formed in 1804 Oxford Act." The record adds, “ the text Brother Fownes at Bradford, Yorkshire, which has since been removed to had been preaching from was 2 Tim. ii. 9.” There could Rawdon near Leeds. In the metropolis a college was scarcely have been found a more appropriate text for his formed in 1810 at Stepney, and was removed to Regent's last sermon to the congregation, -“Wherein I suffer trouble Park in 1856. The Pastors' College in connection with as an evil doer even unto bonds; but the word of God is the Metropolitan Tabernacle was instituted in 1856. not bound.”

Besides these, the General Baptists have maintained a With the Revolution of 1688, and the passing of the Act college since 1797 which at present is carried on at Chile of Toleration in 1689, the history of the persecution of well, near Nottingham. A theological institution, intend. Baptists, as well as of other Protestant dissenters, ends. ed to promote the views of the "Strict” Baptists, has lately The removal of the remaining disabilities, such as those (1866) been established at Manchester. There is also a imposed by the Test and Corporation Acts repealed in Baptist theological institution in Scotland, and there are 1828, has no special bearing on Baptists more than on three colleges in Wales. The total number of students in other Nonconformists. The ministers of the "three de- these institutions may be reckoned to be about 200. nominations of dissenters," —Presbyterians, Independents, The Baptists were the first denomination of British Chris. and Baptists, ---resident in London and the neighborhood, tians that undertook the work of missions to the heathen, had the privilege accorded to them of presenting on proper which has become so prominent a feature in the religious activity of the present century. As early as the year 1784, of Sigismund I. of Poland, who had rebuilt the town after the Northamptonshire Association of Baptist churches re- its destruction in 1452 by the Tatars. From 1672 to 1699 solved to recommend that the first Monday of every month it remained in possession of the Turks. In 1678 a conshould be set apart for prayer for the spread of the gospel, spiracy of the Polish nobles, Pulaski, Krasinski, and others, a practice which has since, as a German writer remarks, against the Russians was formed in the town, which was extended over all Protestant Christendom, and we may add shortly after taken by storm, but did not become finally over all Protestant Missions. Six years later, in 1792, the united to Russia till the partition of 1793. Eleven fairs Baptist Missionary Society was formed at Kettering in North- are held

every year, but the trade of the place is not very amptonshire, after a sermon on Isaiah lii. 2, 3, preached by great. Population, 8077. the afterwards celebrated William Carey, the prime mover BAR-HEBRÆÚS. See ABULFARAGIUS, vol. i. p. 60. in the work, in which he urged two points: "Expect great BAR-LE-DUC, or BAR-SUR-ORNAIN, the chief town of things from God; attempt great things for God.". In the the department of Meuse in France. It occupies the de course of the following year Carey sailed for India, where clívity and base of a hill, in lat. 48° 46' 8" N., long. 5° 9' he was joined a few years later by Marshman and Ward, 47'' E., on the River Ornain, a tributary of the Marne, and the mission was established at Serampore. The great 125 miles E. of Paris, and consists of an upper and lower work of Dr. Carey's lile was the translation of the Bible town, the latter being the more modern and respectable of into the various languages and dialects of India. The so- the two. It is a railway station on the Paris-and-Strasciety's operations are now carried on, not only in the East, | burg line, and the Marne-and-Rhine canal passes in the but in the West Indies, Africa, and Europe. In 1873 there immediate vicinity. A college, a normal school, a society were employed 87 European missionaries and 229 native of agriculture and arts, and a public library, are among its pastors and evangelists, at 423 stations,-the total number educational institutions. The only building of mark is of members of churches being 32,444. The funds of the the church of St. Pierre, which contains a curious figure society amounted to upwards of £40,000, exclusive of the of a half decayed body in white marble, originally formamount raised at mission stations. In 1816 the General ing part of the mausoleum of Réné of Chalons, Prince of Baptists established a missionary society, the operations of Orange. The castle, which formed the nucleus of the upwhich are confined to India. It employs 16 missionaries, per town, was built by Frederic I., duke of Lorraine, in male and female, and 16 native preachers, and has an an- the 10th century. Louis XI. got possession of the place nual income of £14,000.

and caused it to be fortified in 1474. It was dismantled In regard to church government, the Baptists agree with under Louis XIV. in 1670, but retains a few relics of the the Independents that each separate church is complete in ancient works. An extensive traffic is maintained in wood, itself, and has, therefore, power to choose its own ministers, wine, and wool; and the manufactures of cotton stuffs, hats, and to make such regulations as it deems to be most in hosiery, leather, and confections, are considerable, the lastaccordance with the purpose of its existence, that is, the mentioned article being especially celebrated. Population advancement of the religion of Christ. A comparatively in 1872, 15,175. The district of Bar was governed by a small section of the denomination maintain that a “plu- series of counts from 959 to 1354, when it was raised to a rality of elders" or pastors is required for the complete or- duchy, which in 1419 was ceded to René of Anjou, and ganization of every separate church. This is the distinct- henceforward followed the fortunes of Lorraine. The motto ive peculiarity of those churches in Scotland and the north of the dukes, which has been adopted by the town, was of England which are known as Scotch Baptists. The lar- Plus penser que dire. Their coins were usually distingest church of this section, consisting at present of 484 mem- guished by two barbels. bers, originated in Edinburgh in 1765, before which date BAR-SUR-AUBE, the chief town of an arrondissement only one Baptist church-that of Keiss in Caithness, formed in the departnıent of Aube, in France. It is a station on about 1750-appears to have existed in Scotland. The the Paris-and-Mulhouse line, and is situated on the right greater number of the churches are united in associations Bank of the River Aube, at the foot of Sainte-Germaine, in voluntarily formed, all of them determined by geograph- a picturesque district, the wine of which is much esteemed. ical limits except the General Baptist Association, which It is a pretty little town, with a few remains of its ancient includes all the churches connected with that body. The fortifications. There are several churches of considerable associations, as well as the churches not in connection with antiquity—the most remarkable being Saint Maclou. In them, are united together in the Baptist Union of Great 1814 Bar-sur-Aube was the scene of several conflicts between Britain and Ireland, formed in 1813. This union, how- Oudinot and the Allied Army, in which the latter ultimately ever, exerts no authoritative action over the separate gained the victory. Population in 1872, 4453. Long. churches. One important part of the work of the union 4° 44' E., lat. 48° 13' N. is the collection of information in which all the churches BAR-SUR-SEINE, the chief town of an arrondissement are interested. According to the Baptist Handbook for the in the department of the Aube, in France. In the Middle present year (1875), there are in the United Kingdom- Ages Bar-sur-Seine was a place of considerable importance, Baptist churches, 2612; places of Worship, 3321 ; pastors, and, according to Froissart, contained no fewer than 900 1916; members, 254,998.

“hôtels” or mansions. It was devastated in 1359 by Some of the English settlers in all parts of the world marauders from Lorraine, and suffered greatly in the rehave carried with them the principles and practice of the ligious wars of the 16th and 17th centuries. A battle was Baptists. The introdụction of Baptist views in America fought here in 1814 between the French and the Allies. was due to Roger Williams, who emigrated to Boston, Mas- Long. 4° 24' E., lat. 48° 5' N. Population in 1872, 2798. sachrzetts, in 1630. Driven from Massachusetts on account BĂRA BANKI, a district of British India under the of hij denying the power of the civil magistrate in matters jurisdiction of the Chief Commissioner of Oudh, lies between of religion, he formed a settlement and founded a state in 26° and 28° of N. lat. and 81° and 82° of E. long. It is Rhode Island, and having become a Baptist he formed, in bounded on the N.W. by the district of Sítápur; on the 1639, the first Baptist church in America, of which he was N. by Bharáich; on the N.E. by Gondá; on the E. by also for a short time the pastor. It is impossible here to Faizábád ; on the S. by Sultánpur and Rai Barelí ; and on trace the history of the Baptists in the United States. In the W. by Lucknow. The district stretches out in a level 1873 there are reported—churches, 20,520; ministers, 12,589; plain interspersed with numerous jhils or marshes. In the members, 1,633,939. The great majority of the churches upper part of the district the soil is sandy, while in the lower practice "strict" communion. Their missionary society is part it is clayey, and produces finer crops. The principal large and successful, and perhaps is best known in this coun- rivers are the Ghagrá (Gogra), forming the northern boundtry through the life of devoted labor of Dr. Judson in Bur- ary, and the Gúmtí, flowing through the middle of the mah. There are many Baptist churches also throughout Brit- district. Both are navigable by country cargo boats. ish America. In the more recent colonies of Australia and Area, 1735 square miles, of which 1244 are classified as New Zealand a large number of Baptist churches have been follows:-821 cultivated, 172 culturable but not cultivated, formed during the last twenty-five years, and have been prin- and 251 unculturable waste. Estimated population in cipally supplied with ministers from England. (F. W. G.) 1869, 875,587, or 650 to the square mile, living in 148,166

BAR, a town of Russian Poland, in the government of houses and 2065 villages; Hindus, 748,061; MahomPodolia, 50 miles N.E. of Kaminetz. It is situated on the etans, 127,315; Christians, 76. Population in 1872, River Rov, an affluent of the Bug, and was formerly called 1,101,954 souls. Five towns in the district contain over by that name itself. Its present designation was bestowed 5000 inhabitants-Nawabganj, 10,496; Rudaulí, 12,517 ; in memory of Bari in Italy, by Bona Sforza, the consort Fathipur, 7494; Dariábád, 5999; and Rámnagar, 5714. '[Jobo Clark, a refugee from Massachusetts, was the founder in Newport in 1638 of the first Baptist Church. See Vol. XVII., p. 417.-AM. ED.) Principai crops, and their acreage:-Rice, 132,459 acres ; | 1853 ; Histoire du Directoire de la République Française wheat, 224,583; pulses and other food grains, 304,636; (1855); Études Historiques et Biographiques (1857); La oil-seeds, 23,000; sugar-cane, 29,586 ; cotton, 509; opium, Vie Politique de M. Royer-Collard (1861). The version of 3423; indigo, 4875; fibres, 675; tobacco, 6051 ; and vege- Hamlet for M. Guizot's Shakespeare was the work of M. de tables, 6351 acres. The agricultural stock and beasts of Barante. He spent the last eighteen years of his life in burden in the district consisted in 1871-72 of 83,232 cows retirement in Auvergne, and died there on November 22, and bullocks, 1000 horses, 2590 ponies, 2840 'donkeys, 1866. 75,928 sheep and goats, 51,060 pigs, 1181 carts, 26,121 BARANYA, a province in the kingdom of Hungary, ploughs, and 1533 boats. Of the population returned in extending over 1960 square miles. It lies in the angle 1869, 741,989 were agriculturists, and 133,598 non-agricul- formed at the junction of the Danube and the Drave, is turists. The means of communication within the district traversed by offshoots of the Styrian Alps, and contains consist of 337 miles of well-made roads, and 78 miles of one city, 13 market-towns, and 341 villages. The inrailway were under construction in 1872. Total revenue habitants number about 283,500, and consist of Magyars, in 1871-72, £165,662, of which £157,505, or 95 per cent., Germans, Croatians, and Servians, a large proportion being was derived from the land. The police consists of (1), a Roman Catholics. The greater part of the land is fertile, regular constabulary force, 490 strong, maintained at a but a portion of it is marshy and unhealthy. The chief cost of £6812 per annum; and (2), the village watch, products are corn, wine, fax, tobacco, asparagus, and numbering 9558 men; total, 10,048, or about 1 to each 100 potash. Warm springs are found at Tapolcza, Siklós, and of the population, according to the estimate of 1872. Harkany. There are some valuable quarries of marble and

BARAHAT, a town of northern Hindustán, situated in millstones, and numerous coal-mines. The rearing of sheep the Himálayas, and within the native state of Garhwal, in and swine is largely engaged in. The province is subdi30° 43' N. lat. and 78° 29' E. long. The town was almost vided into six circles. The capital is Fünfkirchen, with a destroyed in 1803 by an earthquake-a calamity greatly population of 23,863. aggravated by the houses having been built of large BARANZANO, JEAN ANTOINE, surnamed Redemptus, stones, with slated roofs. From its central position, it an eminent natural philosopher and mathematician, was maintains a free communication with all parts of the hills, born in Piedmont in 1590, and died at Montargis in 1622. and those who make the pilgrimage to Gangotrí generally He was a Barnabite monk, and was for a time professor balt here and lay in a stock of provisions for the journey of philosophy and matheniatics at Annecy. His princiIn the neighborhood stands a curious trident in honor of pal works are Uranoscopia (1617), De Novis Opinionibus Siva. The pedestal is of copper, the shaft of brass about Physicis (1619), Campus Philosophicus (1620). He was 12 feet, and the forks about 6 feet in length. There is no greatly esteemed by Lord Bacon, with whom he corre tradition to show the origin of this curious relic; and sponded. Bacon's letter to him (Spedding, Letters and Life although it bears a legible inscription, no one has as yet Of Bacon, vii. 374-6) shows that he thoroughly appreciated deciphered it. The temple in which it was formerly the new philosophy, and could see its weak as well as its enclosed was destroyed by the earthquake of 1803. strong points. BARANTE, AMABLE GUILLAUME PROSPER, Baron de

BÁRÁSAT, a subdivisional town in the district of the Brugière, an eminent French statesman, and the learned 24 Parganás, under the jurisdiction of the Lieutenant-Govhistorian of the dukes of Burgundy, was the son of an ernor of Bengal, situated in 22° 43' 24" N. lat. and 88° advocate, and was born at Riom, June 10, 1782. At the 31' 45'' E. long. For a considerable time Bárásat town age of sixteen he entered the Ecole Polytechnique at Paris, was the headquarters of a joint magistracy, known as the and at twenty obtained his first appointment in the civil Bárásat District,” but in 1861, on a re-adjustment of service. His abilities secured him rapid promotion, and boundaries, Bárásat district was abolished by order of Gorin 1806 the post of auditor to the council of state was given ernment, and was converted into a subdivision of the 24 to him. After being employed in several political missions Parganas. Population in 1872–Hindus, 6649; Mahometin Germany, Poland, and Spain, during

the next two years, ans, 5133; Christians, 30; and others, 10; total, 11,822. he became prefect of Vienne. At the time of the return of Municipal income, £363; expenditure, £289, 4s. ; rate of Napoleon 1. he held the prefecture of Nantes, and this municipal taxation, 7td. per head. It forms a striking post he immediately resigned. About this period he illustration of the rural character of the so-called “towns married. On the second restoration of the Bourbons he in Bengal, and is merely an agglomeration of 41 separate was named councillor of state and Secretary-general of the villages, in which all the operations of husbandry go on Ministry of the Interior. About the same time he was precisely as in the adjacent hamlets. elected to the Chamber of Deputies for the two departments BARATIÈRE, or BARETTIER, JOHN PHILIP, a very of Puy-de-Dôme and Loire Inférieure; but in the following remarkable instance of precocious genius, was born at year,

in consequence of being under the legal age of a Schwabach near Nuremberg on the 10th January, 1721. deputy, as required by a new law, he lost his seat. After His early education was most carefully conducted by his filling for several years the post of Director-general of father, Francis Paratière, pastor of the French church at Indirect Taxes, he was created, in 1819, a peer of France, Schwabach, and so rapid was his progress that by the time and took an active and prominent part as a member of the he was five years of age he could speak French, Latin, and opposition in the debates of the Upper Chamber. During Dutch with ease, and read Greek fluently. He then enthe same period the leisure hours which he could spare gaged in the study of Hebrew, and in three years was able from his political engagements were devoted to literary to translate the Hebrew Bible into Latin or French, or to studies. After the revolution of July, 1830, M. de Barante retranslate these versions into the original Hebrew. From was appointed ambassador to Turin; whence, five years his reading he collected materials for a dictionary of rare later, he was transferred in the same capacity to St. and difficult Hebrew words, with critical and philological Petersburg. Throughout the reign of Louis Philippe he observations; and when he was about eleven years old transremained a supporter of the Government; and after the lated from the Hebrew Tudela's Itinerarium. In his fourfall of the monarchy in February, 1848, he withdrew from teenth year he was admitted Master of Arts at Halle, and political affairs and retired to his country seat in Auvergne. received into the Royal Academy at Berlin. The last years Shortly before his retirement he had been made Grand of his short life he devoted to the study of history and anCross of the Legion of Honor. As a scholar his opus tiquities, and had collected materials for histories of the magnum is the Histoire des Ducs de Bourgogne de la Thirty Years' War_and of Antitrinitarianism, and for an Maison de Valois, which appeared in a series of volumes Inquiry concerning Egyptian Antiquities. His health, whicn between 1824 and 1828. It procured him immediate ad- had always been weak, gave way completely under these mission among the Forty of the French Academy; and its labors, and he died on the 5th October, 1740, aged 19 years great qualities of scholarship, impartiality, accuracy, and and 8 months. He had published eleven separate works, purity of style, have given him a place among the greatest and left a great quantity of manuscript materials. French historians. Amongst the other literary works of BARATYNSKI, JEWGENIJ ABRAMOVITCH, a distin. M. de Barante are a Tableau de la Littérature Française guished Russian poet, was born in 1792. He was educated au dixhuitième Siècle, of which several editions were pub- at the royal school at St. Petersburg, and then entered the lished; Des Communes et de l'Aristocratie (1821); a French army. He served for eight years in Finland, and appears translation of the dramatic works of Schiller; Questions to have got into disgrace on account of some foolish pranks Constitutionelles (1850);. Histoire de la Convention Na- which he had played. During these years he composed tionale, which appeared in six volumes between 1851 and | his first poem, Eva, which bears very manifest traces of his

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residence in Finland. Through the interest of friends he rocks. The highest elevation, Mount Hillaby, is 1104 teel obtained leave from the Czar io retire from the army, and above the level of the sea. The island contains but few settled near Moscow. There, so far as his broken health streams or streamlets. The gullies or ravines, the result, would allow him, he devoted his time to poetry, and com- no doubt, of volcanic agency, are, however, very numerous, pieted his chief work, The Gipsy, which has been spoken radiating from the high semicircular ridge of the coralline of by critics as the best poem of its kind in the Russian formation in a very regular manner to the west, north, and language, and as fully equal, if not superior, to the finest south, but not to the east, where the coral rocks end productions of Pouschkin. This was his only work of any abruptly. The chalky soil of the district called Scotland extent; his health gave way completely, and he died in (from its assumed resemblance to the scenery of the 1844 at Naples, whither he had gone for the sake of the Highlands) contains infusoria, and is altogether different milder climate. A collected edition of his poems appeared from the deposits of the coral animals which form the superat St. Petersburg, in 2 vols., in 1835.

ficial area of six-sevenths of the island (91,000 acres). BARBACENA, a town of Brazil, in the province of Besides the chalk or marl, sandstone is found in this district. Minas-Geraes, situated, at the height of about 3500 feet The climate of Barbados is healthy; the temperature above the sea, in the Sierra Mantiqueira, 150 miles N.W. equable. For eight months in the year the sea breezes of Rio de Janeiro. It has low houses and broad streets, keep it delightfully cool for a tropical country. The extent and contains a town-hall, a prison, a hospital, founded in of cultivation, the absence of swamps (the porous character 1852 by Antonio Ferreira Armond, and a "school of inter- of the rock immediately underlying the soil preventing mediate instruction,” in which French history and geometry accumulations of stagnant water) account for the freedom are taught. The trade is principally in gold-dust, cotton, from miasma. The destruction of the forests may have and coffee. Population of town and district, 14,000. made the rainfall—upon which successful cultivation de

BARBADOS, or BARBADOES, the most windward of the pends-somewhat uncertain, but does not seem to have Caribbean Islands, is situated in lat. 13° 4' N. and long. affected it to such an extent as might have been anticipated. 59° 37' W., 78 miles E. of St. Vincent, the island nearest The rainfall is caused, apart from elevation, by the exposure to it in the Caribbean chain. It lies in the track of vessels, l of the land to those winds laden with moisture which

strike the island at different periods of the year. The average rainfall of the four years 1753-6 was 55.89 inches ; of the twenty-five years 1847–71, 57.74 inches; of the single year 1873, 51.26 inches. The

sugar production of the island is calculated at 800 Stronare the landlocko

hogsheads of 16 cwt. each for every inch of rain. Cayo Core S!lpay

The N.E. trade-wind blows for three-fourths of the

year, and most of the rain comes from the same All stene

quarter. March is the driest of the months, and Oc.

tober the wettest; the average rainfall for the former Srecer

being 1} inch, and for the latter 9 inches. Leprosy Spergh is

is not uncommon among the negroes, and elephanO Tralloys

tiasis is so frequent as to be known by the name of “ Barbados leg.”

Bridgetown is the capital and port of the island, and the centre of business ac

Bridge tivity. It contains about 23,000 inhabit3: Joseph

Over the creek which received the waters from

the heights around the Indians had built a rude foreto St John

bridge. This was known for a long time after the si Marke

Ragged po British settlement as the Indian Bridge, but as the

settlement grew, and after the old bridge had been Kolege replaced by a more solid structure, the place received

the name of Bridgetown. The town was destroyed Tranicy

by fire in 1666, and rebuilt, principally of stone, upon

a larger scale. It suffered again from fire in 1766 and rested that

1845. It has a large town-hall. The Government

buildings are a handsome pile close to the sea. The Peluang BRIDGETOWN

town follows the curve of the bay. Behind it the Carlisle Bay

hills begin to rise, forming the first stepping-stone to Bertato meno

the higher lands of the interior. At the southern extremity are the extensive buildings for the garri. son, Barbados being the headquarters of the troops in the West Indian command.

Opinions differ as to the derivation of the name of Point

the island. It is probably the Spanish word for the

hanging branches of a vine which strike root in the Sketch-Map of Barbados.

earth. In maps of the 16th century the island appears

under various names, among which are St. Bernardo, and is well adapted to be an entrepôt of commerce. It has | Bernardos, Barbudoso, Baruodos, and Baruodo. The traces nearly the size and proportions of the Isle of Wight, being of Indians in this island are more numerous than in any other 21 miles in length, and about 14miles in its broadest part of the Caribbees. The first recorded visit of It has a superficial area of 106,470 acres, or about 166 Englishmen was in the year 1605, when the History. square miles,—70,000 acres (besides grass land) are under crew of the “Olive Blossom ” landed, and erected a cross as cultivation, and nearly 30,000 acres of sugar-cane are an- a memorial of the event, cutting at the same time upon the nually cut. The island is almost encircled by coral reefs, bark of a tree the words "James, king of England and of which in some parts extend seaward nearly three miles. this island.” This party of adventurers did not settle, but There are two lighthouses, one on the south point and from the time of their visit the history of Barbados begins. another on the south-east coast. A harbor light has also That history has some special features. It shows the probeen placed on Needham's Point. The harbor, Carlisle cess of peaceful colonization, for the island, acquired withBay, is a large open roadstead. The inner harbor, or out conquest or bloodshedding, has never since been out of careenage, for small vessels, is protected by a breakwater the possession of the British. It was the first English called the Molehead. Barbados presents every variety of colony where the sugar-cane was planted. Its colonists scenery, -hill and valley, smooth table-land and rugged have almost from the beginning enjoyed representative rocks. From one point of view the land rises in a suc- institutions, and the full measure of English freedom. cession of limestone and coral terraces, which indicate They have always defended their rights with spirit, and different periods of upheaval from the sea. From another shown consistent loyalty to the Crown. The prominence ibere is nothing to be seen but a mass of abruptly-rising and accessibility of the island have made it important as a

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