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not till 1716, however, that Compagnon, under the auspices. As. Soc., Bengal; Julien, Pålerine Bouddhistes ; E. Thomas

(E. Y.) of De la Brue, the governor of Senegal, succeeded by great in J. R. A6. Soc. &c.) address, and not without risk, in visiting various parts of the auriferous region; and his explorations were followed BAMPTON, REV. JOHN, founder of the series of up by David, Levens, and others. Raffenel visited the divinity lectures at Oxford known as the Bampton Lectures, country in 1844, and Pascal, a naval lieutenant, was there appears to have been born in 1689 and to have died in in 1859. A few commercial stations or comptoirs have 1751. He was a member of Trinity College, Oxford, and recently been established.

for some time canon of Salisbury. His will directs that

eight lectures shall be delivered annually on as many SunSee Lubat, Rel. de l'Afr. occid.; Do Golbéry, Voy, en Afr. day mornings in full term,“ between the

commencement of en 1785; Amédée Tardieu, “Sénégambio” in the Univers pitto... the last month in Lent term and the end of the third week resque ; 'Raffenel, Voy, dans l'Afr. occid.,

1846; Revue algéri- in Act term, upon either of the following subjects:—to con enne et coloniale for March, 1860; Faidherbe, Chapitres de géo- | firm and establish the Christian faith,

and to confute all graphie and Annuaire de Sénégal.

heretics and schismatics—upon the divine authority of BÁMIÁN, a once renowned city in the territory now the Holy Scriptures-upon the authority of the writings subject to the Afghans, in 34° 50' N. lat., 67° 44' E. long. of the primitive fathers, as to the faith and practice of Its remains lie in a valley of the Hazara country, on the the primitive Church-upon the divinity of our Lord and chief road from Kábul towards Turkestán, and immediately Saviour Jesus Christ-upon the divinity of the Holy at the northern foot of that prolongation of the Indian Ghost-upon the articles of the Christian faith as compreCaucasus now called Koh-i-Baba (see vol. i. pp. 204, 216); hended in the Apostles' and Nicene Creeds." The lecturer, The passes on the Kábul side are not less than 11,000 and who must be at least a Master of Arts of Oxford or Cam12,000 feet in absolute height, and those immediately to bridge, is chosen yearly by the heads of colleges, and no the north but little inferior. The river draining the valley one can be chosen a second time. The series of lectures is one of the chief sources of the Surkhåb or Aksarai, an began in 1780, and has continued to the present time unimportant tributary of the Upper Oxus (ibid. p. 216). The broken, with the exception of the years 1834 and 1835, prominences of the cliffs which line the valley are crowned when no lecturers were appointed, and 1841, when no by the remains of numerous massive towers, whilst their lectures were delivered. Several of the lecturers have precipitous faces are for 6 or 7 miles pierced by an infinity been men of great eminence and ability; Heber, for inof ancient cave-dwellings, some

of which are still occupied. stance, was selected in 1815, Whately in 1822, Milman in The actual site of the old city is marked by mounds and 1827, ’Horne in 1828, Hampden in 1832, Goulbourn in remains of walls, and on an isolated rock in the middle of 1850, Mansel in 1858, Liddon in 1866. The institution the valley are considerable ruins of what appears to have has done much to preserve, at least in some quarters, a been the acropolis, now known to the people as Ghulgúlah, high standard in English theology; and the lectures as a But the most famous remains at Bámián are two colossal whole form a very valuable body of apologetic literature. standing idols, carved in the cliffs on the north side of the

BANANA (Musa sapientum), a gigantic herbaceous valley. Burns estimates the height of the greater at 120 plant belonging to the natural order Musacer, originally a feet, the other at half as much. These images, which have native of the tropical parts of the East, but now cultivated been much injured, apparently by cannon-shot, are cut in in all tropical and sub-tropical climates. It forms a spuriniches in the rock, and both images and niches have been ous kind of stem, rising 15 or 20 feet by the sheathing coated with stucco. There is an inscription, not yet inter- bases of the leaves, the blades of which sometimes measure preted or copied, over the greater idol, and on each side as much as 10 feet in length by 2 feet across. The stem of its niche are staircases leading to a chamber near the bears several clusters of fruit, which somewhat resemble head, which shows traces of elaborate ornamentation .in cucumbers in size and form ; it dies down after maturing azure and gilding. The surface of the niches also has the fruit. The weight of the produce of a single cluster been painted with figures. In one of the branch valleys is is sometimes as much as 80 tb, and it was calculated by a similar colossus, somewhat inferior in size to the second Humboldt that the productiveness of the banana as com. of those two; and there are indications of other niches and pared with wheat is as 133 to 1, and as against potatoes 44 idols. As seen from the rock of Ghulgúlah, Bámián, with to 1. The varieties of banana cultivated in the tropics aro its ruined towers, its colossi, its innumerable grottoes, and

as numerous as the varieties of apples in temperate re with the singular red color of its barren soil, presents an gions, and the best authorities now agree that no specific impressive aspect of desolation and mystery.

difference exists between it and the plantain. The fruit is That the idols of Bámián, about which so many conjectures extensively used as food; and in many of the Pacific have been uttered, were Buddhist figures, is ascertained from islands it is the staple on which the natives depend. In the narrative of the Chinese pilgrim, Hwen Thsang, who saw its immature condition it contains much starch, which on them in their splendor in 630 A.D. His description of the posi- ripening changes into sugar; and as a ripe fruit it has a tion of the city and images corresponds accurately with modern sweet but somewhat flavorless taste. From the unripe reports. He assigns to the greater image, which was gilt (the fruit, dried in the sun, a useful and nutritious flour is preobject, probably, of the plaster coating), a height of 140 or 150 feet, and to the second 100. The latter would seem from his position of the pulp of the ripe fruit:--Nitrogenous matter:

pared. The following represents the percentage comaccount to have been sheathed with copper. Still vaster than these was a recumbent figure, 2 miles east of Bámián, repre- | 4.820; sugar, pectin, &c., 19•657 ; fatty matter, 0·632; senting Sakya Buddha entering Nirvana, i.e., in act of death. cellulose, 0:200; saline matter, 0.791; water, 73.900. An This was “about 1000 feet in length.” No traces of this are analysis of the flour by Dr. Murray Thomson yielded the alluded to by modern travellers, but in all likelihood it was only following results :-Water, 12:33; starch, 71.60; gum and formed of rubble plastered (as is the case still with such Nir- sugar, 6.82; nitrogenous matter, 2:01; cellulose, 5:99; oil, eána figures in Iudo-China), and of no durability. For a city 0:50; salts, 0.64. $0 notable Bámián has a very obscure history. It does not BÁNAT, a district in the south-east of Hungary, conseem possible to identify it with any city in classical geography: sisting of the three counties of Thorontal, Temeswar,

and Alexandria ad Caucasum it certainly was not. The first known Krasso, which has strangely acquired this title, though it mention of it seems to be that by Hwen Thsang, at a time when apparently it had already passed its meridian, and was the head

was never governed by a "ban.” It is bounded by the of one of the small states into which the empire of the White Theiss, the Maros, and the Danube, forming almost á regHuns had broken up. At a later period Bamian was for half a ular parallelogram. The soil is in many parts a remarkacentury, ending 12Î4 A.D., the seat of a branch of the Ghori bly rich alluvial deposit. Under the Turkish yoke it was dynasty ruling over Tokharistán, or the basin of the Upper allowed to lie almost desolate in marsh and heath and forOxus. The place was long besieged, and finally annihilated est; but Joseph II. determined to render it, if possible, a (1222) by Chinghiz Khan, whose wrath was exasperated at the populous and prosperous district. He accordingly offered death of a favorite grandson by an arrow from its walls. There land, at a very low rate, to all who were willing to settle appears to be no further record of Bámián as a city; but the within its borders. Germans, Greeks, Turks, Servians, spot in indicating that the city must have been rebuilt after the Italians, and Frenchmen responded to his call, and soon time of the Mongols, and again perished. In 1840, during the developed the agricultural resources of the region. Canals British oceupation of Kábul, Bamián was the scene of an action were formed at great expense of labor; marshes and forests in which Colonel Denny with a small force routed Dost Mahum- were cleared; and now the Banat is one of the most highly med Khan, accompanied by a number of Uzbeg chiefs. (Burnes, cultivated parts of the Austrian empire. Wheat, barley, Journey to Bokhara ; Masson's Journeys, and his papers in the oats, rye, rice, maize, flax, hemp, rape, sun-flowers, tobacco, grapes, and, in short, nearly all the productions of Europe, the capital, has upwards of 3000 inhabitants. “The houses, are successfully raised. The climate in summer is very which mostly belong to Chinamen, are neatly built and like that of Italy, and in winter is milder than in other well painted; the streets are kept in good repair, and the parts of Hungary. Nor is it any longer unhealthy, though, whole place has an air of enterprise and thrift” (ride Bickin 1777, Born spoke of it with horror as a realm of death, more's East Indian Archip., 1868). There are several other and the account given of it in 1802 by Dr. Samuel Clarke forts on the island. It belongs to the Dutch, who derive was not much better. The scenery is extremely diversified, from it upwards of 3,000,000 guilders, or £250,000, of anfrom the plains of Thorontal to the snowy mountains of nual income, after the expenses of the administration are Krasso. The mineral wealth is considerable, including paid. copper, tin, lead, zinc, iron, and especially coal. Among BANCROFT, RICHARD, Archbishop of Canterbury in its numerous mineral springs the most important are those the reign of James I., distinguished as an inflexible opof Menadia, which were known to the Romans as Thermce ponent of Puritanism, was born at Farnworth in LancaHerculis. Not only there but in other parts of the Banat shire in 1544. He was educated at Cambridge University, numerous remains of the Roman occupation still exist. studying first at Christ's College, and afterwards at Jesus The various origin of its inhabitants may still be easily College. He took his degree of B.A. in 1567, and that of traced,—the separate settlements having kept remarkably M.A. in 1570. Ordained about that time, he was named distinct, and in many cases preserving their native languages chaplain to Dr. Cox, then bishop of Ely, and in 1575 was and customs. The chief town is Temeswar, and other places presented to the rectory of Teversham in Cambridgeshire. of importance are Lugos, Kikinda, Becskereli, and Wer- The next year he was one of the preachers to the universchitz. Population about 1,500,000.

sity, and in 1584 was presented to the rectory of St. Anenna, 1785; Hietzinger, Versuch einer Statistik der Militär- secured him rapid promotion, and at length the highest See Griselini, Versuch einer Gesch. des Temeswar Banats, Vi- drews, Holborn. His unquestionable abilities, and his zeal

as a champion of the church in those unsettled times, grenze des Oesterreich. Kaiserth., Vienna, 1781; Böhm, Ge- ecclesiastical position in the land. He graduated B.D. in schichte des Temeswar Banate, Leipsic, 1881; Paget, Hungary, 1580, and D.D. five years later. In 1585 he was appointed 1855.

treasurer of St. Paul's Cathedral, London. On February BANBRIDGE, a town of Ireland, county of Down, on 9, 1589, he preached at Paul's Cross a sermon on 1 John the Bann, 23 miles S.W. of Belfast, standing on the sum- iv. 1, the substance of which was a passionate attack on mit of an eminence. To facilitate access, a central car- the Puritans. He described their speeches and proceedriage-way, 200 yards long, has been cut through the main ings, caricatured their motives, denounced the exercise of street to a depth of 15 feet, the opposite terraces being con- the right of private judgment, and set forth the divine nected by a bridge. Banbridge is a neat town, with a right of bishops in such strong language that one of the handsome church, several chapels, a market-house (built in queen's councillors held it to amount to a threat against the 1831), and a court-house. It is the principal seat of the supremacy of the Crown. Sixteen days after the publicalinen trade in the county, and has extensive cloth and tion of this ecclesiastical manifesto, Bancroft was made a thread factories, bleachfields, and chemical works. Popu- prebendary of St. Paul's. Within a few years he was au. lation in 1871, 5600.

vanced to the same dignity in the collegiate church of BANBURY, a market-town, municipal and parliament- Westminster, and in the cathedral church of Canterbury. ary borough, and railway junction, in the county of Oxford, He was chaplain successively to Lord Chancellor Hat71 miles from London, and a little

ton and Archbishop Whitgift. In May, 1597, he was conto the west of the River Cherwell

secrated bishop of London; and from this time, in conand the Oxford and Birmingham

sequence of the age and incapacity for business of Archcanal. It is well built, and has

bishop Whitgift, he was virtually invested with the two or three foundries, several

power of primate, and had the sole management of breweries, and some other manu

ecclesiastical affairs. Among the more noteworthy cases factures, but is chiefly dependent

which fell under his direction were the proceedings against on the neighboring villages which

Martin Mar-Prelate, Cartwright and his friends, and the send their agricultural produce

pious Penry, whose "seditious writings" he caused to be to its market. It was formerly

intercepted and given up to the Lord Keeper. In 1600 he famous for its cheese, and gives its

SVORIS.SOLO SCVT

was sent on an embassy, with others, to Embden, for the name to a kind of cake of consid

Banbury Arms. purpose of settling certain matters in dispute between the erable repute. Its ancient cross,

English and the Danes. This mission, however, failed. now destroyed, is celebrated in the well-known nursery Bishop Bancroft was present at the death of Queen Elizarhyme. During the 17th century the inhabitants of Ban- beth. He took a prominent part in the famous conference bury seem to have been zealous Puritans, and are frequently of the prelates and the Presbyterian divines held at Hampsatirized by contemporary dramatists (Chambers's Book of ton Court in 1604. By the king's desire he undertook the Days, vol. ii. p. 316). At a somewhat earlier period the vindication of the practices of confirmation, absolution, grammar school, which is now defunct, was of such repute private baptism, and lay excommunication; he urged, but as to be chosen as the model for the constitution of the in vain, the reinforcement of an ancient canon, that schisschool of St. Paul's. A school of science was erected in matics are not to be heard against bishops;" and in opposi1861. Banbury returns one member to parliament, and tion to the Puritans' demand of certain alterations in docthe borough (which is partly in Northamptonshire) had, trine and discipline, he besought the king that care might in 1872, a population of 11,726, of whom 4122 were in the be taken for a praying clergy; and that, till men of learning town.

and sufficiency could be found, godly homilies might be BANCA, BANKA, or BANGKA, an island off the east read and their number increased. In the capacity of a coast of Sumatra, and separated from it by the Strait of commissioner for ecclesiastical causes (1603), he advocated Banca, lies between lat. 1° 30' and 3° 7' s., and long. 105° severe measures for the suppression of " heresy and 9 and 106° 54' E. It varies from 8 to 20 miles in breadth, schism,” treating books against Episcopacy as acts of sediand has an area of 5000 English square miles. Its mines tion, and persecuting their authors as enemies of the state. of tin, which were discovered in 1710, are remarkably pro- In March, 1604, Bancroft

, in consequence of the death of ductive, and in 1872 yielded no less than 68,148 piculs, the the primate, was appointed by royal writ president of Con. average yield during the previous ten years being 73,961 vocation then assembled ; 'and he there presented for piculs. The washing is almost wholly carried on by Chi- adoption a book of canons collected by himself. In the nese, and a large part of the metal finds its way to their following November he was elected successor to Whitgift country. Iron, copper, lead, silver, and arsenic, are also in the see of Canterbury. He had now but six years of found in the island. The soil is generally dry and stony, life before him. He continued to show the same zeal and and the greater part of the surface is covered with forests, severity as before, and with so much success that Lord in which the logwood tree especially abounds. Its moun- Clarendon, writing in his praise, expressed the opinion that tains, which scarcely exceed 2000 feet in height, are cov- “if Bancroft had lived, he would quickly have extin. ered with vegetation to their summits. They are of gran- guished all that fire in Engiand which had been kindled itic formation, containing felspar, quartz, mica, and tour- at Geneva.” In 1605 he was sworn a member of the Privy maline. Population, 54,339, including 17,070 Chinese, Council. The same year he engaged in a contest with the 37.070 natives, 116 Europeans, and 56 Arabs. Muntak, | judges, and exhibited articles of complaint against them

[graphic]

before the lords of the council; but these complaints were cause deaths among the natives from exposure to the mid-day overruled. He enforced discipline and exact conformity heat. Rainfall in 1870–71, 51.3 inches. within the church with an iron hand; and forty-nine min

Banda has formed an arena of contention for the successive isters of the church were deprived of their livings for races who have struggled for the sovereignty of India. Kadisobedience to his injunctions. In 1608 he was chosen linjar town, the capital, was unsuccessfully besieged by Mahmud chancellor of the University of Oxford. One of his latest of Ghazni in 1023

A.D.; in 1196 it was taken by Kutab-ud-din,

the general of Muhammad Ghorí; in 1545 og Sher Shah, who, public acts was a proposal laid before the parliament for however, fell mortally wounded

in the assault. About the year improving the revenues of the church. In the last few 1735 the Raja of Kalinjar's territory, including the present months of his life he took part in the discussion about the district of Bảndá, was bequeathed to Baji Ráo, the Marhatta consecration of certain Scottish bishops, and it was in pur. Peshwá; and from the Marhattás it passed by the treaties of suance of his advice that they were consecrated by several 1802–3 to the Company. bishops of the English Church. By this act were laid tho BANDA ISLANDS, a group in the East Indian foundations of the

Scottish Episcopal Church. Archbishop Archipelago, lying to the S. of Ceram, lat. 4° 30' S. and Bancroft was "the chief overseer” of the authorized ver- long. 129° 50' E. They are ten or twelve in number, and sion of the Bible, published within a year of his death. have an area of about 1150 square miles. Their volcanic He died at Lambeth Palace, November 2, 1610. His lite origin is distinctly marked. Banda Lantoir, which derives erary, remains are very few and unimportant.

its name from the lontar or Palmyra palm, is the largest BÁNDÁ, a district of British India, in the Allahabad of the group. From the sea this island appears lofty, division, under the Lieutenant-Governor of the North, its sides being steep, and crowned by a sort of table-land Western Provinces, lies between 24° 59' 15'' and 25° 55' which extends nearly from one end to the other. The 30' N. lat., and 80° 2' 45'' and 81° 38' E. long. It is whole is one continuous forest of nutmeg and Canari trees, bounded on the N. by the district of Fathipur, from which the latter being planted to screen the former from the wind. it is separated by the River Jamná; on the N.E. by the Theunhealthiness of Lantoir has prevented it from becoming districts of Fathipur and Alláhábád; on the S.E. by the the seat of government, for which in other respects it would native state of Riwá; on the S. and S.W. by some of the naturally be chosen. The village of Selam contains the petty states of Bundelkhand; and on the W. and N.W. by ruins of the chief Portuguese settlement. A considerable the district of Hamírpur. Area, 3030 square miles, of fort, called Hollandia, commands the harbor. Banda which 1390 are under cultivation, 848 cultivable but not Neira lies S. of Lantoir. It is the seat of the Dutch rescultivated, 108 revenue free, and 684 uncultivable waste. ident, whose jurisdiction extends not only over the Banda The census of 1872 took the area at 2908.68 square miles, Islands, but also over a part of Ceram and several other and returned the district population at 697,610 souls, small groups. Fort Nassau, which was built in 1609, is piz., Hindus, 657,107; Mahometans, 40,497 ; Christians, the chief defence of the islands; and to the right and left 6. Average density, 230 persons to the square mile. Of of it extends the village of Neira. Gunong Api is to the the population in 1872, 2897 were landed proprietors, north of Neira, and derives its name-Fire Mountain 42,230 agriculturists, and 63,644 non-agriculturists

. In from its large cone-shaped volcano, which rises 2320 feet some parts the district rises into irregular uplands and above the level of the sea, and is constantly emitting smoke. elevated plains, interspersed with detached rocks of gran- The peak was ascended' by Professor Reinwardt in 1821, ite; in others it sinks into marshy lowlands, which fre- by M. S. Müller in 1828, and in 1865 by Mr. Bickmore, quently remain under water during the rainy season. who has given an interesting account of the adventure. The sloping country on the bank of the Jamná is full of Eruptions took place in 1586, 1598, 1609, 1615, 1632, ravines. To the S.É. the Vindhya chain of hills takes its 1690, 1696, 1712, 1765, 1775, 1778, 1820, 1824;

and origin in a low range not exceeding 500 feet in height, and earthquakes without eruptions occurred in' 1629, 1683, forming a natural boundary of the district in that direc 1710, 1767, 1816, and 1852. On the last occasion the sea tion. The principal river of the district is the Jamná, swept up in an enormous wave over Fort Nassau. Pulo which flows from north-west to south-east, along the N.E. Way—the Water Island—lies north of Neira. It is about boundary of the district for 125 miles. Its most important 400 or 500 feet high, consists of coral rock, and is esteemed tributaries within the district are the Ken, Bágain, Paisuní, the healthiest of the group. Pulo Rond or Roon-the and Ohán, all of which take their rise in the Vindhya Chamber Island—is about four miles further N., and was hills. The principal towns and market villages in the at one time the seat of an English "factory.” Rosyngain, district are Mau, Májhgaon or Rájápur, Marká, Samgará, about seven miles S.E. of Lantoir, is likely to become of Augásí, Chillá, and Barágáon, all situated on the bank of some importance for its gold mines. It was formerly a the Jamná.

convict station for Amboyna. Pulo Pisang-Banana Island The black soil of the district yields abundant crops of wheat, —two miles N.E. of Neira, produces fine fruits. The other barley, maize, millet of various sorts, rice, and pulses. Hemp, islands, Craka, Capella, Sonangy, &c., are uninhabited. oil-seeds, sugar, and indigo aro also grown, but by far the most In the space between Banda Lantoir and the islands of important crop is cotton, for which the district is so celebrated Banda Neira and Gunong Api there is a very good harbor, that the produce is distinguished in commerce as “ Bándá Cot- formed with entrances both from the E. and w., which ton.” The estimated acreage under the principal crops—Gram enable vessels to enter it from either of the monsoons. (Cicer arietinum), 138,662 acres; wheat, 134,247 ; maize, 126,198 ; cotton, 69,667; barley, 60,976; rice, 20,987; total, | These channels are well defended with several batteries, 550,737 acres, or 866-52 square miles. The total cultivated area particularly the western one, which is very narrow. Beof the district is returned at 1390 square miles. The manufac- tween Gunong Api and Banda Neira there is a third tures of Bándé consist of coarse cotton-cloth, sackcloth, and channel into this harbor from the N., but it is navigable stone handles for knives. Iron and building stone form the for small vessels only. The principal articles of commerce only mineral products. The revenue of the district amounted in the Banda group are nutmegs and mace. The native in 1870–71 to £167,488, the expenditure being £63,425. Since population having been cleared off by the Dutch, the the acquisition of the country by the British, eight settlements plantations were worked by slaves and convicts till the last (1834–35) of these adjusted the demand at £134,904, and emancipation of 1860. The introduction of Malay and the total collecions amounted in 1870-71 to £131,275. ' In 1871 Chinese laborers has since taken place. The plantations the regular police force of 620 men was maintained at a cost of

or perken can neither be sold nor divided. About 700,000 £8920, while a rural constabulary of 2552 men was maintained tb or upwards of nutmegs are obtained in a year, with a at the cost or the landholders and villagers. In 1871-72 there proportionate quantity of mace. The imports are proviswere 214 schools in the district, with an average daily attend- ions, cloth, and iron-ware from Batavia, and various native ance of 4695 pupils; expenditure, £2194, of which Government productions from the Aru Islands, Ceram, &c. paid £754. Bảndá district has only two towns containing The Banda Islands were discovered and annered by the upwards of 5000 inhabitants, viz., Bándá (27,746) and Girwán Portuguese Abreus about 1511; but in the beginning of (8670). Bándá, the headquarters of the district, lies on the the 17th century his countrymen were expelled by the right bank of the River Ken, in lat. 25° 28', long, 80° 23'. Dutch. In 1608 the English built a factory on Pulo Way, Thirty-six miles of the Jalalpur branch of the East Indian Rail, which was demolished by the Dutch as soon as the Eng; way lie within the district, and eleven first-class roads afford lish vessel left. Shortly after, however, Banda Neira and good means of communication-the most important road, both commercially and for military purposes, being that from Mánik. Lantoir were resigned by the natives to the English, pur to Chilla. The climate of Bárdá is cold in the winter and in 1620 Pulo Roon and Pulo Way were added to montba, and terribly hot in summer. Frost is rare, except their dominions; but, in spite of treaties into which they in the moist land adjoining the rivers ; the hot winds frequently I had entered, the Dutch attacked and expelled their British rivals. In 1654 they were compelled by Cromwell to with the bishop of Volterre, to whom he acted in the restore Pulo Roon, and to make satisfaction for the mas- capacity of secretary. He was introduced to the emperor, sacre of Amboyna; but the English settlers not being and took the opportunity of dedicating to that monarch adequately supported from home, the island was retaken his Specimen Litteraturæ Florentinæ, which was then printby the Dutch in 1664. They retained undisturbed pos- ing at Florence. On his return he took orders, and setsession of their conquests in this quarter of the globe tled at Rome, passing the whole of his time in the library until the year 1796, when the Banda Islands, along with of the Vatican, and in those of the Cardinals Passionei all the other Dutch colonies, were conquered by the British. and Corsini. The famous obelisk of Augustus, at that They were restored by the treaty of Amiens in the year time disinterred from the ruins of the Campus Martius, 1800, again captured, and finally restored by the treaty of was described by Bandini in a learned folio volume, De Paris concluded in 1814. In the Presidency of Banda Obelisco Augusti. Shortly after he was compelled to leave there are 111,194 inhabitants, of whom 6000 belong to Rome on account of his health and returned to Florence, Neira.

where he was appointed librarian to the valuable library See Wallace's Malay Archipelago ; Bickmore's Indian Archi- bequeathed to the public by the Abbé Marucelli. In 1756 pelago ; Linden's Banda en Zijne bewoners, 1873; Trans. of he was preferred by the emperor to a prebend at Florence, Dutch Geog. Soc., 1874.

and appointed principal librarian to the Laurentian library. BANDELLO, MATTEO, an Italian novelist, was born During forty-four years he continued to discharge the at Castelnuovo, near Tortona, about the year 1480. He duties of this situation, and died in 1800, generally esreceived a very careful education, and entered the church, teemed and regretted. On his death-bed he founded a though he does not seem to have prosecuted his theolog- public school, and bequeathed the remainder of his fortune ical course with great zeal. For many years he resided at to other charitable purposes. The most important of his Mantua, and superintended the education of the celebrated numerous works are the Catalogus Codd. MSS. Groec., Lat., Lucrezia Gonzaga, in whose honor he composed a long Ital., Bib., Laurent., 8 vols., 1787–1778, and the Vita e Letpoem. The decisive battle of Pavia, which gave Lom- tere d’Amerigo Vespucci, 1745. bardy into the hands of the emperor, compelled Bandello BANDOŇ, or “BANDONBRIDGE, an inland town and to fly; his house at Milan was burnt and his property parliamentary borough of Ireland, in the county of Cork, confiscated. He took refuge with Cesar Fregoso, an Italian and twenty miles by rail from the county town, is situated general in the French service, whom he accompanied into on both sides of the River Bandon, which is here crossed France. In 1550 he was raised to the bishopric of Agen, by a bridge of six arches. It has two churches, a handa town in which he resided for many years before some Roman Catholic chapel, Protestant and Methodist his death in 1562. Bandello wrote a number of poems, places of worship, a convent, two market-houses, a spacious but his fame rests entirely upon his extensive collection quay on the south side of the river, an infirmary, a hospital, of Novelle, or tales, which have been extremely popular. a dispensary, several public libraries and reading-rooms, aa They belong to that species of literature of which Boccac- endowed school, a court-house, a bridewell, and barracks. cio's Decameron and the queen of Navarre's Heptameron Its manufactures of woollen and cotton goods have much are, perhaps, the best-known examples. The common ori- declined; but there are distilleries, breweries, tanneries, gin of them all is to be found in the old Fabliaux of the and flour-mills. Population in 1871, 6131. French Trouveurs, though some well-known tales are evi- BANFF, county town of Banffshire, Scotland, is a place dently Eastern, and others classical. Bandello's novels of great antiquity; according to tradition, it was at times are esteemed the best of those written in imitation of the the residence of Malcolm Canmore. It was visited by Decameron, though Italian critics find fault with them for David I. and his son Henry; and there is a charter of negligence and inelegance of style. They have little value Malcolm IV., signed at Banff the eleventh year of his in a purely literary point of view, and many of them are reign, which corresponds with 1163. The church was disfigured by the grossest obscenity. Historically, how given to the monastery of Arbroath by William the Lion, ever, they are of no little interest, not only from the insight and a convent of Carmelite or White Friars is meninto the social life of the period which they afford, but tioned in a charter by Robert I., 1324. The town is said from the important influence they exercised on the Eliza- to have lost many of its ancient grants, but these, it is bethan drama. The stories, on which Shakespeare based added, were renewed in 1324 by King Robert the Bruce, several of his plays, were supplied by Bandello, probably and in 1372 by Robert II. The natural situation of the through Belleforest or Paynter (see Simrock, Quellen des town is beautiful, having its south-eastern exposure on a Shakespeare). The same is true of Massinger, Beaumont gentle slope, the wide blue sea on its N., the River Deveron and Fletcher, and others. The most convenient edition of on the E., and on the S. the richly-wooded country with Bandello is that in 9 vols., 1813.

the magnificent mansion and grounds of the earl of Fife. BANDINELLI, BARTOLOMMEO, or Baccio, a Floren- | The streets are well and regularly built and paved, and are tine sculptor, was born in 1487, and died 1559. His father remarkable for their cleanliness. The principal buildings was an eminent goldsmith, distinguished for his exquisite are Banff Castle, a plain modern building, belonging to the designs in chasing gold and silver ornaments; and in this earl of Seafield, erected upon the site of an old castle, in domestic school Bandinelli obtained the first elements of which Archbishop Sharp was born: the county cour drawing. Showing a strong inclination for the fine arts, he buildings; the town-house, surmounted by a spire 100 was early placed under Rustici

, a sculptor, and a friend of feet high; a prison; parish church, Episcopal church and Leonardo da Vinci, with whom he made rapid progress. parsonage, Free Church, United Presbyterian, Independent, The ruling motive in his life seems to have been jealousy Methodist, and Roman Catholic places of worship; Chalof Michel Angelo, one of whose cartoons he is said to have mers' Hospital; a mason lodge, of tasteful architecture, the torn up and destroyed. Vasari, who gives a very full his- academy, a modern edifice of Grecian design, capable of tory of his life, manifests the greatest dislike for his moral containing 600 scholars, to which there is attached an character, but at the same time gives him the highest extensive museum. There are large and well-conducted praise as an artist. He is regarded by some as inferior in seminaries for young ladies, also several libraries, a clubsculpture only to his great rival, Michel Angelo; at all room, branch banks and a savings-bank, public baths, events, his productions entitle him to a very high place hotels, custom-house, gas and water works, &c. The Banffamong Italian sculptors. His best works are the marble shire Journal, a weekly newspaper, with an extensive circu. colossal group of. Hercules and Cacus in the Piazza del lation, is published on Tuesdays. At one period Banff Gran Duca ; his group of Adam and Eve; his exquisite carried on a considerable manufactory of stockings and bassi-rilievi in the choir of the cathedral of Florence; his linen yarn. A branch of the great North of Scotland copy of the Laocoon; and the figures of Christ and Nicode Railway, which leaves Inveramsay Junction and termimus on his own tomb. (See Vasari, Lives, iii. 232–296.) nates at Macduff, is the direct communication from Aber

BANDINI, ANGELO MARIA, an Ítalian author, was born deen, and has a station at Bridge of Banff. Another line at Florence on the 25th Sept., 1726. Having been left an of railway, which has its terminus at the harbor of Banff, orphan in his infancy, he was supported by his uncle, runs in connection with Portsoy, and joins the Great North Joseph Bandini, a lawyer of some note. He received his of Scotland Railway at Grange, near Keith. The principal education among the Jesuits, and showed a special inclina- exports are grain, cattle, salmon, herrings, haddocks, pork, tion for the study of antiquities. His first work was a butter, and potatoes. The river fishing is the property of dissertation, De Veterum Şaltationibus, published in 1749. the earl of Fife

, with a sea-line extending a considerable In 1747 he undertook a jouruey to Vienna, in company distance on each side of the river mouth. The burgh is under the jurisdiction of a provost, three bailies, and five , nected with this series also beds of limestone are very comcouncillors, who manage all the town's affairs. Mr. Alex- mon, and have been quarried in many places, as near Boyne ander Cassie of London, a native of Banff

, some thirty Castle, Sandend, and Fordyce in the north, and in the inyears ago, left to the poor of the town about £20,000, the terior near Keith, Mortlach, and Tomintoul. interest of which is divided twice a year among the poor. Clayslate occurs in considerable abundance in Banffshire, A few years ago, Mr. Alexander Chalmers of Clunie, a in some places perhaps merely a finer variety of mica slate, general merchant and shipowner in Banff, left about in others coarser in texture, or so-called greywacke. Large £70,000 to build and endow a hospital for sick and desti- masses are seen near Boharme and from Dufftown south to tute. The building, which is near the harbor, has some- Kirkmichael. It also forms the north coast from Knock what the appearance of Donaldson's Hospital at Edinburgh. Head by Banff, Macduff

, and Gamrie, to the Troup Head, The town of Macduff, which is fast rising into import- often rising into bold, lofty cliffs, and extends south to ance, has a good harbor, branch banks, &c. It is about a Gartly. In several places it is wrought for roofing slates mile to the E. of Banff, with which it has communication by both in this county and in Aberdeenshire. Though no a stone bridge of seven arches across the Deveron. Its trade fossils have yet been found in these strata, there is little in shipping, &c., is more extensive than that of Banff, to doubt that they are more or less metamorphosed representwhich burgh it was united by the Reform Act. It was an atives of the lower portions of the Palæozoic (Silurian and old burgh of barony, called "Doune, but soon after it was Cambrian) formations. acquired by the Duff family its name was changed to Mac- Resting on these rocks Devonian or Old Red Sandstone dutt

. A harbor was then erected, and in 1783 it was made and conglomerate beds are seen in a few places. Thus the a burgh by George III. Macduff is locally situated within Morayshire beds cross the Spey near Fochabers, running the parish of Gamrie, and has an independent municipal along the coast to Bud and in the Tynet Burn have government. Banff and Macduff unite with Elgin, Cullen, yielded many characteristic fossil fishes.' Gamrie, at the Inverurie, Kintore, and Peterhead, in sending a member to north-east extremity of the county, is also well known for parliament. Population within the parliamentary bound- similar remains occurring in calcareous nodules embedded aries in 1871, about 4000 ; municipality, 3557. The weekly in a bluish grey marly rock, from which they are washed market day of Banff is Friday, on which day a corn mar- out by a small stream on its way to the sea.

The more ket is held; and there are two annual fairs.

important species are Cheiracanthus Murchisoni, Cheirolepie BANFFSHIRE, a maritime county

in the N.E. of Scot- Uragus, Coccosteus cuspidatus, Diplopterus affinis, Glyptolepis land, lying between lat. 57° 6' and 67° 42' N., and long. elegans, Osteolepis arenatus, and Pterichthys Milleri. In the 2° 15' and 3° 40' N., and bounded on the N. by the Moray interior, near Tomintoul, another large deposit of red Firth, E. and S. by Aberdeenshire, and W. by Morayshire sandstone occurs, probably of the same age, but as yet no and part of Inverness-shire. It has an area of 686 square organic remains have been found in this locality. Indicamiles, or 439,219 statute acres, its extent from N. to s. tions of still more recent formations are seen in the chalk being 50 miles, and from E. to W. 32 miles,-its average Aints common in the vicinity of Portsoy, and in the Oolite breadth not exceeding 14 miles. It contains 21 parishes, fossils found in the brick clays at Blackpots. The raised and parts of 10 others. Its royal and parliamentary beach with recent shells

, more than 200 feet above the seaburghs are Banff, Macduff, and Cullen; and its principal level, near the old church of Gamrie, is also interesting. barbors are at Banff

, Macduff

, Callen, Portsoy, Buckie, As in other parts of Scotland, the surface of the country is and Portgordon. The parliamentary burghs are contribu- covered with masses of boulder clay and stratified drift tory to Elgin, and the county returns a member to par- beds, the materials often derived from a considerable disliament. The parliamentary constituency in 1874–5 was tance and some of the granite boulders several tons in 1737. Many of the schoolmasters, with those of the coun- weight. ties of Aberdeen and Moray, share in Dick's bequest. The most important igneous rock is granite. This rock,

The surface of Banffshire presents a very diversified aspect. a portion of the great central mass of the Grampians, forms The lower district is mostly a fine open country of a rich, the mountains in the extreme south of the country round deep, and highly-cultivated soil, agreeably diversified with the sources of the Avon. Benrinnes also consists of it, gentle risings and young plantations. The upper district and smaller masses are seen in Glenlivet and other localiis mountainous and, at a distance, wears a bleak, forbidding ties. The well-known “graphic granite” forms a vein on appearance. But the scene changes on a nearer approach. the coast near Portsoy, and gets its name from the quartz Extensive farms are found embosomed in its fertile and and felspar crystals appearing on the polished surface like well-cultivated glens. Some of the mountains are covered rude letters. Syenite, a compound of hornblende and with trees in full luxuriance of growth; some presenting a felspar, covers a large district running south from near beautiful intermixture of rock and copse, while others are Portsoy to Rothiemay and Huntly in Aberdeenshire. The covered with brown heath. The Spey flows along its serpentine of Portsoy, though long known, and said to have western, and the Deveron along its eastern boundary; and been' at one time extensively wrought and even sent to both yield a considerable revenue from their salmon-fish- France as an ornamental stone, is now almost neglected. ings. The principal mountains of Banffshire proper are Rocks of a similar character may be traced pretty much in Benrinnes and the Knockhill; but Cairngorm, Ben Mac- a south-west direction to near the sources of the Deveron, dhui, and Ben Aven, the highest sumroits in Britain, lie and from that into the upper parts of the Don in Aberon or close to the boundary. The principal_noblemen's deenshire. and gentlemen's seats are Duff House, Cullen House, Park Some interesting minerals have been found in Banffshire, House, Troup House, Forglen House, Drummuir, Kinin. Among them may be mentioned magnetite, chromite, and vie, Balvenie, Aberlour, and Rothiemay. Several of these asbestos at Portsoy; fluorite near Boharm, at Keith, and are elegant mansions, and most of them are surrounded by on the Avon; also cyanite and chiastolite in clayslate at extensive and tastefully laid-out plantations. The natural Boharm. Attempts were made many years ago to work a Woods are inconsiderable both in extent and value. vein of sulphuret of antimony near Keith ; and more re

The geology of Banffshire is very closely connected with cently mines of hæmatite were opened near Arndilly on that of the neighboring counties of Aberdeen and Moray, the Spey. from which it is divided by no natural boundaries. Gneiss, The agriculture of Banffshire is conducted upon the and to a greater extent mica slate, form the lowest stratified newest and most approved principles. The soil, though rocks running nearly south-west from the coast between varying even in adjacent fields, is in general rich and proCullen and Portsoy to the upper valleys of the Fiddach, ductive, yielding fair crops of wheat, and excellent crops Deveron, and Aven rivers. Generally they are fine grained, of barley, oats, &c.; and the grass and green crops are şlaty rocks, and form low rounded mountains, of no great equally abundant. About 163,000 acres are under cultibeauty, but decomposing into soils of considerable fertility. vation, the extent of the farms is in general from 150 to In many places the mica slate alternates or passes into 200 arable acres, independently of moorland and pasturequartzite, which differs from it chiefly in the almost entire grounds. The duration of leases is nineteen years; alabsence of mica. Quartzite in a more independent form though there are still some individuals who possess_on is seen on the coast between Cullen and Buckie, and forms life rent, and a few leases are held for a longer term. The also the Durn Hill near Portsoy, the Binn of Cullen, the whole of the farms, even the smallest pendicles, are under Knockhill

, and much of the high ground to the south. regular rotations of cropping, generally a five or seven Where it prevails the soil is far from fertile, and the white, course shift. The fields are well laid out and subdivided, Weather-beaten mountains have a very sterile aspect. Con- and properly cleaned and manured; for which last purpose

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