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ous and dangerous, as to require “the exaction of retribu- | khan. His rule was, however, a short one, for early in tion from that chieftain," and "the execution of such ar- 1864, when proceeding to Khelat, he was murdered in the rangements as would establish future security in that quar- Gundava Pass; and Khodadad was again elected chief by ter." General Willshire was accordingly detached from the very men who had only the previous year caused his the army of the Indus with 1050 men to assault Khelat. overthrow, and who had lately been accomplices to the A gate was knocked in by the field-pieces, and the town murder of his cousin. Since the above events Khodadad and citadel were stormed in a few minutes. Above 400 has maintained his precarious position with great diffiBaluches were slain, among them Mehrab Khan himself; culty ; but owing to his inability to govern his unruly suband 2000 prisoners were taken. Subsequent inquiries have, jects without material assistance from the British Govern. however, proved that the treachery towards the British was ment, which they are not disposed to give, his country has not on the part of Mehrab Khan, but on that of his vizier, gradually fallen into the greatest anarchy; and, conseMahomed Hassein, and certain chiefs with whom he was quently, some of the provisions of the treaty of 1854 having in league, and at whose instigation the British convoys been broken, diplomatic relations have been discontinued were plundered in their passage through Cutch-Gundava with the Khelat state since the end of 1874. and in the Bolan Pass. The treacherous vizier, however, The territories of Baluchistan are now comprised under made our too credulous political officers believe that Meh- the following divisions—Jalawan, Sarawan, Khelat, Mekran, rab Khan was to blame,,his object being to bring his Lus, Cutch-Gundava, and Kohistan. master to ruin and to obtain for himself all power in the The most remarkable features of this extensive country state, knowing that Mehrab's successor was only a child. are its rugged and elevated surface, its barrenness, and its How far he succeeded in his object history has shown. deficiency of water. The mass of mountains which forms In the following year Khelat changed hands, the governor the eastern boundary of that division of Baluchistan called established by the British, together with a feeble garrison, the Kohistan, or mountain territory, lying between the being overpowered. At the close of the same year it was capital, Khelat (lat. 29° 1' 38'' N., long. about 66° 39' E.), reoccupied by the British under General Nott. In 1841, and the plain country to the east of it

, designated Cutchee

, Nusseer Khan, the youthful son of the slain Mehrab Khan, or Cutch-Gundava, is composed of several parallel ranges was recognized by the British, who soon after evacuated the of limestone rock, in close proximity to each other, having country.

a general strike of N.N.E. to S.S.W. and a breadth of about From the conquest of Sindh by the British troops under 55 miles. This range originates in Afghanistan, and enters the command of the late General Sir Charles Napier in Baluchistan north of the Bolan Pass in about 30° N. lat. 1843 up to 1854, no diplomatic intercourse occurred worthy and about 60° 30' E. long. under the name Herbooe; and, of note between the British and Baluch states. In the lat- after throwing out a branch to the eastward, which touches ter year, however, under the governor-generalship of the the River Indus at Sehwan, terminates under the designalate marquis of Dalhousie, the late General John Jacob, tion of the Hala Mountains, at Cape Monze on the coast of C.B., at the time political superintendent and commandant the Arabian Sea, W. of Kurrachee, in about 25° N. lat. and on the Sindh frontier, was deputed to arrange and conclude 66° 68' E. long., thus having a total length of upwards of a treaty between the Khelat state, then under the chieftain. 300 miles. The highest mountain of this range is the ship of Meer Nusseer Khan, and the British Government. Chehil Tan, bearing about N. by E. 85 miles from Khelat, This treaty was executed on the 14th of May, 1854, and and attaining an altitude of 12,000 feet above the sea. was to the following effect:

The western range of the Herbooe Mountains in this por“That the former offensive and defensive_treaty, con- tion of Baluchistan are barren and without timber, and cluded in 1841 by Major Outram between the British Gov- scantily peopled with pastoral tribes of Brahoes, who emiernment and Meer Nusseer Khan, chief of Khelat, was to grate to the plains of Cutchee on the approach of the winbe annulled.

ter months. “That Meer Nusseer Khan, his heirs and successors, North of the Bolan River and Pass the Herbooe Mounbound themselves to oppose to the utmost all the enemies tains are met, in about lat. N. 30°, by confused ranges of the British Government, and in all cases to act in sub- of rough precipitous mountains, which extend to the eastordinate co-operation with that Government, and to enter ward with a strike nearly E. and W. to the Sooliman range, into no negotiations with other states without its consent. in about 29° 5' N. lat. and about 69° 30' E. long. This

“That should it be deemed necessary to station British tract is almost entirely inhabited by Murrees, Boogtees, and troops in any part of the territory of Khelat, they shall other tribes of Baluch plunderers, and is bounded on the occupy such positions as may be thought advisable by the N. by the province of Sewestan. South of these ranges lies British authorities.

the desert country, which touches the Sindh frontier in 28° “That the Baluch chief was to prevent all plundering on 27' N. lat. the part of his subjects within, or in the neighborhood of, The two principal water-courses which drain the Kohistan British territory.

portion of Baluchistan E. of Khelat are the rivers Bolan and “That he was further to protect all merchants passing Moola, the former rising about 60 miles N.E. of Khelat, the through his territory, and only to exact from them a latter at Anjeera, lat. 28° 19' N., long. about 66° 29' E., transit duty, fixed by schedule attached to the treaty; and about 45 miles south of that city. They both discharge that, on condition of a faithful performance of these duties, themselves into the plains of Cutchee, the former at Dadur, he was to receive from the British Government an annual | lat. about 29° 28' 51" N., long. about 67° 26' E., and the subsidy of 50,000 rupees (£5000).”

latter at Kotra near Gundava, lat. 28° 33' 47'' N., long. The provisions of the above treaty were most loyally about 67° 26' E. There is at all seasons a plentiful supply performed by Meer Nusseer Khan up to the time of his of clear running water in these streams, which is entirely death in 1856. He was succeeded by his brother, Meer used up for irrigational purposes on issuing into the plains. Khodadad Khan, the present ruler, a youth of twelve years They are subject to dangerous floods from sudden storms in of age, who, however, did not obtain his position before be the neighboring mountains during the rainy season. The had put down by force a rebellion on the part of his turbu- two easiest and safest passes from Central Asia into India lent chiefs, who had first elected him, but, not receiving take their names from these streams. South of the Moola what they considered an adequate reward from his treasury, the Gaj River issues into the plains, and its waters are also sought to depose him in favor of his cousin Shere dil Khan. absorbed in cultivation. The Nara issues into the plains In the latter part of 1857, the Indian rebellion being at its near Kujjuk, N.W. corner of Cutch-Gundava, in lat. about height, and the city of Delhi still in the hands of the rebels, 29° 36' N., and long. about 68° 2' E.; ordinarily its water a British officer (Major Henry Green) was deputed, on the is utilized entirely for cultivation in its course through the part of the British Government, to reside, as political Afghan province of Seebee; but at periods of heavy rains agent, with the khan at Khelat, and to assist him by his in the mountains it is liable to burst its banks, and then inadvice in maintaining control over his turbulent tribes. andates immense tracts in the Cutchee desert to the south. This duty was successfully performed until 1863, when, West of Khelat, as far as about 65° 30' E. long., the during the temporary absence of Major Malcolm Green, mountain ranges have much the same strike, and are of the the then political agent, Khodadad Khan was, at the insti- same nature as those to the eastward, but the ranges are gation of some of his principal chiefs, attacked, while out much narrower, more defined, and of a lower altitude. The riding, by his cousin, Shere dil Khan, and severely wounded. valleys between them vary from 5 to 15 miles in breadth; Khodadad fled in safety to a residence close to the British they are quite devoid of trees. The water courses generally border, and Shere dil Khan was elected and proclaimed follow the direction of the hills from N. 10 S., and in some instances during heavy rains their waters reach the Arabian | face of a hill on the opposite side of a plain, whence it Sea; but as a general rule they are absorbed long before meanders nearly through its centre, having the town and they reach the coast

, partly in cultivation, but principally suburbs on one side, and on the other the gardens. It by the sandy arid nature of the soil and excessive dryness may be remarked of this spring, that the waters, at their of the atmosphere, -due, probably, to the proximity of immediate issue from the smaller channels, possess a conthe great desert west of Kharan, which extends to the con- siderable degree of tepidity until after sunrise, when they fines of Persia. The most important of these water-courses suddenly become exceedingly cold, and remain so during is the Dustee or Mooleanee.

the day The climate of Baluchistan is extremely various in the We have no data from which we can form an accurate different provinces. The soil in general is exceedingly computation of the population of Baluchistan, but it may slony. In the province of Cutch-Gundava, however, it is be estimated at about 400,000. The two great races of rich and loamy, and so very productive, that, it is said, Baluch and Brahoe, each subdivided into an infinite number vere it all properly cultivated, the crops would be more of tribes, are clearly distinguished from each other by their than sufficient for the supply of the whole of Baluchistan. language and appearance. The Baluch, or Baluchekee, Gold, silver, lead, iron, tin, antimony, brimstone, alum, language partakes considerably of the idiom of the modern sal-ammoniac, and many kinds of mineral salts, and salt- Persian, although greatly disguised under a singularly petre, are found in various parts of the country. The corrupt pronunciation. The Brahoekee, on the other hand, precious metals have only been discovered in working for has nothing analogous to Persian, but appears to contain a iron and lead, in mines near the town of Nal, about 150 great number of ancient Hinduwee words; and, as it strikes miles S.S.W. of Khelat. The different other minerals the ear, bears a strong resemblance to the dialect spoken in above enumerated are very plentiful. The gardens of the Panjaub. The Baluches in general have tall figures, Khelat produce many sorts of fruit, which are sold at a long visages, and raised features; the Brahoes, on the convery moderate rate, such as apricots, peaches, grapes, trary, have short, thick bones, with round faces and flat almonds, pistachio-nuts, apples, pears, plums, currants, lineaments. cherries, quinces, figs, pomegranates, mulberries, plantains, The Baluches are a handsome, active race of men, not melons, guavas, &c. All kinds of grain known in India possessing great physical strength, but inured to changes are cultivated in the different provinces of Baluchistan, of climate and season, and capable of enduring every and there is abundance of vegetables. Madder, cotton, and species of fatigue. In their habits they are pastoral and indigo are also produced; and the latter is considered much addicted to predatory warfare, in the course of which superior to that of Bengal. Great attention is given to they do not hesitate to commit every kind of outrage and the culture of the date fruit in the province of Mekran. cruelty. Notwithstanding their predatory habits, however, The domestic animals of Baluchistan are horses, mules, they are considered to be a hospitable people. After the asses, camels, buffaloes, black-cattle, sheep, goats, dogs, fashion of other barbarous tribes in that part of the world, and cats, besides fowls and pigeons; but there are neither they will protect and kindly entertain a stranger while geese, turkeys, nor ducks. The wild animals are tigers, their guest, but feel no scruple in robbing and murdering leopards, hyenas, wolves, jackals, tiger-cats, wild dogs, him as soon as he has left their precincts. They are indofoxes, hares, mangooses, mountain goats, antelopes, elks, lent, and unless excited by amusement or war, or comred and moose deer, wild asses, &c. Of birds they have pelled to action by some urgent motive, spend their time almost every species to be met with either in Europe or in idleness, rude dissipation, and the enjoyment of such India.

coarse luxuries as they can procure-in lounging, gamThe principal towns in Baluchistan are as follows:- bling, smoking tobacco or hemp, and chewing opium. The KHELAT is the capital of the whole country; Mustoong, of tenets of their religion,--and still more, perhaps, their the province of Sarawan; Kozdar, of Jalawan; Beyla, of poverty, - preserve them from the abuse of fermented Beyla; Kej, of Mekran; Bagh, of Cutch-Gundava; and liquors. Their principal articles of food are milk in all Dadur and" Gundava are towns in the last-mentioned prov- its forms, the flesh of domestic animals, not excepting that ince.

of the camel, and game, including wild asses, the flesh of The capital stands on an elevated site 7000 feet above which is considered a delicacy. Their appetites are vorathe sea, on the western side of a well-cultivated plain or cious ; they consume incredible quantities of flesh when valley, about eight miles long and two or three broad, a it can be obtained, and prefer it in a half-cooked state. great part of which is laid out in gardens and other They also use grain in the form of bread, and prepared enclosures. The town is built in an oblong form, and on variously otherwise ; but they enjoy most such articles of three sides is defended by a mud wall, 18 or 20 feet high, food or condiment as possess a strong and stimulating flanked, at intervals of 250 yards, by bastions, which, as flavor, as capsicum, onions, and garlic. Their indolence well as the wall itself, are pierced with numerous loopholes prompts them to keep as many slaves as they can obtain for matchlock-men. The defence of the fourth side of the and support. Polygamy is universal. Some of the lower city has been formed by cutting away perpendicularly the orders have as many as eight women, either as wives or western face of the hill on which it is partly built. On mistresses, and the number is increased in proportion to the summit of this eminence stands the palace, command- the rank and means of the man. Wives are obtained by ing a distinct view of the town and adjacent country. purchase, payment being made in cattle or other articles That quarter of the hill on which the khan's residence is of pastoral wealth. The ceremony of marriage is pererected has been enclosed by a mud wall, with bastions; formed by the moollah or priest; and on this occasion, as the entrance to it is on the south-western side; and here, well as on some others affecting females, practices similar as well as at the city gates, which are three in number, to those of the Levitical law are observed. For instance, there is constantly a guard of matchlock-men. Both town in this country, as also among the Afghans, a man is exand citadel are, however, completely commanded by the pected to marry the widow of a deceased brother. When surrounding hills, and are incapable of offering any resist- a death takes place, the body is watched for three successance against artillery. Within the walls there are upwards ive nights by assembled friends and neighbors, who spend of 2500 houses, and the number of these in the suburbs their time in feasting, so that the ceremony seems intended probably exceeds one-half of that amount. The houses are rather to furnish enjoyment to the living than to render mostly built of half-burnt brick or wooden frames, and honor to the dead. plastered over with mud or mortar. In general, the streets The common dress of the Brahoes is a coarse white or are broader than those of native towns, and most of them blue calico shirt, buttoned round the neck, and reaching have a raised pathway on each side for foot-passengers, and below the knee; their trousers are made of the same cloth, have also an uncovered kennel in the centre, which is a or of a kind of striped stuff called soosee, and puckered auisance, from the quantity of filth thrown into it, and the round the ankles. On their heads they wear a small silk stagnant rain-water that lodges there. The upper stories of or cotton quilted cap, fitted to the shape of the skull, and the houses frequently project across the street, and thereby a kummurbund or sash, of the same color, round their render the part beneath them gloomy and damp. This waists. The Baluches wear a similar dress, but a turban seems a very rude attempt to imitate the bazaars of Persia on the head and wide trousers unconfined at the ankle. In and Cabul. The bazaar of Khelat is extensive, well fur- winter the chiefs and their relatives appear in a tunic of nished with every kind of goods; all the necessaries of chintz, lined and stuffed with cotton; and the poorer classes, life may be purchased there at a moderate price. The when out of doors, wrap themselves up in a surtout made town is supplied with delicious water from a spring in the of cloth, manufactured from a mixture of goats' hair and sheep's wool. The women's dress is very similar to that July, 1718. After completing his education at the uniof the men; their trousers are preposterously wide, and versity of Toulouse, he was invited by M. de Marca, made of silk, or a mixture of silk and cotton.

afterwards archbishop of Paris, to undertake the superinThe fluctuation of power renders it difficult to define tendence of his library. De Marca died in 1662, and precisely the nature of the government of Khelat. During Baluze, after acting as librarian to Le Tellier and the the reign of Nusseer Khan the whole kingdom might be archbishop of Auch, obtained in 1667 a similar situation said to have been governed by a complete despotism; yet with the famous Colbert, which he retained till 1700, that ruler so tempered the supreme authority by the privi- some years after the death of that minister. His reputaleges granted to the feudal chiefs within their own tribes, tion and his mastery of French law and antiquities obtained that, to a casual observer, it bore the appearance of a milia for him in 1670 the professorship of canon law in the tary confederation. The tribes all exercise the right of royal college, a chair founded expressly for him. On the selecting their own sirdar, or head; and the khan has the fall of the Cardinal de Bouillon in 1710, Baluze, who had power of confirming or disapproving of their nomination; attached himself to his party, was removed by a lettre de but this power is never exercised, and appears to be merely cachet from Paris, and transferred from Rouen to Blois, nominal. The khan of Khelat declares war and makes Tours, and Orleans in succession. He obtained his recall treaties connected with the whole of Baluchistan, and can in 1713, though he never recovered his professorship. Of order the sirdar of each tribe to attend in person with his Baluze's numerous works the best known is the Capitularia quota of troops. Agreeably to a code of regulations framed Regum Francorum, which is of considerable historical by one of the earliest princes of the Kumburanee dynasty, value. The Miscellanea, in 7 vols., contain several curious the entire administration of justice was vested in the person extracts from manuscripts found by him in the libraries at at the head of the government. The sirdar, however, has Paris. the power of adjusting petty quarrels, thefts, and disputed BALZAC, HONORÉ DE, perhaps the greatest name in points of every description, among the inhabitants of a the post-Revolutionary literature of France, was born at kheil or society; but, in all cases of importance, an appeal Tours in 1799, and died in 1858. His date thus correlies in the last instance to the khan at Khelat.

sponds with the whole period of the rise, the acme, and the The amount of revenue enjoyed by the khan of Khelat decline of the Romantic school, to which he can scarcely, is inconsiderable, as the ruling races, Baluch and Brahoe, however, be said to have belonged. It is true that he was pay no direct taxes, and their poverty and simple habits inspired by many of the influences that animated Victor prevent them from contributing much indirectly. His Hugo and his followers. Like them he was much occupied income is therefore derived from his resources as a pro- by the study of the fantastic element in mediæval art, so prietor of lands or towns; from a proportion of the pro- strongly opposed to the calm and limit of classical literaduce paid in kind by the Afghan, Dehwar, and Jet culti- ture, like them he reproduced the remoter phases of life vators; from dues on direct and transit trade; and from and passion, and thought that few subjects were so base arbitrary exactions, a never-failing mode with Eastern or obscure as to be unworthy of artistic treatment. But potentates of recruiting an exhausted treasury. Pottinger there is something in the powerful personality of Balzac estimated the amount at 350,000 rupees; Masson, who had indicated by the colossal body, by the strong and sensual ample means of acquiring information through colloquial face, somewhat resembling the profile of the Emperor Nero, channels, at 300,000. At the present date (1875) it is which preserved him from the mannerism of any school 300,000 rupees or £30,000 at the utmost. With such a He was never successful in reproducing the existence of revenue it is obvious that no standing army can be main the past, he was essentially the man of his own day, and tained; and Masson, certainly very competent to the task La Comédie Humaine is as much the picture of the 19th, of acquiring information on this subject, states that Mehrab as the Divina Commedia is of the 13th century. The Khan,“ nearly destitute of troops in his own pay, was passions that move his characters are the intense desire compelled, on the slightest cause for alarm, to appeal to the of boundless wealth, of luxury, of social distinction; and tribes, who attended or otherwise as suited their whims or though here and there his financiers, his journalists, his convenience.” Pottinger computed the number of avail- political intriguers, his sordid peasantry, are relieved by able fighting men at 80,000. Mehrab Khan could on no the introduction of some pure figure, like that of Eugénie occasion assemble more than 12,000; and in his final struggle Grandet, of David, or of Eve, there are only too many for property, power, and life, the number of his troops did elaborate studies of creatures sunk below the surface of not amount to 3000. At the present time (1875) about humanity, the embodiments of infinite meanness and 40,000 would probably be available if all attended the sum- nameless sin. He was merely “the secretary of society,”, mons, but the utmost number the khan could collect would he said, and “drew up the inventory of vices and be about 10,000. All depends upon the state of the trea- virtues." His ambition was,“ by infinite patience and sury, the cause of the war, and the power the khan may be courage, to compose for the France of the 19th century able to exert over his chiefs. The Baluch soldier is heavily that history of morals which the old civilizations of Rome, encumbered with arms, carrying a matchlock, a sword, a Athens, Memphis

, and India, have left untold.” The dagger, and a shield. Pottinger considered them good consequence of this ambition is

, that Balzac's voluminous marksmen, and states that in action they trust principally romances have too often the air of a minute and tedious to their skill in this respect, avoiding close combat; but chronicle, and that the contemporary reader is wearied their readiness in general to close with the British troops with a mass of details about domestic architecture, about shows that he is in this instance mistaken. There were no the stock exchange, and about law, which will prove in. Brahoes opposed to our forces at the battle of Meanee, nor valuable to posterity, were there any Baluches from Baluchistan. The levies of Balzac's private history, which may be traced through the Ameer of Sindh were principally composed of Sindee many passages of his novels, was a strange and not a and Baluch tribes, who had long been settled in Sindh. happy one. He was early sent from his home in Tours to The greater part serve on foot; but a number, not incon- the college of Vendôme, where he neglected the studies siderable, have horses. Camels are only used by tribes on and sports of childhood to bury himself in mystic books the western borders of Baluchistan in their predatory ex- and mystic reveries. He has told the story of his school cursions.

life in Louis Lambert, how he composed a théorie de la BALUE, JEAN, a French cardinal, who raised himself volonté, a theory which was to complete the works of from a very mean station to dignity and ho ors. He Mesmer, Lavater, Gall, and Bichat. This promising was born of very humble parentage at Angle in Poitou, in treatise was burned by one of the masters of the school; 1421, and was first patronized by the bishop of Poitiers. and Balzac, falling into bad health, returned home. The He eventually became almoner to Louis XI., and managed next stage in his education was a course of study at the to secure a considerable share in the government; but Sorbonne, and of lectures on law. In the offices of avoués being detected in treasonable correspondence with the duke and notaries he picked up his knowledge of the by-ways of Bourgogne, he was confined by Louis in an iron cage 8 of chicanery,-knowledge which he uses only too freely in feet square. On his release, however, eleven years after his romances. Nature did not mean Balzac for an advocate; wards, he was loaded with honors by Sixtus IV., was sent he was constant in the belief in his own genius, a belief as legate to France, and received the bishopric of Albano. which for many years he had all to himself, and his family He died at Ancona in 1491.

left him to work and starve, on the scantiest pittance, in a BALUZE, ETIENNE, a celebrated French scholar, was garret of the Rue Lesdiguières. There followed ten years born at Tulle on the 24th of December, 1630, and died in of hard toil, poverty, experiments in this and that way of getting a living. These struggles are described in Facino | possessed of considerable property, and he himself was Cane, in the Peau de Chagrin, and in a series of letters early befriended by the Cardinal de la Valette, who took to the author's sister, Madame de Surville. Balzac found him in his train to Rome. His letters written from that " three sous for bread, two for milk, and three for firing" place to his acquaintances and to many who held a high suffice to keep him alive, while he devoured books in the position at the French court, were expressed so admirably, library of the Arsenal, copied out his notes at night, and and showed such powers of eloquence, as to gain for him the then wandered for hours among the scenes of nocturnal highest renown. On his return from Italy he was at once Paris. “Your brother,” he writes to Madame de Surville, and everywhere received as a master in the art of composi. " is already nourished like a great wan,-he is dying of tion. The most extravagant compliments were showered hunger.” He tried to ñake money by scribbling many upon him, and his head appears to have been turned a volumes of novels without promise, and borrowed funds to little by his success. In 1624 a collection of his Letters speculate in the business of printing. Ideas which have was published, and was received with great favor by the since made other men's fortunes failed in Balzac's hands, public. Soon afterwards a direct charge of plagiarism and he laid the foundations of those famous debts which was made against Balzac in a pseudonymous tract, On the in later life were his torment and his occupation. At conformity of M. de Balzac's Eloquence with that of the length appreciation came, and with appreciation what Greatest Personages of Past and Present Time. A terribly ought to have been wealth. Balzac was unfortunately as fierce paper war was excited by this pamphlet; and Balzac, prodigal of money as of labor; he would shut himself in disgust, retired to his own estate, where he continued up for months, and see no one but his printer; and then his labor of composition. In 1634 he expressed a desire for months he would disappear and dissipate his gains in to enter the Academy, and was at once elected with some mysterious hiding-place of his own, or in hurried | universal acclamation. He died at Paris in 1654. His travelling to Venice, Vienna, or St. Petersburg. As a child fame rests entirely upon the Letters, which, though empty, he had been a man in thought and learning; as a man he bombastic, and affected in matter, are written with great was a child in caprice and extravagance. His imagination, skill, and show a real mastery over the language. They the intense power with which he constructed new combina- introduced a new style; and Balzac has thus the credit of tions of the literal facts which he observed, was like the being the first reformer of French prose, as his contempodemon which tormented the magician with incessant de- rary Malherbe was the first reformer of French poetry. mands for more tasks to do. When he was not working BAMBA, a province of Congo, on the western coast of at La Comédie Humaine, his fancy was still busy with its Africa, lying to the S. of the River Ambriz. This district characters; he existed in an ideal world, where some is fertile, abounds in gold, silver, copper, salt, &c., and is accident was always to put him in possession of riches said to be thickly populated. Its chief town, which bears beyond the dreams of avarice. Meantime he squandered the same name, was formerly of considerable importance, all the money that could be rescued from his creditors on the climate being remarkably heal for that

egion of sumptuous apparel, jewels, porcelain, pictures. His excesses Africa. of labor, his sleepless nights, his abuse of coffee under- BAMBARRA, a country of inner Africa, on the Joliba mined his seemingly indestructible health. At length a or Upper Niger. The principal towns are Segu, Sansading, mysterious passion for a Russian lady was crowned by Jamima, Mursha, Jabbi, Sai, Kullikoro, Maraca-Duba, and marriage; the famous debts were paid, the visionary house Damba, in many of which the Mahometans have mosques. was built and furnished, and then, “when the house was For further particulars see AFRICA, vol. i. p. 242. ready, death entered.” Balzac died at the culmination of BAMBARRA, a town of western Africa on a backwater his fame, and at the beginning, as it seemed, of the period of the Niger, of considerable commercial importance, and of rest to which he had always looked forward.

situated in a fertile plain, 115 miles S.S.W. of Timbuctoo. It is impossible to enter on a detailed criticism of Balzac's (See Barth's Travels in Central Africa, vol. iv. p. 354.) novels. In them he scales every height and sounds every BAMBERG, a town of Bavaria, in the circle of Upper depth of human character,—from the purity of the mys- Franconia, on the River Regnitz, 3 miles above its junction terious Seraphitus Seraphita, cold and strange, like the with the Maine, and 33 miles N. of Nuremberg, with peaks of her northern Alps, to the loathsome sins of the which it is connected by railway. It is partially surMarnefs, whose deeds should find no calendar but that of rounded by walls and ditches, and is divided by the river Hell. In the great divisions of his Comédie, the scenes of and Ludwig's canal into three districts, which are conprivate and of public life of the provinces and of the city, nected by handsome bridges. The town is well built, and in the philosophic studies, and in the Contes Drolatiques, the streets are well paved and lighted. The cathedral, a Balzac has built up a work of art which answers to a noble structure in the Byzantine style of architecture, is medieval cathedral. There are subterranean places, haunted surpassed by few of the kind in Germany. It was founded by the Vautrins and“ Filles aux yeux d'or;"' there are the in 1004 by the Emperor Henry II., and finished in 1012, seats of the money-changers, where the Nucingens sit at but was afterwards partially burnt, and rebuilt in 1110. the receipt of custom; there is the broad platform of It contains the tombs of the founder and his empress everyday life, where the journalists intrigue, where love Cunigunde, Conrad III., Pope Clement II., &c., and nuis sold for hire, where splendors and miseries abound, merous monuments and paintings by eminent masters. where the peasants cheat their lords, where women betray Among the other public buildings are St. Martin's church, their husbands; there are the shrines where pious ladies the palace (formerly the residence of the prince-bishops), pass saintly days; there are the dizzy heights of thought and town-house, and theatre. The Benedictine convent of rapture, whence falls a ray from the supernatural light of St. Michael was turned, in 1803, into a charitable instituSwedenborg; there are the lustful and hideous grotesques tion for poor citizens known as Ludwig's hospital. Bamof the Contes Drolatiques. Through all swells, like the berg has numerous literary and charitable institutions, as organ-tone, the ground-note and mingled murmur of the lyceum, gymnasium, polytechnic, normal, and medical Parisian life. The qualities of Balzac are his extraordinary schools, a library, museum, picture-gallery, hospital, and range of knowledge, observation, sympathy, his steadfast workhouse. The trade is considerable; cloths, sealing-wax, determination to draw every line and shadow of his leather, tobacco, musical instruments, carriages, &c., are subject

, his keen analysis of character and conduct. His manufactured, and there are numerous breweries. The defects are an over-insistance on detail, which hampers and whole of the neighboring district is like a vast garden, bewilders rather than aids the imagination of his readers; and furnishes large supplies of liquorice, carrots, aniseed, his tortured style, "a special language forged out of all coriander, and other seeds. Bamberg was formerly the the slangs

, all the terminologies of science, of the studio, capital of an independent bishopric, which was secularthe laboratory, the coulisses his fondness for dwelling ized in 1801, and assigned to Bavaria in 1803. Populaon the morbid pathology of human nature. With all these tion, 25,738. defects, and with the difficulty of judging any one of his BAMBOCCIO. See LAER, PETER VAN. tales separately, because each is only a fragment in the BAMBOO, a genus (Bambusa) of arborescent grasses development of the immense Comédie Humaine, Balzac very generally distributed throughout the tropical lands of holds a more distinct and supreme place in French fiction the globe, but found and cultivated especially in India, than perhaps any English author does in the same field of China, and the East Indian Archipelago. There is a large art.

(A. L.) number of species enumerated; but as is the case with BALZAC, JEAN Louis GUEZ DE, a celebrated French most plants under cultivation, much difficulty is found in writer, was born at Angoulême in 1594. His father was distinguishing species from varieties produced by artificial

Tehind ookOUGH, a village in Northumberland, on the

selection. Bambusa arundinacea is the species most | Asia there is a certain species of equally slender growth, commonly referred to. It is a tree-like plant, rising to a from which writing-pens or reeds are made. A joint forms height of 40, 60, or even_80 feet, with a hollow stem, a holder for papers or pens, and it was in a joint of bam. shining as if varnished. The stem is extremely slender, boo that silk-worm eggs were carried from China to Connot exceeding the thickness of 5 inches in some which are stantinople during the reign of Justinian. The outer 50 feet high, and in others reaching 15 or 18 inches in cuticle of Oriental species is so hard that it forms a sharp diameter. The whole is divided into joints or septa called and durable cutting edge, and it is so siliceous that it can knots or internodes, the intervals between which in the be used as a whetstone. This outer cuticle, cut into thin case of some of the larger stems is several feet. These strips, is one of the most durable and beautiful materials joints or divisions are formed by the crossing of the vascular for basket-making, and both in China and Japan it is bundles of fibres. They produce alternate lateral buds, largely so employed. Strips are also woven into cages, which form small alternate branchlets springing from the chairs, beds, and other articles of furniture, Oriental base to the top, and, together with the narrow-pointed wicker-work in bamboo being unequalled for beauty and leaves issuing from them, give the plant an elegant feath- neatness of workmanship. In China the interior portions ered appearance as it waves in the wind. The rapidity of of the stem are beaten into a pulp, and used for the manits growth is surprising. It attains its full height in a few ufacture of the finer varieties of paper. Bamboos are months, and Mr. Fortune records the observation of a imported to a considerable extent into Europe for the use growth of from 2 to 24 feet in a single day. In Malabar of basket-makers, and for umbrella and walking-sticks. it is said to bear fruit when fifteen years old, and then to In short, the purposes to which the bamboo is applicable die.

are almost endless, and well justify the opinion that "it The bamboo is cultivated with great care in regular is one of the most wonderful and most beautiful producplantations by the Chinese. The plant is propagated by tions of the tropics, and one of Nature's most valuable shoots or suckers deposited in pits 18 inches or 2 feet deep gifts to uncivilized' man" (A. R. Wallace, The Malay at the close of autumn or the beginning of winter. Various Archipelago). expedients are followed to obtain good bamboos; one of the most usual being to take a vigorous root and transplant sea-coast, 14 miles N. of Alnwick. It was a royal borough it, leaving only four or five inches above the joint next the previous to the Norman Conquest, and returned two ground. The cavity is then filled with a mixture of horse- members to parliament in the 23d year of Edward I. Its litter and sulphur. According to the vigor of the root, ancient castle stands close to the sea on an almost perpenthe shoots will be more or less numerous; they are destroyed dicular rock, 150 feet in height, and is accessible only on at an early age during three successive years; and those the south-east side. The first erection is ascribed by the springing in the fourth resemble the parent tree. The uses Saxon chronicles to King Ida of Northumberland, who is to which all the parts and products of the bamboo are said to have named it Bebbanburh after his queen Bebbe applied in Oriental countries are almost endless. The soft (547 A.D.). The principal events in its early history are and succulent shoots, when just beginning to spring, are cut the siege by Penda in 642, the ravages of the Danes in over and served up at table like asparagus. Like that veg- 993, the unsuccessful defence by De Mowbray against etable, also, they are earthed over to keep them longer fit William Rufus, and numerous sieges during the Wars of for consumption; and they afford a continuous supply dur- the Roses. In the reign of Henry VII, it fell into decay. ing the whole year, though it is more abundant in autumn. At length, in the 18th century, it became the property of They are also salted and eaten with rice, prepared in the Lord Crewe, bishop of Durham, who, in 1720, vested the form of pickles, or candied and preserved in sugar. As the castle and manor in trustees for charitable purposes. In plant grows older, a species of fluid is secreted in the hollow virtue of this bequest a patrol is kept on the coast, apartjoints, in which a concrete substance, highly valued in the ments are provided for shipwrecked seamen, and a storeEast for its medicinal qualities, called tabaxir or tabascheer, house for salvage-goods, and granaries are maintained in is gradually developed. This substance, which has been order to supply corn to the poor at a cheap rate in times found to be a purely siliceous concretion, is possessed of of scarcity. An infirmary, à dispensary, and a large li. peculiar optical properties As a medicinal agent the bam- brary bequeathed by Dr. Sharp, are also maintained, while boo is almost or entirely inert, and it has never been re- poor children receive gratuitous education at two “national” ceived into the European materia medica. A decoction schools. Population in 1871, 320 in the village, and 3751 of the leaves of the plant is, however, employed in the in the parish. East for pectoral affections, and the leaf-buds are said to be BAMBOUK, a country in the interior of Western Africa, diuretic. The grains of the bamboo are available for food, situated between the Senegal and its tributary the Faleme, and the Chinese have a proverb that it produces seed more and extending from lat. 12° 30' to 14° N., and from long. abundantly in years when the rice crop fails, which means, 10° to 12° 30° W. It is traversed from N.W. to S.E. by probably, that in times of dearth the natives look more the steep and wall-like range of the Tamba-Ura Mountains. after such a source of food. The Hindus eat it mixed with The soil in a large part of the country is of remarkable honey as a delicacy, equal quantities being put into a fertility; rice, maize, millet, melons, manioc, grapes, bahollow joint, coated externally with clay, and thus roasted nanas, and other fruits, grow almost without cultivation, over a fire. It is, however, the stem of the bamboo which the forests are rich in a variety of valuable trees; and is applied to the greatest variety of uses. Jointy of sufficient extensive stretches are covered with abundant pasturage size form water buckets; smaller ones are used as bottles, of the long guinea-grass. As a natural consequence there and among the Dyaks of Borneo they are employed as is great profusion of animal life. The inhabitants, a branch cooking vessels. Bamboo is extensively used as a timber of the Mandingo race, have made but little progress in wood, and houses are frequently made entirely out of the civilization. The one product of their country which really products of the plant; complete sections of the stem form excites them to labor is gold; and even it is so common posts or columns; split up, it serves for floors or rafters; and accessible that the rudest methods of collection are and, interwoven in lattice-work, it is employed for the sides deemed sufficient. The most remarkable deposit is at of rooms, admitting light and air. The roof is sometimes Natakoo, where a considerable hill seems to be wholly of bamboo solely, and when split, which is accomplished composed of auriferous strata. There is also a good mine with the greatest ease, it can be formed into laths or planks. at Kenieba. In exchange for the gold, cloth, ornaments, It is employed in shipping of all kinds ; some of the and salt—the last a most valuable article-are imported. strongest plants are selected for masts of boats of moderate The usual beast of burden is the ass, the horse being only size, and the masts of larger vessels are sometimes formed possessed by the very wealthiest in the country. Sheep by the union of several bamboos built up and joined to- and cattle are both pretty numerous. Unfortunately, the gether.

climate is very unhealthy, especially in the rainy season, The bamboo is employed in the construction of all kinds which lasts for about four months, from July or August of agricultural and domestic implements, and in the mate- The chief towns are Bambouk, Salaba, and Konkuba. The rials and implements required in fishery. Bows are made Portuguese early penetrated into Bambouk, and were even of it by the union of two pieces with many bands; and, the for some time masters of the country; but the inhabitants septa being bored out and the lengths joined together, it is made a general rising and completely drove them out. Reemployed, as we use leaden pipes, in transmitting water to mains of their buildings, however, are still to be seen. The reservoirs or gardens. From the light and slender stalks French, soon after they had formed their settlement on the shafts for arrows are obtained ; and in the south-west of Senegal, turned their attention to this land of gold. It was

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