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the beginning of April. The freezing of the Gulfs of and frozen into one mass 80 as to form a mound more than Bothnia and Finland begins earlier and ends later. 16 feet high, which threw down the walls of several houses,
The curious phenomenon of the formation of bottom-ice, and left behind it ridges of sand and pebbles when it and its rise to the surface, is more frequently seen in the thawed. It is apparently, moreover, by similar agencies, Baltic and the Cattegat than in the open ocean,-chiefly, it that the fringe of rocky islands of all dimensions called the seems probable, on account of the shallowness of these seas. Skär, which lies at a little distance from the shore of many It has been particularly observed by Prof. Nilsson in the parts of the Baltic, is being gradually modified. Boats and Cattegat, off Kullen Point, near the southern extremity of small vessels can sail in smooth water within this skär, Sweden; but according to Chydenius it is very common in even when the sea outside is strongly agitated; but the various parts of the Baltic, having been especially noticed navigation is intricate, and the danger from sunken rocks by the fishermen off the Aland Islands. In calm winter to those not thoroughly acquainted with it is very considweather, water of from 4 to 8 feet deep is often covered in erable. The diminution which has been noticed from time a very short time with small plates of ice, mostly circular to time in the depth of the channels, and the appearance in form, varying in diameter from 1 to 5 inches, and having above water of what were formerly regarded as sunken a uniform thickness which never exceeds two lines. These rocks or reefs, have been regarded as concurring with other plates can be seen coming up from below, rising edgeways evidence to prove that a general rise of land is now going towards the surface, often with such force as to lift them on over this area. But it seems probable, from what has selves three or four inches out of the water. When they now been stated, that the increase of height and dimensions come up in great numbers they are often piled one upon which has been observed in the reefs and inlets of the another, and are then usually soon broken, by the action skär during the last half century, may be adequately either of waves or of currents, into small pieces, which accounted for by the action of ice, which has piled up unite again by regelation so as to form irregular cakes of (generally on a basis of fixed rock) accumulations of transice; and these, as soon as the water becomes tolerably still, ported debris. cohere into a continuous rough sheet. But it sometimes Rise of Land around the Baltic.-Early in the last cenhappens that if the plates come up more sparsely, and the tury the Swedish physicist Celsius (to whom we owe the weather is very still and cold, they remain unbroken, and invention of the centigrade scale) formed the opinion that the diameter of each increases, sometimes to two feet or the waters both of the Baltic and of the North Sea were even more. When the fishermen notice these ice-plates gradually subsiding; and this opinion, though controcoming up from below in large quantities, they at once verted by other authorities, was embraced by Linnæus. make for land, as they know that they might otherwise be it is now clear that many of the facts by which it was supsoon completely ice-bound. The same thing appears to ported are explicable by the transporting agency of rivers happen in polar seas in the shallow water near land. and of ice, as already explained ; and it was pointed out Chydenius, who was a member of the Swedish Spitzbergen by Playfair in 1802, that even admitting the proofs on expedition in 1857, states that on one occasion the surface which Celsius relied, they would rather show that the of the sea, which was previously quite clear of ice, became land is rising, than that the water is receding. During the 60 covered in the course of half an hour, that it was with present century a great deal of attention has been given to difficulty that a boat could be forced through it; and this this question, on account of its geological interest, by although the temperature of the air during the day had not many very able observers; and the results may be briefly been lower than 4° C., and no wind or stream had brought summarized as follows:-(1.) An elevation of the whole of the ice together.
Norway, from the North Cape to the Naze, has taken place It does not seem very clear in what way this formation within a comparatively recent period, -as is evidenced by of bottom-ice is to be accounted for. Bottom-ice has often the numbers of raised beaches containing existing shells, been noticed in fresh-water lakes and streams; and large which are found at different points along the western coast, plates have been seen to rise to the surface, sometimes with frequently at a height of 200 feet above the present sea-level, force enough to bring up stones of considerable size,-in and in some spots at a height of more than 600 feet. As one instance a heavy iron chain. In these cases it would these beaches, where one lies above ano are not always seem that the motion of the bottom-water over roughened parallel, it appears that the elevatory action did not take surfaces contributes to its congelation. And in the shallow place equally over the whole area ; and the movements were water near the sea-shore, stones and sea-weeds may be seen probably intermittent, with long pauses between. (2.) At covered with ice, like the hoar-frost on trees, before any various points along the coast of the Baltic and the Gulf of ice forms on the surface. It is to be remembered that sea- Bothnia, alike in Sweden and in Finland, similar collections water increases in density down to its freezing point, so that of shells have been found, belonging to species now inthe water cooled at the surface will always go down, the habiting the basin, and characterized by the peculiar facies deepest stratum being thus the coldest. And thus, although to be presently noticed as distinguishing its molluscan fauna no lower temperature can be carried down by the water from that of the ocean. Such deposits have been found than that to which it has been subjected at the surface, very far inland, and at a height of 230 feet above the sea. the water that does not freeze at (say).—2:5° C. when Hence it appears that before this upheaval took place, the lying upon water, changes into ice when it comes in con- Baltic must have been separated, as now, from the North tact with the irregular solid bottom, perhaps on account Sea by the mountain ridge of Norway, although it exof the more ready dissipation, under the latter circum- tended over a considerably larger area of what is at present stances, of the heat set free in the act of congelation. low-lying land. (3.) Notwithstanding the numerous ob
When ice forms over the shallow bottoms which border servations which have been made with a view to ascertain parts of the Gulfs of Bothnia and Finland, large blocks of whether any change of level is now going on, the question stone are frequently frozen into it; and these, being lifted must be regarded as still undetermined. Little reliance when the water rises in the early summer, are often trans- can be placed on occasional comparisons of the height ported by currents to considerable distances, finally sub- of marks made upon rocks above the sea-level, since, siding again to the bottom when the ice melts. In this although there are no tides, the height of the water in the manner a deposit of rocky fragments, some of them 6 or basin is subject to considerable variations, from causes to 8 feet across, is being formed at the bottom of the Baltic be presentlý explained. (4.) There is a good deal of outlets; as is known from the fact, that sunken ships evidence, on the other hand, that, towards the southern which have been visited by divers in the Sound and in extremity of Sweden, there has been a depression of the Copenhagen roads have been found covered with such land since the historic period. In this portion, known as blocks within no very long period. It not unfrequently Scania, no elevated beds of recent marine shells have been happens, moreover, that sheets of ice with included met with; in its seaport towns there are streets now at or boulders are driven up on the coast during storms, and are even below the level of the water, which must have been thus carried some way inland, being sometimes packed to a above it when first built; and a large stone whose distance height of even 50 feet. A case was described by Von Baer from the sea was measured by Linnæus, in 1749, was in which a block of granite, whose weight was estimated at between 400 and 500 tons, was thus carried by the ice Jeffreys in 1862, were characterized by him as glacial; but they have
1 The shells found in the raised beach at Uddevalla by Mr. J. Gwyn during the winters of 1837-8; and Forchhammer mentions been shown to be specifically identical with mollusca now living at that the Sound being suddenly frozen over during an Spitzbergen; and it is probable that when the water was deeper
than intense frost in February, 1844, sheets of ice driven by a at present along the coast of Norway, these would have ranged south
wards . storm were heaped upon the shore of the bay of Täarbeijk, I tent.
found 100 feet nearer the water's edge when its distance | It had long been noticed that its level occasionally rises was again measured in 1836. Near Stockholm, again, a even as much as 3 feet without any apparent cause, and fishing-hut, with remains of boats of very antique form maintains itself at that height, sometimes only for a and construction, was found, in 1819, at a depth of 60 few days, but occasionally for several weeks together, and feet, covered over with gravel and shell-marl; and it was this at all seasons. Schultén, having observed that such considered by Sir C. Lyell to be impossible to explain the elevations of level are preceded by a fall of the barometer, position of this hut without imagining first a subsidence and that when the barometer rises again the water subsides, to the depth of more than 60 feet, and then a re-elevation. was led to recognize the dependence of these changes upor On the whole, it appears clear that oscillations of level, not converse changes in atmospheric pressure; and this refuniform either in direction or in degree, have taken place erence was confirmed by observation of the constant proin various parts of the Scandinavian peninsula within a portion borne by one to the other. A similar consequence recent period, whilst in regard to the continuance of any of variation in atmospheric pressure has been observed in such changes at the present time we have no certain the Mediterranean (see MEDITERRANEAN); and it has also knowledge, though it is considered probable by many of been noticed in England as a disturbing element in modithe most distinguished savans both of Sweden and Norway. fying the height of the tides.
Movements of Water in the Baltic.—There is scarcely Salinity of Baltic Water. -As might be expected from any tidal movement in the Baltic; for though there are what has been already stated, the proportion of salt in the sensible tides in the Skager Rack, these begin to diminish water of the Baltic is very much below that of oceanic in the Cattegat, and are very trifling in the Sound and water, and varies greatly at different seasons. In the Gulf Belts, averaging only about a foot at Copenhagen. There of Bothnia, at the time the river-flow is greatest, the sur. is usually a general movement of the upper waters of the face water is often so little salt as to be quite drinkable, its Baltic towards the three channels wbich form its outlet, sp. gr. having been found as low as 1.004. But it is said and a considerable flow of water through them. The to contain at Christmas six times as much salt as at large volume of water discharged by the rivers that midsummer, showing that when the river supply is at its empty themselves into the upper end of that gulf forms lowest, its place is taken by a reflux of salt water from the a southward current, which becomes very rapid where it outside ocean. In the Baltic proper there is a very de narrows at Quarken (being partly blocked also by the cided difference in salinity between the upper and the Walgrund Islands), and again where it is obstructed by the lower stratum; the less saline water of the surface flowing Aland Islands, as it enters the Baltic proper. In that part towards the outlet over the more saline water beneath, of the basin the current is liable to considerable modifica- just as the fresh-water current of a great river runs out to tion from prevalent winds; but it is usually very perceptible sea, even far beyond the sight of land. Thus the proporin the spring and early part of the summer, when the snows tion of salt in 1000 parts of a sample of surface-water are melting. On the other hand, when an unusual con- taken near Stockholm being 5.919, that of bottom-water, tinuance of north-west wind concurs with high spring-tides brought up from 120 fathoms, was 7-182; and in like manto drive the water of the North Sea into the outlet of the ner the
proportion of salt in surface-water at the entrance Baltic, a large body of water flows back into its basin, of the Gulf of Finland being 3.552, that of bottom-water at producing a reverse current, which is felt as far as Danzig: 30 fathoms' depth was 4:921,—the proportion of salt in
There are also considerable variations in the height of North Sea water averaging 32-823 parts in 1000. Nearer the water, that seem for the most part referrible to three the outlet the proportion of salt is greater alike in surface different conditions, which may operate separately or in and in bottom-water. From the careful and systematic combination, viz., (1), the seasonal increase and decrease observations of Dr. Meyer (op. cit.), it appears that the of the amount of water brought down by rivers; (2), the sp. gr. of the surface-stratum at Kiel ranges between about banking-up of the outflow by opposing winds ; and" (3), 170082 in summer and 1.0142 in winter, the latter showing variations in atmospheric pressure.
somewhat above half the quantity of salt contained in (1.) During the winter months the quantity of fresh ordinary sea-water. But if the direction of the prevalent water poured into the Baltic by the rivers which discharge winds during the autumn be such as to maintain a strong themselves into it is greatly reduced by the freezing of surface out-current, and consequently (as will presently their sources; and this is, of course, especially the case appear) a very strong inward under-current, as happens in with those that empty themselves into the Gulf of Bothnia. some years, the maximum of salinity will present itself at Hence the general level of the surface is at its lowest at that season. The sp. gr. of the deeper stratum ranges at this season.
With the melting of the snow in spring and Kiel from 1.0145 to 1.0190; at Helsingör on the Sound early summer, however, there is an enormous increase in from 1:0190 to 1.0220; and at Korsör on the Great Belt che quantity of fresh water poured into the basin, and from 1.0180 to 1.0243; thus showing it to be principally the level of its surface then rises. There is always, of composed of North Sea water, whose sp. gr. may be taken course, a tendency to equalization of the level of the Baltic as 1.0264. with that of the sea outside, by outflow or inflow currents Currents in the Baltic Straits. The results of observation through its three channels of communication; but the of the movements of the upper and under strata of water narrowness of these prevents that equalization from being in the Baltic Straits, strongly confirm the doctrine else immediate, and it is often interfered with by winds. (2.) where enunciated (see ATLANTIC) in regard to the potency The influence of winds in banking up the water at the of slight differences of downward pressure in the produc outlets, and even in reversing the usual currents, is very tion of under-currents. The prevalent movement of the decided, as has been especially shown by the recent upper stratum in the Baltic Straits is outward; and this researches of Dr. Meyer of Kiel. The strongest and most concurs with the low salinity of Baltic water to indicats constant surface-outflow is seen during the autumn and that it is partly an overflow current, produced by the excess winter months, when there is little or no elevation of level, of river supply over loss by evaporation, which tends to but when the prevalent direction of the wind is such as to raise its level. But even when this outward surface-current drive the Baltic water towards and through the straits. is strong, there is usually an inward under-current of North When, on the other hand, the winds prevalent in the North Sea water, carrying back into the basin of the Baltic a Sea tend to drive its water into the straits
, their usual out- large proportion of the salt which would otherwise be lost current may be reversed; and this most frequently happens to it; and the existence of this under-current, which has during the spring and summer months, although the excess been abundantly established by experimental inquiries, as water to be discharged is then at its greatest. It some- well as by the observations of divers, is exactly what theory times happens, especially about the autumnal equinox, that would lead us to predict. For if two columns of water of a N.W. gale concurs with a high tide in the Skager Rack the same height, but differing in specific gravity, be made to drive its water towards the Baltic, causing it to overflow to communicate with each other alike at the surface and at the lower portions of some of the Danish islands. If, then, the bottom, the lower part of the heavier column, having a a southerly wind should carry this water onwards into the greater lateral pressure, will flow towards the lighter, thus Gulf of Finland, the check which it gives to the downflow tending to produce an elevation of level in the latter, which of the Neva produces disastrous inundations at St. Peters- will rectify itself by a surface-flow in the opposite direction; burg. (3.) The influence of atmospheric pressure upon and thus å vertical circulation will be maintained, as long the height of the water in the Baltic is very remarkable. as the causes which maintain the difference of salinity 1 Untersuchungen über Physikalische Verhältnisse des Westrichen remain in operation. Now, as the salinity in the oceanic
column may be regarded as practically constant, whilet
Theiles der Ostsee.
the salinity of the Baltic column, though not uniform, the rest being of a more primitive structure. In 1788 it is kept down by the influx of river-water to a much lower became the county, town; and in 1775, according to a degree, this difference will always exist to a greater or less census then_taken, it contained 564 houses, and 5934 inamount. When, however, the height of the Baltic column habitants. From this time it rose rapidly into importance; is so much raised—either by the excess of its fresh-water and in 1780 became a port of entry, when a custom-house supply, or by the reversal of the surface-current by the was opened. Previous to this all vessels trading to and agency of wind—that the downward pressure of its less from the port had to be entered, cleared, and registered at saline water exceeds that of the more saline water of the Annapolis. In December, 1796, it obtained an act of inNorth Sea column, the under-current will be brought to a corporation. By the census of 1870 Baltimore contained stand, or its direction will be reversed. Thus it is that 267,854 inhabitants. when the outward movement of the upper stratum depends The city is pleasantly situated on slightly undulating rather upon the prevalent winds (as is usually the case ground, and extends about 41 miles from E. to W., and 3) during autumn and winter) than upon the elevation of its from N. to S., covering an area of 10,000 acres
. It is level within the basin, the inward under-current which divided into two nearly equal parts bý a small stream supplies its place is strongest and most constant. And it is called Jones's Falls, crossed by a number of bridges. The by this means, much more than by the occasional reversal division east of the falls is nominally subdivided into two of the surface-current, that salt is carried back into the parts-Fell's Point and Old Town. The former, the most Baltic, -as is proved by the close correspondence shown by easterly part of the town, is the principal resort of seamen, Dr. Meyer's observations to exist between the predominance and is the place where the shipbuilding and manufactures of the inward under-current and the elevation of the sp. gr. are principally carried on. The Old Town lies to the N. of the surface-water of the Baltic. On the other hand, it and W. of this. The portion west of the Falls is likewise is during the spring and summer months, when the out- divided into two parts, the city proper and Spring Garden. ward movement of the upper stratum is rather an overflow. The former is the centre of trade, and the residence of the current, and the salinity of the surface-water is the lowest, that the under-current sets less strongly and less constantly inward.
Zoology.—The fauna of the Baltic may be regarded as that of a large estuary, having a narrow communication with the sea, -its marine inhabitants being such as can adapt themselves to considerable variations in the salinity of its water. Whales rarely enter the Baltic; but porpoises frequent the neighborhood of the Danish islands. Seals are obtained in considerable numbers at the breaking up of the ice around Gottland and the Aland Isles. The salmon is among the most abundant fishes of the Baltic proper, ascending its rivers from April to June; and salmon-trout are caught in some of its bays. The portion of the Baltic in the neighborhood of the Danish islands is frequented by various species of Gadidæ, which do not range further east. In the 14th and 15th centuries there was a considerable herring-fishery within the Sound and along the coast of Scania (the southern portion of Sweden); but this fish seems to have latterly quite deserted the Baltic, and rarely shows itself even in the Cattegat. On the eastern coast of Sweden, on the other hand, and in the Gulf of Bothnia, a fish called the strömling, which is nearly allied to the herring, being chiefly distinguished by its small size, is caught in great numbers, and is dried and salted for distant markets. The molluscan fauna of the Baltic is chiefly made up of com
Ground-Plan of Baltimore. mon shells of our own shores—such as Cardium, Mytilus, 1. Northern Central R. W. Station. 7. Penitentiary. and Littorina, which can bear an admixture of fresh water, 2. Mount Clare.
8. City Hall. together with several proper fresh-water shells, such as
9. Washington Monument.
10. Battle Monument. Paludina, Neritina, and Lymnæa; the marine types, how- St. Mary's College.
11. Hospital. ever, being remarkable for their very small size, which 6. Prison.
12. Lazaretto and Lighthouse. is often not above one-third of their usual dimensions. There is an entire absence, except in the neighborhood of more wealthy inhabitants; while the latter, which is the the straits, of such essentially marine types as Buccinum, extreme south-western quarter, and the lowest and most Ostrea, Pecten, Patella, and Balanus. It is interesting to unhealthy portion of the city, is inhabited by the poorer remark that the Danish Kjökkenmödding contain abundance classes. Baltimore contains about 200 churches, of oysters,
and also of full-sized cockles, mussels, and peri- and has three universities, several colleges, 122 Buildings. winkles; from which it may be inferred that even within public schools, a state normal school, a manual labor school, the human period the outside ocean had freer access to the besides numerous private schools and academies, an acadbasin of the Baltic than it has now-probably through what emy of art and science, an infirmary, hospitals
, asylums, is now the peninsula of Jutland, which seems at no remote dispensaries, &c., three theatres, an opera-house, a museum, period to have been an archipelago.
(W. B. C.) and many fine public buildings. The most imposing buildBALTIMORE, in Maryland, one of the largest and ing in the city is the new city hall, one of the finest strucmost Aourishing cities in the United States of North tures of the kind in the country. It occupies an entire America, is situated on the north side of the Patapsco square of ground, an area of about 26,000 square feet, near River or Bay, 14 miles above its entrance into the Chesa- the centre of the city, and contains the various municipal peake, 37 miles N.E. of Washington, and 100 S.W. of offices. The style of architecture is the Renaissance, of Philadelphia. Lat. 39° 17' N., long. 76° 36' W. The which it is a fine specimen. The entire outer facing of the natural advantages of this position were long overlooked walls, the portico, and all the ornamental work, are of by the settlers in the vicinity of the Chesapeake; and it white Maryland marble; the inner walls and floors are of was only in 1729 that they directed their attention to the brick, and are fire-proof. It is four stories high, surplace, and laid out a plan of the town. At that time a mounted by a Mansard roof of iron and slate, with a dome part of it was under cultivation as a farm, but all the rest and tower of iron on a marble base, rising to the height was a wilderness. For some years its growth was by no of 240 feet. The interior is very finely finished. It was means rapid, as it had to contend with all the obstacles begun in 1867, and cost about $2,600,000. Another imthat could be thrown in its way by the jealousy of older portant public building is that of the Peabody Institute, rivals. From an authentic sketch of Baltimore made in founded by the late George Peabody, Esq., of London, and the year 1752, it appears that it then contained about endowed by him to the amount of $1,400,000. It has pro. twenty-five houses, only four of which were built of brick, visions for a public library, a gallery of art, and a con
servatory of music, also for lectures and musical perform-fourth of a mile, with a depth of 16 feec. Above this ances. It was incorporated in 1857. One wing of the entrance it widens into an ellipse of a mile long, half a building, which is immediately contiguous to the Wash- mile broad, and 15 feet deep. The third, or inner harbor, ington monument, is completed, and the remainder is in has a depth of 14 feet, and penetrates to near the centre of progress. The completed wing is faced and ornamented the city. Vessels of the largest class can lie at the wharves with white marble, in a simple but massive and imposing near Fell's Point, Locust Point, and Canton, and those of style, and contains the library of over 56,000 volumes 500 tons can come into the inner harbor. The harbor is (1875), and a hall for lectures, concerts, &c. The custom- defended by Fort M'Henry. The railroads of
Railways. house is a spacious building, 225 feet long, by 141 feet Baltimore are, -The Philadelphia, Wilmington, wide. The principal room is 53 feet square, and is lighted and Baltimore line, opened in 1837, length 98 miles; the by a dome 115 feet above the street. On its four sides Northern Central, to Sunbury in Pennsylvania, completed are colonnades, the columns of which are each a single in 1858, length 138 miles; the Baltimore and Potomac to
block of fine Italian marble. Baltimore has the Potomac River, opened in 1873, length 73 miles, with several splendid monuments, which have ac- a branch to Washington (on this road there is a tunnel a
quired for it the name of "the Monumental mile and three-quarters in length); the Baltimore and City.” The largest of these, erected to the memory of Ohio, the main stem of which goes to Wheeling, a distance Washington, stands on an eminence of 150 feet, and has, of 379 miles, opened through in 1853. It has the Parkerswith its base, an altitude of 200 feet. It is of white burg Division, 104 miles; the Central Ohio Division, to
ble; the base is 50 feet square, and 24 feet in height, Columbus, 513 miles from Baltimore; and the Lake Erie surmounted by a Doric column 25 feet in diameter at the Division to Chicago, opened in 1874, 878 miles. The city base, with a spiral staircase in its interior, and on the is also traversed by numerous lines of horse-railways for the summit is a statue of Washington, 13 feet high. The convenience of local travel. In healthfulness Baltimore is "Battle Monument,” also of white marble, was erected by the fourth city in the Union, its annual death-rate being public subscription in 1815, to the memory of those who 025. Its mean annual temperature is 56° Fahr.; the mean had fallen in defence of the city in the previous year. It summer
and winter temperatures 76° and 36° respectively. is 52 feet high; the base is of Egyptian architecture; the BALUCHISTAN, a maritime country of Asia, whose column is in the form of a bundle of Roman fasces, upon the bands of which are inscribed the names of
KI those whom it commemorates; and the whole is surmounted by a female figure, the emblematical genius
solek of the city. The city is supplied with waWatersupply.
ter from Lake Roland, an artificial lake
aboui 8 miles north of the city, of a capacity of 500,000,000 gallons, and from three other res
ESTAN ervoirs, with an aggregate storage capacity of about 35 580,000,000 gallons, the common source of supply being Jones's Falls. There are also numerous public
springs and fountains throughout the town. Parks. Baltimore has a number of parks and pub
ATGHANISTAN lic squares, chief of which is Druid Hill Park, a tract of 700 acres on the extreme north-west of the city,
Cirish possessing more natural beauties than any other in
MARSH timore are very extensive and flourishing. 304 There is scarcely a branch of industry that is not
A prosecuted to some extent in the city or its vicinity. Among these are shipbuilding, iron and copper works, woollen and cotton manufactures, pottery, sugar-refining, petroleum-refining, distilling, saddlery,
BAL UCHISTAN agricultural implement-making, cabinet-making, tanning, &c. In the vicinity of Baltimore is found the
IND finest brick-clay in the world, of which more than 100,000,000 bricks are made annually. The Abbott Iron-works, in the eastern part of the city, have the 25 largest rolling-mills in the United States. An industry peculiar to Baltimore is the packing of oysters ARABIAN
English se in air-tight cans for shipment to all parts of the world. The oysters are taken in the Chesapeake Bay. Fruits and vegetables are also packed in the
Sketch-Map of Baluchistan. same way, the entire trade consuming from twenty to thirty million cans annually. This city is one of coast is continuous with that of the north-western part the greatest flour-markets in the Union, and has a large of the Indian Peninsula. It is bounded on the N. by export trade in tobacco. There belonged to the port of Afghanistan, on the E. by Sindh, on the 8. by the Arabian Baltimore (30th November, 1874) 834 vessels, registering Sea, and on the W. by, Persia. The frontier between 84,900 tons, of which 66 vessels (22,000 tons) were engaged Persia and Baluchistan has been drawn by an English in foreign, and the rest in the coasting trade. These figures commission, sent out in 1870 under Sir F. Goldsmid, from show a considerable reduction from those of 1860, as a result Gwadur Bay (about 61° 36' E. long.) northwards, to lat. of the war between the States, during which many Balti- 26° 15' N., when it turns eastward to the Nihing River, more vessels were enrolled under foreign flags, and have so following which N. and E. to its sources, it passes on to remained. There are twenty-six banks, with a capital (in about 63° 12' E. long., when it resumes a northerly direc1874) of $14,000,000, and seven savings-banks ; seventeen tion to Jalk. As thus determined, Baluchistan has an area fire and marine and three life insurance companies, besides of about 106,500 sq. miles. It extends from lat. 24° 50' to many agencies for other companies. The assessed value of 30° 20', and from long. 61° 10' to 68° 38'; its extreme taxable property of all kinds in Baltimore for the year length from E. to W. being 500 miles, and its breadth 370. 1870 was $207,181,550, and for the year 1875, $231,242,313, The outline of the sea-coast is in general remarkably being an increase of $24,060,763. The harbor, which con- regular, running nearly due E. and W., a little N. of lai. Harbor.
sists of three parts, is excellent. Íts entrance, 24° 46' from Cape Monze, on the border of Sindh, to Cape
between Fort M'Henry and the lazaretto, is about Jewnee, near the River Dustee. It is for the most part 600 yards wide, with 23 feet of water. This depth is con- craggy, but not remarkably elevated, and has in some tinued with an increased width for a mile and a quarter, places, for considerable distance, a low sandy shore, though to near Fell's Point. The entrance to the second harbor is almost everywhere the surface becomes much higher inland. opposite Fell's Point, where the width is contracted to one- The principal headlands, proceeding from E. to W., are
Cape Monze or Ras Moarree, which is the eastern headland | been engaged; but having in a few years quelled the robof Sonmeanee Bay; Goorab Sing; Ras Arubah; Ras Noo, bers, against whom he had been called in, and finding himforming the western headland of Gwadel Bay; Ras Jewnee, self at the head of the only military tribe in the country, forming the eastern point of Gwadur Bay, and Cape Zegin he formally deposed the rajah and assumed the govern. at its western extremity. There is no good harbor along ment. the coast, though it extends about 600 miles; but there The history of the country after the accession of Kumare several roadsteads with good holding ground, and shel- bur is as obscure as during the Hindu dynasty. It would tered on several points. Of these the best are Sonmeanee appear, however, that the sceptre was quietly transmitted Bay, Homara, and Gwadur. On the latter are situated a to Abdulla Khan, the fourth in descent from Kumbur, who, small town and a fort of the same name, and also a tele- being an intrepid and ambitious soldier, turned his thoughts graph station of the Indo-European line.
towards the conquest of Cutch-Gundava, then held by difOf the early history of this portion of the Asiatic continent ferent petty chiefs, under the authority of the Nawabs of little or nothing is known. The poverty and natural strength Sindh. of the country, combined with the ferocious habits of the After various success, the Kumburanees at leugth posnatives, seem to have equally repelled the friendly visits of sessed themselves of the sovereignty of a considerable porinquisitive strangers and the hostile incursions of invading tion of that fruitful plain, including the chief town, Gunarmies. The first distinct account which we have is from dava. It was during this contest that the famous Nadir Arrian, who, with his usual brevity and severe veracity, Shah advanced from Persia to the invasion of Hindusnarrates the march of Alexander through this region, which tan; and while at Kandahar, he despatched several dehe calls the country of the Oritæ and Gadrossi. He gives tachments into Baluchistan, and established his authority a very accurate account of this forlorn tract, its general in that province. Abdulla Khan, however, was continued aridity, and the necessity of obtaining water by digging in in the government of the country by Nadir's orders; but the beds of torrents; describes the food of the inhabitants as he was soon after killed in a battle with the forces of the dates and fish; and adverts to the occasional occurrence of Nawabs of Sindh. He was succeeded by his eldest son, fertile spots, the abundance of aromatic and thorny shrubs Hajee Mohummud Khan, who abandoned himself to the and fragrant plants, and the violence of the monsoon in most tyrannical and licentious way of life, and alienated the western part of Mekran. He notices also the impossi- his subjects by oppressive taxation. In these circumstances bility of subsisting a large army, and the consequent de- Nusseer Khan, the second son of Abdulla Khan, who had struction of the greater part of the men and beasts which accompanied the victorious Nadir to Delhi, and acquired accompanied the expedition of Alexander. At the com- the favor and confidence of that monarch, returned to Khemencement of the 8th century this country was traversed by lat, and was hailed by the whole population as their deliv. an army of the caliphate.
erer. Finding that expostulation had no effect upon his The country derives its name from the Baluches, but the brother, he one day entered his apartment and stabbed him Brahoes are considered the dominant race, from which the to the heart. As soon as the tyrant was dead, Nusseer ruler of the country is always selected. From whatever Khan mounted the musnud, amidst the universal joy of his quarter these may have arrived, they eventually expelled, subjects; and immediately transmitted a report of the events under their leader Kumbur, the Hindu dynasty, which at which had taken place to Nadir Shah, who was then enthat time governed the country, and conquered Baluchistan camped near Kandahar. The shah received the intellifor themselves. The Baluches are a quite distinct race, and gence with satisfaction, and despatched a firman, by return must have arrived in the country at a subsequent period, of the messenger, appointing Nusseer Khan beglerbey of probably in small bodies, some of which may have come all Baluchistan. This event took place in the year 1739. from Syria or from Arabia ; in proof of this the Kyheree, Nusseer Khan proved an active, politic, and warlike for instance, possess a remarkably handsome breed of horses prince. He took great pains to re-establish the internal showing unmistakable Arab blood. Anyhow, so marked is government of all the provinces in his dominions, and imthe social distinction between Baluch and Brahoe, that when proved and fortified the city of Khelat. On the death of the khan assembles his forces for war the latter tribes de- Nadir Shah in 1747, he acknowledged the title of the king of mand, as their right, wheaten Aour as a portion of their Cabul, Ahmed Shah Abdulla. In 1758 he declared himself daily rations, while the Baluch tribes are only entitled to entirely independent; upon which Ahmed Shah despatched receive that made from a coarse grain called jowar. There a force against him, under one of his ministers. The khan, is also a Persian colony known as the Dehwars; and a con- however, raised an army and totally routed the Afghan siderable number of Hindus, who appear to have been the army. On receiving intelligence of this discomfiture, the first settlers in the Brahoe mountains on their expulsion king himself marched with strong reinforcements, and a from Sindh, Lus, and Mekran by the caliphs of Baghdad. pitched battle was fought, in which Nusseer Khan was worst
Taking a general view on the subject of the original in- ed. He retired in good order to Khelat, whither he was habitants of Baluchistan, we may conclude that they have, followed by the victor, who invested the place with his from a very early date, been reinforced by emigration from whole army. The khan made a vigorous defence; and, other countries, and from stragglers dropped from the hosts after the royal troops had been foiled in their attempts to of the numerous conquerors from Alexander to Nadir Shah, take the city by storm or surprise, a negotiation was prowho have passed and repassed through Baluchistan or its posed by the king, which terminated in a treaty of peace. neighborhood on their way to and from India. Thus we By this treaty it was stipulated that the king was to receive find the Saka tribe located on the plains of Gressia, on the the cousin of Nusseer Khan in marriage; and that the borders of Mekran, the ancient Gedrosia, and still further khan was to pay no tribute, but only, when called upon, to the west, the Dahoe. These tribes are on the direct line to furnish troops to assist the armies, for which he was to of Alexander's march; and we know that tribes of this receive an allowance in cash equal to half their pay. The name from the shores of the Caspian accompanied his army. khan frequently distinguished himself in the subsequent In Sarawan we find the Sirperra, and Pliny tells us that a wars of Cabul; and, as a reward for his services, the king tribe called Saraparæ resided near the Oxus. Further, on bestowed upon him several districts in perpetual and entire the Dushti-be-doulets, a plain at the northern entrance of sovereignty. Having succeeded in quelling a dangerous the Bolan Pass, we find the Kurds, a name, again, familiar rebellion, headed by his cousin Beheram Khan, this able as that of a celebrated and ancient nation. The names of prince at length died in extreme old age, in the month of numerous other tribes might be cited to support this view, June, 1795, leaving three sons and five daughters. He but it would require too much space to follow up the sub- was succeeded by his eldest son Muhmood Khan, then a ject. Both Brahoes and Baluches are Mahometans of the boy of about fourteen years. During the reign of this Šuni persuasion.
prince, who has been described as a very humane and The precise period at which the Brahoes gained the mas- indolent man, the country was distracted by sanguinary tery cannot be accurately ascertained; but it was probably broils; the governors of several provinces and districts about two centuries ago. The last rajah of the Hindu dy withdrew their allegiance; and the dominions of the nasty found himself compe:led to call for the assistance of khans of Khelat gradually so diminished, that they now the mountain shepherds, with their leader, Kumbur, in or- comprehend only a small portion of the provinces formerly der to check the encroachments of a horde of depredators, subject to Nusseer Khan. beaded by an Afghan chief, who infested the country, and In 1839, when the British army advanced through the even threatened to attack the seat of government. Kum- Bolan Pass towards Afghanistan, the conduct of Mehrab bur successfully performed the service for which he had | Khan, the ruler of Baluchistan, was considered so treacher