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land qualification introduced rich commercial candidates claims to vote after another has voted in respect of the same to the constituencies. Lord Melbourne's cabinet declared qualification, obtains a (green) paper which

is not placed in the question open. The cause, upheld by Macaulay, Ward, the box, but preserved apart as a " tendered" paper. He Hume in his resolutions, 1848), and Berkeley, was must, however, declare his identity, and that he has not strengthened by the Report of Lord Hartington's Select already voted. The presiding officer, at the close of the Committee (15th March, 1870),' to the effect that corrup- poll, has to account to the returning officer for the papers tion, treating, and intimidation by priests and landlords entrusted to him, the number being made up by—(1) papers took place to a large extent at both parliamentary and in the box, (2) spoiled papers, (3) unused papers, and (4) municipal elections England and Ireland; and that tendered papers. During the voting (for which schoolrooms the ballot, if adopted, would probably not only promote and other public rooms are available, and for which a tranquillity at elections, but protect voters from undue separate compartment must be provided for every, 150 influence, and introduce greater freedom and purity in vot- electors entitled to vote at a station) agents of candidates ing, provided secrecy was made inviolable except in cases are allowed to be present in the polling-station, but they, where a voter was found guilty of bribery, or where an in- as well as the officials, are sworn to secrecy as regards who valid vote had been given. At Manchester and Stafford have voted, and for whom; and they are prohibited from in 1869, test ballots had taken place on the Australian prin interfering with the voter, inducing him to show his vote, ciple as practised in Victoria, --the voting card containing or attempting to ascertain the number on the back of the the names of all the candidates, printed in different colors paper. These agents are also present with the returning (for the benefit of illiterate voters), and the voter being Officer when he counts the papers and the votes, rejecting directed to score out the names of those he did not support, those papers—(1), which want the official mark on the back; and then to place the card (covered by an official envelope) (2), on which votes are given for more candidates than the in the box. It was found at Manchester that the voting voter is entitled to vote for; (3), on which anything except was considerably more rapid, and therefore less expensive, the number on the back is marked or written by which the than under the old system; that only 80 cards out of voter can be identified ; (4), which are unmarked, or so 11,475 were rejected as informal; and that, the representa- marked that it is uncertain for whom the vote is given. tives of candidates being present to check false statements The counted and rejected papers, and also the “tendered of identity, and the public outside being debarred from papers, counterfoils, and marked register (which have not receiving information what voters had voted, the ballot been opened), are, in parliamentary elections, transmitted rather decreased the risk of personation. At Manchester by the returning officer to the clerk of the Crown in the cards were not numbered consecutively, as is done in Chancery in England, or the sheriff-clerk in Scotland, who Victoria, so that (assuming the officials to be free from destroys them at the end of one year, unless otherwise corruption) no scrutiny could have detected by whom par- directed by an order of the House of Commons, or of some ticular votes were given. At Stafford the returning officer court having jurisdiction in election petitions. Such stamped each card before giving it to the voter, the die of petitions either simply dispute the accuracy of the return the stamp having been finished only on the morning of the on the ground of miscounting, or wrongous rejection or election. By this means the possibility was excluded of wrongous admission of papers, in which case the court what was known in the colonies as “the Tasmanian Dodge," examines the counted and rejected papers; or make alleby which a corrupt voter gave to the returning officer, or gations of corruption, &c, on which it may be necessary to placed in the box, a blank non-official ticket, and carried refer to the marked counterfoils and ascertain how bribed out from the booth his official card, which a corrupt agent voters have voted. Since the elections of 1874 much disthen marked for his candidate and gave, so marked, to cor- content has been expressed, because judges have rejected rupt voter No. 2 (before he entered the booth), on condi- papers with trifling (perhaps accidental) marks other than tion that he also would bring out his official card, and so the x upon them, and because elections have been lost on ad libitum; the agent thus obtaining a security for his through the failure of the officer to stamp the papers. For bribe, unless the corrupt voter chose to disfranchise him- this purpose the use has been suggested of a perforating self by making further marks on the card.

instead of an embossing stamp, while a dark ground paper At the close of 1870 the ballot was employed in the with white voting-spaces would make misplaced votes imposelection of members for the London School Board, under sible. The Ballot Act has introduced several new offences, the Education Act of that year.

such as forging or fraudulently defacing or destroying a In 1872 Mr. Forster's Ballot Act (35 and 36 Vict. c. 33) paper or the official mark; supplying a paper without due introduced the ballot in all parliamentary and municipal authority; fraudulently putting into the box a non-official elections, except parliamentary elections for universities; paper; fraudulently taking a paper out of the station and the code of procedure prescribed by the Act was without due authority; destroying, taking, opening, or adopted by the Scotch Education Board in the first School otherwise interfering with a box or packet of papers then Board election (1873), under “The Education (Scotland) in use for election purposes. These offences, and attempts Act, 1872.” It is impossible here to analyze the Ballot to commit them, are punishable in the case of officers and Act, which not only abolishes public nominations of clerks with imprisonment for two years, with or without candidates, but deals with the offence of personation and hard labor. In other cases the term of imprisonment is the expenses of elections. As regards the ballot, a white six months. paper is used on which the names of the candidates are The ballot being thus un fait accompli in the United printed in alphabetical order

, the voter filling up with a X Kingdom, it is now scarcely necessary to indicate the the blank on the right hand opposite the name he votes for. arguments by which it was supported and opposed. It The paper, before being given out, is marked by the has been found possible to render voting perfectly secret presiding officer on both sides with an official stamp, which and to provide for a scrutiny. It would be foolish to expect is kept secret, and cannot be used for a second election that secret voting will be a perfect security for independent within seven years. The paper is marked on the back with voting. Bribery, treating, and intimidation continue to the same number as the counterfoil of the paper which be practised, but with diminished effect. Bribery may still remains with the officer. This counterfoil is also marked be made conditional on the briber's success, but the Act is with the voter's number on the register, so that the vote felt to be an expression of national opinion against all may be identified on a scrutiny; and a mark on the register interference with individual judgment. The argument shows that the voter has received a ballot paper. The voter that the franchise is a public trust, to the exercise of which folds up the paper so as to conceal his mark, but to show a public responsibility should attach, would be conclusive the stamp to the officer, and deposits it in the box, which if the "selfish partialities” of the voter were the chief evil. is locked and sealed, and so constructed that papers cannot The ballot was declared to lead to universal hypocrisy and be withdrawn without unlocking it. Papers inadvertently deception ; and Sydney Smith spoke of voters, in domispoiled by the voters may be exchanged, the officer noes, going to the poll in sedan-chairs with closely-drawn preserving separately, the spoiled papers. If a voter is curtains." The observed effect of a secret ballot is, however, incapacitated from blindness, or other physical cause, or gradually to exterminate undue influence and canvassing; makes before the officer a declaration of inability to read, and when the necessity for secrecy is removed, yotes are or when the poll is on a Saturday declares himself a Jew, not kept secret. The alarm of "the Confessional" seems the officer causes the paper to be marked as the voter di- to be unfounded, as a Catholic penitent is not bound to rects, and keeps a record of the transaction. A voter who confess his vote, and if he did so, it would be a crime in 1 Parliamentary Papers, 1868-9, R. 352, 352-I. ; and 1870, R. 115. the confessor to divulge it.

. (William E. (1818-86), son of William (1784-1854), a London Quaker philanthropist. The son, descended from the Buxtons, was cabinet minister under Russell and Gladstone, promoted ballot and educational reforms, but was wrecked on the Irish Land Bills. Both had American interests.-Am. Ed.]


United States.

The ballot is used very largely in the British ( 1859, and in public halls (not booths), to which admission Australia.

Colonies, and on the Continent. In South Aus- is gained by showing a certificate of inscription, issued tralia, under the Constitution Act of 1856 and the Elec- by the mayor to each qualified voter. A stamped blue toral Act of 1858, both the Legislative Council and the official paper, with a memorandum of the law printed on House of Assembly are elected by manhood suffrage under the back (bolletino spiegato), is then issued to the elector; the ballot, the returning officer putting his initials on the on this he writes the name of a candidate (there being voting card, which the voter is directed, under pain of equal electoral colleges), or, in certain exceptional cases, bullity, to fold so that the officer may not see the vote gets a confidential friend to do so, and hands the paper which is indicated by a cross. The cards are destroyed folded up to the president of the bureau, who puts it in the when the poll is announced; and thus personation, though box (urna), and who afterwards presides at the public proved against certain voters for the purpose of punishing squittinio dei suffragi.” No scrutiny is possible; canvassthem, would not void an election, for there can be no ing and bribery are rare; and Cavour thought the ballot scrutiny before the Court of Disputed Returns. Canvass- had quite nullified the clerical power, at least in Piedmont. ing has almost disappeared. In Victoria, under the Elec- Greece is the only European country in which toral Act of 1865 (29. Vict. c. 279), both the Legislative the ball ballot is used. The voting takes place Council and the Legislative Assembly are elected prac- in the churches, each candidate has a box, on which his tically by manhood suffrage under the ballot, which was name is inscribed, one half (white) being also marked introduced in 1856. The officer adds to his initials a num- “Yes," the other half (black) "No." The voter, his citiber corresponding to the voter's number on the register, zenship or right to vote in the eparchy being verified, reand the cards are preserved till after the time for petition ceives one ball or leaden bullet for each candidate from a ing the Committee of Elections and Qualifications has ex- wooden bowl, which a clerk carries from box box. pired, so that a scrutiny may take place of challenged votes. The voter stretches his arm down a funnel, and drops the The important Road Boards under the Local Government ball into the “Yesor “No” division. The vote is secret, Consolidation Act of 1869 are also elected by ballot. In but there is apparently no check on “Yes” votes being Tasmania the chief peculiarity is that (as in South Aus- given for all the candidates, and the ball or bultralia) the card is not put directly by the voter into the let is imitable. In the United States a most box, but handed to the officer who puts it there (this being imperfect ballot system prevails. In many thought a security against double voting or voting with a states there is no register, and therefore personation and non-official card, and also against the voter carrying away double voting are practised. Again, there is no official his card); here also the cards are destroyed immediately, card, but, as in the Shanty system of New York, candiwhile in New South Wales, where, as in Victoria, the dates' touts give out printed and designed cards, which yoting is by scoring out and not by a cross, the cards are sometimes fraudulently imitate one another in design, so kept for five years. The vigorous municipal boards of that ignorant voters are misled. Again, the ballot is genthese colonies are also elected by ballot, which has dimin- erally taken in an engine-house, or shed open to the street, ished expense and undue influence very greatly, but has so that mob-intimidation may be used, and votes, as in France, not produced complete secrecy of voting.

are not practically secret. In Massachusetts, in 1851-2, France. In France, where from 1840 to 1845 the the Know-nothing or Anti-Irish party, anxious to prevent

ballot, or scrutin, had been used for delibera- personation, introduced a secret ballot for state elections, tive voting in the Chamber of Deputies, its use in elec- using the Manchester envelope and an official card, with tions to the Corps Législatif was carefully regulated at the the names of the candidates printed. This led to fraud beginning of the Second Empire by the Organic Decree of and was abandoned, a return being made to the French 20 February, 1852. Under this law the voting was super- system. The history of the ballot in Hungary Hungary. intended by a bureau consisting of the deputy returning is remarkable. Before 1848 secret voting was officer (called president of the section), four unpaid assess- unknown there. The electoral law of that year left the ors selected from the constituency, and a secretary. Each regulation of parliamentary elections to the county and voter presents a polling card, with his designation, date of town councils, very few of which adopted the ballot. The birth, and signature (to secure identity), which he has pre- mode of voting was perhaps the most primitive on record. viously got at the Mairie. This the president mutilates, Each candidate had a large box with his name superand the vote is then recorded by a “bulletin,” which is not scribed, and painted in a distinguishing color. On enterofficial, but is generally printed with a candidate's name, ing the room alone the voter received a rod from 4 to 6 and given to the voter by an agent outside, the only condi- feet in length (to prevent concealment of non-official rods tions being that the bulletin shall be “ sur papier blanc, on the voter's person), which he placed in the box through a sans signes extérieurs, et préparé en dehors de l'assemblée." slit in the lid. By the electoral law of 1874, the ballot in The total number of votes given (there being only one parliamentary elections in Hungary is abolished, but is member in each electoral district) is checked by reference made obligatory in the elections of town and county counto “la feuille d'appel et inscription des votants,” the law cils, where potes are given for several persons at once." still supposing that each voter is publicly called on to vote. This voting, however, carried on by party-lists on differently If the voter, when challenged, cannot sign his polling card, colored cards is practically open. There is a strong feeling he may call a witness to sign for him. The following in Hungary that the ballot would be worked by the Cathclasses of bulletins are rejected :-“illisibles, blancs, ne olic clergy through the Confessional. As most of the eleccontenant pas une désignation suffisante; sur lesquels les tors are freeholders, there is little intimidation.

Germany. votants se sont fait connaître; contenant le nom d'une per. In Prussia, Stein, by his Städteordnung, or Musonne n'ayant pas prêté le serment prescrit” (i.e., of a per- nicipal Corporation Act of 1808, introduced the ballot in son pot nominated). Only the votes pronounced bad by the election of the Municipal Assembly (Stadtverordneten the bureau in presence of representative scrutineers are Versammlung). Under the German Constitution of 1867, preserved, in case these should be called for during the and the New Constitution of 1st January, 1871, the elec in Session pour vérification des Pouvoirs." Practically the tions for the Reichstag are conducted by universal suffrage French ballot did not afford secrecy, for you might observe under the ballot in conformity with the Electoral Law of what bulletin the voter took from the agent, and follow | 31st May, 1869, which also divided Germany into equal him up the queue into the polling-place; but the deter- electoral districts. mined voter might conceal his vote even from the undue To secure complete secrecy, and to avoid the influence of Government by scratching out the printed possibility of fraud and the large expense of

machines. matter and writing his vote. This was always a good vote, printing and counting ballot papers, several and scrutiny of good votes was impossible. The ballot is ballot machines or registers have been invented. In that still used in the elections to the National Assembly, but in of Vassie there was an arrangement of confluent funnels, the Assembly itself only in special cases, as, e.g., in the by which the voter was prevented from dropping more election of a "rapporteur." Under the law of 10th Au. than one ball into the box. In that of Chamberlain the gust, 1871, the conseils généraux (departmental councils) number of votes given was indicated by the ringing of a Italy.

are elected by ballot. In Piedmont the ballot

formed part of the free constitutional govern- 1 Hungary is now being divided into equal electoral districts. ment introduced by Charles Albert in March, 1848 ; it was * On the other hand, by the 2d of the original by-laws of the extended to Italy in 1861. Voting for the Italian Cham- Bank of England, it was provided that the ballot should be used in

the general courts "in any question concerning only one person, moller, ber of Deputies takes place under the law of 20th November, 1 or thing."


bell. In that of Sydserff, the bal was placed by the is only accessible to small vessels. The town contains a sheriff in the common duct, and the voter, by moving a church, several chapels, a bank, a market-house, barracks, lever, guided it into a channel leading to the box of a and a union workhouse The salmon fishery is the only particular candidate. Generally, it may be said that these important occupation. Previous to the Union Ballyshanmechanical contrivances have been attempts to make the non returned two members to the Irish Parliament. Pop ball-system secret and accurate, each voter depositing a ulation in 1871, 2958. ball, and the accumulated balls showing the state of the BALMEZ, JAIME LUCIEN, a Spanish ecclesiastic, empoll

. This in a large constituency would become unwieldy, inent as a political writer and a philosopher, was born at and no permanent record of the poll (except the collocation Vich in Catalonia, on the 28th August, 1810, and died there of the balls) would be obtained. A considerable advance on the 9th July, 1848. The most important of his works, is made in the invention of Mr. James Davie, Edinburgh, and that on which his fame principally rests, is entitled El which we select for detailed description. Of this register Protestantismo comparado con el Catolicismo en sus relaciones an essential part is the wooden chamber (4 feet square by con la Civilisacion Europea, published 1842-44, a most able 7 feet in height) which the voter, having received a metal defence of Catholicism. It has been translated into French, ball from the sheriff, enters by a spring-hinged door to Italian, German, and English. The best of his philosophwhich a lever is attached. On one side of the chamber is ical works, which are able expositions of the old scholastic a box, on the lid of which stand differently colored cups, system of thought, are the Filosofia Fondamental, 1846, and marked each with a number and the name of a candidate the Corso de Filosofia Elemental, 4 vols. 1847. The ProtestInside the box is a cylinder traversed lengthwise by a antism and Catholicity and the Fundamental Philosophy have spindle, and having at one end a toothed wheel. By a both been translated into English (1849, 2 vols. 1857). screw-nut the cylinder revolves on and moves along the Nearly all the works are to be had in German and

French. spindle. On the cylinder is paper divided into spaces, See M. de Blanche-Raffin, Jacques Balmès, sa Vie a ses Or which correspond with the cups, and above this a sheet of vrages, Paris, 1849. carbonized paper as a printing medium. A pinion connects BALMORAL CASTLE, a residence of Her Majesty the cylinder with the door-lever, so that the opening of the Queen Victoria, on the right bank of the River Dee, about door drives round the paper one space. A steel type, 9 miles above Ballater and fifty miles from Aberdeen. buspended on an elastic card, is centred to each cup. Thé The property, which now consists of upwards of 10,000 voter having placed the ball in a cup, leaves the chamber acres, besides a large tract of hill ground, belonged in its by another spring-hinged door, which in opening displaces original extent to the Farquharsons of Inverey, by whom it the bottoms of the cups, and thus causes the ball to drop was sold to the Earl of Fife. In 1848 it was leased by the on the head of the type, beneath which it presses against late Prince Consort, and in 1852 was finally purchased for the recording sheet on the cylinder. The ball immediately a sum of £32,000. The castle, which was erected at Prince rolls down a groove to the sheriff's desk outside the cham- Albert's private expense, is of the Scotch baronial style of ber, where it is handed to the next voter, only one ball being architecture. used in connection with each register (unless, of course,

BALNAVES, HENRY, a Scottish Protestant, born at there are more votes than one to be given). The closing Kirkcaldy, in Fife, in the reign of James V., and educated of the exit door restores the bottoms to the cups. This at the university of St. Andrews. There is some doubt simple and effectual plan has the merit of secrecy, of im- both as to the exact date of his birth, which has been fixed mediate detection of fraud (e.g., the introduction of a non- as 1520, and as to the rank in society to which he belonged. official ball to the cup), of rapidity in voting and in count- He completed his studies on the Continent, and returning ing, and of leaving almost nothing to the voter's presence of to Scotland, entered the family of the Earl of Arran, who mind. The voter can make only one well-defined mark on at that time was regent; but in the year 1542 the eart disthe paper, and this he can do only in leaving the chamber missed him for embracing the Protestant religion. before the next voter has entered. Mr. Davie's invention, 1546 he was implicated in the murder of Cardinal Beaton, which in 1870 received a prize from the Royal Scottish at least he is known to have taken refuge with the conSociety of Arts, is obviously not adapted to cumulative spirators in the castle of St. Andrews; and when they were voting, but may be worked with any number of candidates at last obliged to surrender to the French, he was sent with under single voting. Although the motion of the cylinder the rest of the garrison as a prisoner to France. During would record in a diagonal direction the series of votes, it his confinement at Rouen he wrote the work entitled Conwould be practically impossible to identify votes from a fession.of Faith, to which Knox added marginal notes and numbered list of the voters.

(W. C. s.) a preface; but it was not published till 1584, five years BALLYCASTLE, a seaport town of Ireland, county after his death. He returned to Scotland about the year Antrim, situated on a bay opposite Rathlin island. The 1559, and having joined the Congregation, was appointed town is well built, consisting of two parts, about a quarter one of the commissioners to treat with the duke of Norfolk of a mile asunder, and connected by a fine avenue. To- on the part of Queen Elizabeth. In 1563 he was made wards the close of the 18th century, one of the Boyd fam- one of the lords of Session, an office which he is said to ily devoted himself to the extension and improvement of have held for the

first time in 1538, and was appointed by the town, establishing manufactures, endowing, charities, the General Assembly, with other learned men, to revise and building churches, and succeeded in producing a tem- the Book of Discipline. Knox, his contemporary and felporary vitality. Upwards of £150,000 is said to have been low-laborer, gives him the character of a very learned and expended upon the pier and harbor; but the violence of pious man. Balnaves died at Edinburgh in 1579. the sea overthrew the former, and the latter has been filled BALSAM, an oleo-resin or natural compound of resin with sand. To the east of the town are the remains of an and essential oil, in such proportions that the substance is abbey. Population in 1871, 1253.

in a viscous or semi-fluid condition. The gradations from BALLYMENA, a town of Ireland, county Antrim, on a solid resin to a limpid essential oil are insensible, and the Braid, an affluent of the Maine, two miles above their most resins have a balsamic consistency on their exudation, junction. It is 33 miles N.N.W. of Belfast, with which it only hardening by exposure to air. It has been proposed is connected by railway. The town owes its prosperity to limit the name balsam to such substances as contain cinchiefly to its linen trade, introduced in 1733, which gives namic or an analogous acid in addition to the volatile oil employment to the greater part of the inhabitants. It has and resin which turpentines contain alone; but this disa parish church, several chapels and schools, a market- tinction has not been carried out. house, and four branch banks. There is a newspaper pub- The fragrant balsams which contain cinnamic or benzoic lished in the town called the Ballymena Observer. Popula- acid may, however, be regarded as a distinct class, allied tion in 1871, including Hanyville in the suburbs, 7931. to each other by their composition, properties, and uses.

BALLYSHANNOŇ, a seaport and market-town of Ire- Those of this class found in commerce are the balsam of land, county of Donegal, situated at the mouth of the Peru, balsam of Tolu, liquid storax, and liquidambar. Erné. Lat. 54° 30' N., long. 8° 11' W. The river is here Balsam of Peru is the produce of a lofty leguminous tree, crossed by a bridge of fourteen arches, which connects the Myrospermum peruiferum, growing within a limited area in town with the suburb of Purt. Below the bridge the river San Salvador, Central America, but now introduced into forms a beautiful cascade, 150 yards wide, with a fall at Ceylon. It is a thick, viscid oleo-resin of a deep brown or low water of 16 feet. The harbor is a small creek of Don- black color and a fragrant balsamic odor. It has been egal Bay, about 600 yards long and 350 yards broad, and analyzed by Kachler, who thus states its percentage com1 Letters-Patent, No. 63 of 1869,

position, cinnamic acid 46, resin 32, benzylic alcobol 20.

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It is used in perfumery, and in medicine as a stimulant | occupation he achieved great success, and was selected to application to indolent sores, as well as internally for prepare the plans for some of the largest public edifices in asthma and pectoral complaints. Balsam of Tolu is like Paris. His reputation, however, rests not so much on his wise produced from a species of Myrospermum, M. tolui- practical performances in architecture as on his great skill ferum. It is of a brown color, thicker than Peru balsam, in the art of engraving. Among the best known of his and attains a considerable degree of solidity on keeping. plates are the drawings of Paris Paris et ses Monuments, 2 It also is a product of equatorial America, but is found over vols. fol., 1803), the engravings for Denon's Égypte

, the a much wider area than is the balsam of Peru. Tolu bal- illustrations of Napoleon's wars (La Colonne de la grande sam consists of a combination of inodorous resin with Armée), and those contained in the series entitled the Grand cinnamic acid, no benzoic acid being present in it. It is Prix de l Architecture, which for some time he carried on used in perfumery and as a constituent in cough syrups alone. He has also gained distinction as an engraver of and lozenges. Liquid storax is a balsam yielded by portraits. Liquidambar orientalis, a native of Asia Minor. It is a BALTIC SEA. The name by which this inland sea is soft resinous substance, with a pleasing balsamic odor, commonly designated is first found in the 11th century, in especially after it has been kept for some time. It contains the work of Adam of Bremen, entitled Chorographia Scandia principle-styrol or cinnamene—to which it owes its navio. The derivation of the word is uncertain. It seems peculiar odor, besides cinnamic acid, stryacin, and a resin. probable that, whatever may be the etymology of the name Liquid storax is used in medicine as an external application in skin diseases, and internally as an expectorant. An analogous substance is derived from Liquidambar Altingia in Java. Liquidambar balsam is derived from Liquidambar styraciflua, a tree found in the United States and Mexico. It contains cinnamic acid, but is destitute of benzoic acid.

Of balsams entirely destitute of cinnamic and benzoic constituents the following are found in com

LAPLAND merce :- Mecca Balsam or Balm of Gilead, yielded by the Balsamodendron Berryi (B. gileadense of De Candolle), a tree growing in Arabia and Abyssinia, is supposed to be the balm of Scripture and the pánoauov of Theophrastus. When fresh it is a viscid fluid, with a penetrating odor, but it solidifies with age. It was regarded with the utmost esteem among the nations of antiquity, and to the present day it is peculiarly prized among the people of the East. Balsam of Copaiba or Capivi is a fluid oleo-resin of a pale brown or straw color, produced from several trees of the genus Copaisera, growing in tropical America. It possesses a peculiar odor and a nauseous persistent tarry taste. Balsam of copaiba contains from 40 to 60 per cent. of essential oil, holding in solution a resin from which capivic acid can be prepared. It is chiefly used in medicine for the treatment of infiammatory affections of mucous surfaces. Under the name of Wood Oil, or Gurjun Balsam, an oleoresin is procured in India and the Eastern Archi

Sicerkoping pelago from several species of Dipterocarpus, chiefly D. turbinatus, which has the odor and properties of copaiba, and is used for it in East Indian hospital

Catatesli practice. Wood oil is also used as a varnish in India, and forms an effective protection against the attacks of white ants. A substitute for copaiba is also


R found in the dark red balsam yielded by Hardwickia pinnata, a leguminous tree.

Canada Balsam.—The oleo-resins obtained from coniferous trees are usually termed turpentines, but that yielded by Abies balsamea is known in commerce as Balsam of Canada. It is a very trans

Sketch-Map of Baltic Sea. parent substance, somewhat fluid when first run, but thickening considerably with age, possessed of a delicate | Baltic, that of the Great and Little Belts is the same. The yellow color, and a mild terebinthous odor. According to Swedes, Danes, and Germans call it the Ostsee or East Sea. Flückiger and Hanbury it contains 24 per cent. of essential The Baltic is enclosed by Sweden, Russia, the German oil, 60 per cent. of resin soluble in alcohol, and 16 per cent. empire, and Denmark; and it communicates with the of resin soluble only in ether. It has been used for the North Sea, by the winding channel which lies between same purposes as copaiba, but its chief uses are for mount- the southern part of the Scandinavian peninsula and the ing preparations for the microscope and as a varnish. northern peninsula of Schleswig and Jutland. The first

BALTA, the chief town of a circle of the same name in part of this channel is in great measure blocked by the the Russian government of Podolia. It stands on the islands of Zealand and Fünen, so as to form the three Kodima, pear its junction with the Bug, and carries on a narrow passages which are known as the Sound (between large trade in cattle and horses and the raw products of the Sweden and Zealand), the Great Belt (between Zealand surrounding district. It has two great annual fairs, the and Fünen), and the Little Belt (between Fünen and more important being held at Whitsuntide and the other in Jutland). Each of these forms a distinct communication June. A variety of industries, such as tallow-melting, between the Baltic and the Cattegat, which is the open soap-boiling, tile-making, and brewing, are likewise pros- portion of the channel lying between the coast of Sweden ecuted. The Jews form a very considerable part of the and the eastern side of Jutland; while the Cattegat opens population, which in 1867 numbered 14,528. Balta was in freely into the Skager Rack, which is the continuation of great part destroyed by the Russians in 1780.

same open channel, between the southern end of Norway BALTARD, Louis PIERRE, a distinguished French and the north-west coast of Jutland, into the North Sea. architect and engraver, was born at Paris in 1765, and The length of the Baltic Sea, from Swinemünde in died in 1846. He was originally a landscape painter, but the S. to Tornea in the N., is nearly 900 miles; and its in his travels through Italy was so much struck with the greatest width, between Karlscrona and Memel, exceeds beauty of the Italian buildings, that he changed his pro- 200 miles. Its whole area, including the Gulfs of Bothnia fession and devoted himself to architecture. "In his new and Finland, is about 160,000 geographical square miles.

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It runs first in an easterly direction as far as Memel, a | Dnieper by a canal through which vessels can pass from distance of 300 miles, and then northwards as far as lat. the Baltic to the Black Sea. The Vistula, which receives 59° 21' N., a distance of 350 miles, at which point it sepa- the waters of the whole area of Russian and Prussian rates into two great gulfs. One of these, the Gulf of Fin- Poland, flowing past Warsaw into the Baltic at Dantzig, is land, runs nearly due E.; the other, the Gulf of Bothnia, a very large and important river, having a length of 520 almost N. The Gulf of Bothnia is 400 miles in length, miles, of which 430 are navigable, and a drainage area of with an extreme breadth of 120 miles, but where narrowest 72,000 square miles. And the Oder, rising in the hill it does not exceed 40 miles. The archipelago of Aland districts of Silesia, drains the extensive level areas of lies at its entrance. The Gulf of Finland is 280 miles in Brandenberg and Pomerania, and discharges into an estuary, length, with a mean breadth of 60 or 70 miles.

that may be said to begin from Stettin, the water drawn The depth of the Baltic rarely exceeds 100 fathoms from an area of 45,000 square miles. Numerous rivers being greatest between the island of Bornholm and the discharge themselves into the Gulf of Bothnia, bringing coast of Sweden, where it reaches 115 fathoms, and least down water from the mountain ranges of Sweden and in the neighborhood of the mouths of large rivers, which Norway; but their course is comparatively short and direct, bring down a great quantity of earthy matter, especially in with few tributaries, so that, individually, they do not the spring, so that in many parts the bottom is being so attain any great size. The drainage of the more level rapidly raised by its deposit that the mouths of rivers southern portion of Sweden is for the most part collected formerly navigable are now inaccessible. This is especially by the great lakes Wener, Wetter, and Mälar, of which the case in the northern part of the Gulf of Bothnia, above the first pours its water into the North Sea, and the others Quarken, where several tracts are now dry land which into the Baltic. By means of a canal joining Lakes Wener were once water; and also in the neighborhood of Tornea, and Wetter vessels can pass directly from the Cattegat into where meadows now take the place of waters which were the Baltic. traversed in boats by the French Academicians, when they Climate. It is not only, however, the extent of its were measuring an arc of the meridian. Along the drainage area, but the large proportion borne by the rain southern coast the shallowness of the harbors is a great and snow which fall upon that area to the amount dissipated obstacle to navigation, especially since they are closed by by evaporation from its surface, that goes to swell

the aggre ice for nearly one-third of the year. On the western side gate of fresh water poured into the basin of the Baltic; for it is not more than 15 fathoms deep; and, in general, it is there is probably no inhabited region of the whole globe only from 8 to 10 fathoms. On the s. it nowhere exceeds over which so large a quantity of snow falls, in proportion 50 fathoms. The Gulf of Finland suddeniy shallows from to its area, as it does in the countries round this basin. 50 or 60 fathoms to 5, or even less. The average depth of They receive, direct from the Atlantic, a vast amount of the Gulf of Bothnia is not greater than that of the rest of moisture brought by its west and south-west winds; and the sea. Numerous rocky islands and reefs, many of them even the winds which have already passed over the low level with the water, render the navigation of this sea plains of Jutland and Northern Germany will have parted extreinely dangerous.

with little of their moisture before reaching the Baltic The shore of the Baltic is generally low. Along the provinces of Russia. When these vapor-laden west and southern coast it is for the most part sandy,—with sand- south-west winds meet the cold dry east and north-east banks outside, and sand-hills and plains inland. Where winds of Siberia, their moisture is precipitated, in summer streams come down, there are often fresh-water lakes termed as rain, and in winter as snow; and owing to the prevalence hafss, which are separated from the sea by narrow spits of a low atmospheric temperature through a large part of called nehrungs. Two of these haffs are of great extent; the year, the proportion lost by evaporation is extremely one of them, termed the Frische Haff

, lies between Danzig small as compared with what passes off from other inland and Königsberg, which last town is situated on the part seas. The large excess of the amount of fresh water disof it most remote from the sea; the other, termed the charged into the basin, over that which passes off by evapKurische Haff, lies between Königsberg and Memel, the oration from its surface, is indicated by its low salinity, latter town being situated on the channel connecting the which, however, varies considerably in its different parts haff with the sea. Near the entrance to the Gulf of Fin- and at different seasons of the year. The temperature of land the coast becomes rocky, and continues to be so for the Baltic is remarkable for its range, which is rather that the most part around the gulfs both of Finland and of a terrestrial than of a marine area—this being doubtless Bothnia, except towards the head of each; the rocks, how owing in great degree to the fact that its shallowness and ever, are never high. The shores of the southern part of the low salinity of its water allow a large part of its surface the Swedish peninsula are mostly high, but not rocky; at to be frozen during the winter. Nearly the whole of the Stockholm, however, there is an archipelago of rocky Gulf of Bothnia, with the land enclosing it on both sides, islands, on some of which the town is partly built. lies between the January isotherms of 109 and 20°—the

Drainage Area.—The Baltic may be considered as the former crossing it near its head, and the latter near its estuary of a great number of rivers, none of them individu- junction with the Baltic proper; and the whole of the ally of great size, but collectively draining a very large area, Baltic proper, with the land enclosing it on the east, south, which is estimated at about 717,000 square miles, or nearly and west, lies between the January isotherms of 20° and one-fifth of the entire area of Europe. This great drainage 30o. On the other hand, the July isotherm of 60°, which area is remarkable for the small proportion of its boundary crosses England near the parallel of 54°, passes across the that is formed by mountains or high table-lands,-its Gulf of Bothnia near the Walgrund Íslands, almost 90 greater part consisting of land of no considerable elevation, further north; and the whole of the Baltic proper, with which slopes down very gradually to its coast-line, and of the Gulf of Finland and the southern part of the Gulf of which a large proportion is covered by lakes. This is Bothnia, lies between the July isotherms of 60° and 65°. especially the character of the drainage area of the Neva, Thus the range between the mean suraner and mean winter whose waters are immediately derived from the large shallow temperatures, which is only about 20° in the British Lake Ladoga, which receives the contributions of numerous Islands, is about 40° over the Baltic area. The mean other lakes, Onega being the largest, though Lake Saima annual temperature of the Gulf of Bothnia ranges between in Finland, with its irregular prolongations, is scarcely less 30° at its northern extremity and 40° at its southern, extensive. The entire surface drained by the Neva is esti- while that of the Baltic ranges from 40° at its northern mated at about 100,000 square miles, or nearly twenty boundary to about 46° at its southern. times that of the drainage area of the Thames. Through Formation and Transportation of Ice.—The greater part Lake Onega, the Neva is connected with the Dwina and of the Gulfs of Bothnia and Finland is usually frozen over the Volga by canals, through which small vessels can pass during the winter, the formation of ice beginning at the from the Baltic into either the White Sea or the Caspian. head and extending downwards. Masses of ice, conveyed The Duna or South Dwina, which discharges itself into by the currents into the Baltic proper, freeze together as the Gulf of Riga, is another important river, draining an the winter advances, and form vast fields, generally extendarea of about 35,000 miles in West Russia, and having a ing on the east side as far south as the islands of Dagë length of 520 miles, of which 405 miles are navigable. and Oesel, and on the west to the south of Stockholm. It The drainage area of the Niemen, which enters the Baltic happens sometimes, though rarely, that large portions of at Memel, is conterminous with that of the Duna, and is the Baltic proper are continuously frozen over; but navigaof about the same extent ; this river is navigable for more tion is usually interrupted by the blocking up of its bays than 400 miles from its outlet, and communicates with the and harbors with ice, from the latter part of December to

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