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BALASOR, & district of British India in the Orissa expanse, or run in straight lines between the fields. The division, under the Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal, lies Submontane Tract is an undulating country with a red soil

, between 200 and 21° N. lat., and in 86o and 87° Ě. long., much broken up into ravines along the foot of the hills. and is bounded on the N. by the district of Midnapur; on Masses of laterite, buried in hard ferruginous clay, crop up the S. by Cattack district, from which it is separated by the as rocks or slabs. At Kopári, in Kila Ambohatá, about 2 Baitaraní river; on the W. by the tributary states of Keun- square miles are almost paved with such slabs, dark red in jhar, Nilgiri, and Morbhanj; and on the E. by the Bay of color, perfectly fat, and polished like plates of iron. A Bengal. Balasor district forms a strip of alluvial land thousand mountain torrents have scooped out for themselves between the hills and the sea, varying from about 9 to 34 picturesque ravines, clothed with an ever-fresh verdure of miles in breadth; area, 2066 sq. miles. The hill country prickly thorns, stunted gnarled shrubs, and here and there rises from the western boundary line. The district natu- a noble forest tree. Large tracts are covered with Sa] rally divides itself into three well-defined tracts—(1.) The jungle, which nowhere, however, attains to any great Salt Tract, along the coast; (2.) The Arable Tract, or rice height. country; and (3.) The Submontane Tract, or jungle lands. The Salt Tract runs the whole way down the coast, and The Subanrekha, literally the streak of gold, forms the bound

Balasor district is watered by six distinct river systems: 1. forms a desolate strip a few miles broad. Towards the beach it rises into sandy ridges, from 50 to 80 feet high, southern course, with gigantic bends from east to west till it

between Balasor and Midnapur, Aowing in a tortuous sloping inland, and covered with a vegetation of low scrub reaches the sea in lat. 21° 35' N. and long. 87° 23' E. It is navijungle. Sluggish brackish streams creep along between gable by country craft as high as Kaiškápur, about 16 miles banks of foetid black mud. The sand hills on the verge of from the mouth, to which point the tide also runs. Rice boate the ocean are carpeted with creepers and the wild convol- of 2 tons' burden can make their way up to the end of the BalFulus. Inland, it spreads out into prairies of coarse long asor district, and during the rains far into the tributary state grass and scrub jungle, which harbor wild animals in of Morbhanj. 2. The intermediate country on the south of the plenty; but throughout this vast region there is scarcely a

Subanrekbá and the north of the Burábalang, forms a great hamlet, and only patches of rice cultivation at long inter- line of drainage down from Morbhanj. It is watered by a numvals. From any part of the Salt Tract one may see the ber of small streams, of which the principal are the Jamirá, boundary of the inner arable part of the district, fringed wildest

confusion, and at length enter the sea as the Pánchpárá,

Báns, and Bhairings. They unite, bifurcate, and re-unite in the with long lines of trees, from which every morning the in lat. 21° 31' N. and long. 87° 10' E. 3. South of this networks villagers drive their cattle out into the saliferous plains to of rivers is the Burábalang, literally the Old Twister. It rises graze. The Salt Tract is purely alluvial, and appears to be among the Morbhanj hills, in lat. 21° 24' and long. 86° 36', and of recent date. Towards the coast the soil has a distinctly after receiving two small tributaries, the Gangáhar and Sunai, saline taste.

wriggles into the sea in lat. 21° 28' and long. 87° 5'. Brigs, Salt is largely manufactured in this tract by ev ration. sloops, and sea-going steamers can navigate this river as far as The following is the process followed :-At the beginning the town of Balasor, about 16 miles up its twisting course, but of December the contractor selects his locality, about a

the sand-bar across the mouth of the river renders the entrance

difficult. quarter to half a mile from the sea, and engages a class of

4. South of the Burábalang, a network of rivers, men called chuliyás, or heads of salt gangs. These men

known as the Jámká, find their way down the line of drainage

from the western Nilgiri hills, and enter the sea by many chanreceive 1s. a cwt. for whatever amount of salt they turn

nels. 5. The Kansbáns, rising in Kila Ambohatá, runs in a out. They, in their turn, engage working parties of south-easterly direction, at first almost parallel with the Nilgiri malangis, who are paid at the rate of 3d. to 5d. a day; hills, and receives from them a number of nameless drainage The ground is first marked out by a shallow trench, and streams op its northern bank. At Bírpárá it bifurcates, the the grasses and bushes are carefully dug up and removed. northern branch retaining its original name, and entering the A deep ditch is next dug from the sea, by means of sea in lat. 21° 12' 25'', long. 86° 52' 10". The southern branch which, twice a month, the spring tides overflow the salt- receives the name of Gammal, and falls into the sea 8 miles field, and fill a number of reservoirs, 4 feet in diameter, south of the Kánsbáns. This river is navigable only a few and 2 or 3 feet deep. A mound of earth is then piled up tent of country which it submerges in the rainy season.

but is celebrated for its sudden floods and the vast ex

6. to the height of 2 feet

, and from 3 to 4 in diameter. It is The Baitarani enters the district at the village of Balspur, and next hollowed out into the shape of a bowl, plastered inside Aows for about 45 miles in a south-westerly direction till it joins with clay, and furnished with a hole at the bottom, covered the Dbámra, 5 miles from its mouth. The united stream enters with a layer of grass 6 inches thick. The salt-ınakers fill the sea under the name of the Dhamrá, in lat. 20° 47', long. 87°. this bowl with saline earth scraped off the adjacent land, The Dhamrá is a fine navigable estuary, but like all the Orissa and pour the sea-water on it from the top. By the end of rivers, it is rendered perilous by a bar across its mouth. six hours the water has drained through into a pit at the Population of Balasor in 1872, 770,232 souls, residing in 3266 bottom, and runs down a thatched trench towards a reser- villages, and 138,913 houses; persons per square mile, 378; vilvoir, whence it is transferred to the evaporators. The lages per square mile, 1.58; persons per village, 236; houses

of the total poplatter consist of from 160 to 200 little unglazed earthenware per square mile, 67; persons per house, 5.5. pots, fastened together by stiff tenacious mud, and holding ulation. 738,396, or 95.9 per cent., wore Hindus ; 18,878, or 2-4 two quarts each. The neighboring plains supply grasses ist; and 12,427, or 1.6 per cent., of aboriginal origin. Tho

per cent., Mahometans; 630, or •1 per cent., Christians; 1 Buddhfor the fuel. Six hours' boiling completes the process. proportion of males to the total district population

was 49.2

per The brine, which consisted in the first place of sea-water cent.; number of male adult agriculturists, 150,391, and male charged to its maximum power of solution by percolating adult non-agriculturists, 82,542. Brahmans, Karang, Khanthrough the bowls of salt earth, subsides into dirty crystals dáits, and other castes, compose the Hindu population. There at the bottom of the pots. It is then ladled out in spoons are two settlements of Christian missionaries in the district bemade of half cocoa-nuts. The whole process is as rude longing

to the Freewill Baptists, from Dover, New Hampshire, and careless as can well be imagined. The total cost u. 8. The district contains only one town with upwards of of manufacture is estimated at 2s. id, a cwt., which, with 5000 inhabitants, viz., Balasor itself, with 18,263. Almost tho the Government duty of 8s. 8d., makes a total cost of whole population of the district lives by agriculture. Rice 10s. 9d.

forms the staple crop of the district, and is divided into 5 great The Arable Tract lies beyond the salt lands, and embraces bacco, cotton, sugar-cane, &c., make up the other agricultural

genera, and 49 principal varieties. Pulses, oil-seeds, hemp, tothe chief part of the district. It is a long dead level of sich products of Balasor. Balasor husbandmen consist of two fields, with a soil lighter in color than that of Bengal or classes, thánt or cultivators, with a right of occupancy, and paht, Behar; much more friable, and apt to split up into small or tenants at will. Roughly speaking, one half of the district cubes with a rectangular cleavage. A peculiar feature of is under tillage, and the other half incapable of cultivation. the Arable Tract is the Páts, literally the Cups, or depressed Exports-Grain, sugar, oil-seeds, timber, hides, horns, &c. Imlands near the river banks. They were probably marshes ports-Native cloths, English piece-goods, &c. Total revenue that have partially silted up by the yearly overflow of the of the Balasor district in 1870–71, £102,052, of which £41,408, streams. These Cup-lands bear the finest crops. As a

or 40 per cent., was from land; total expenditure in the same whole, the Arable Tract is a treeless region, except around year, £51,620. In 1872 the police force of the district consisted the villages, which are encircled by fine mango, pipal, total cost of £8879, 88.; 32 officers and men of the municipal

of 566 officers and men of the regular police, maintained at a banyan, and tamarind trees, and intersected with green police, maintained at a cost of £224, 12s.; and 2320 men of the shady lanes of bamboo. A few palmyras, date palms, and village watch, maintained by grants of service lands and by screw pines (a sort of aloe, whose leaves are armed with subscriptions from villages, which amounted to £2745 in 1872; formidable triple rows of hook-shaped thorns) dot the total strength of police, 2918 men; total cost, £11,849. Bala

sor contained 1053 schools in 1872, attended by 11,538 pupils. / regarded as the first necessity of national life. Of true The Government and aided schools were 43 in number, attended Italian unity he had no expectation and no desire. A conby 1631 pupils, and maintained at a total cost of £1559, to federation of separate states under the supremacy of the which Government contributed £748, 16s. The climate of Bal. Pope was the genuine beau idéal of Balbo, as it was the os asor greatly varies according to the seasons of the year. The tensible beau idéal of Gioberti. But Gioberti, in his Prie hot season lasts from March to June, but is tempered by cool sea-breezes; from June to September the weather is close and mato, seemed to him to neglect the first essential of indeoppressive ; and from October to February the cold season pendence, which he accordingly inculcated in his Speranze brings the north-easterly winds, with cool mornings and even

or Hopes of Italy. Preparation, both military and moral, ings.

(w. W. H.) alertness, and patience, were his constant theme. He did

not wish revolution, but reform; and thus he became the BALASOR, the principal town and administrative head- leader of a moderate party, and the steady opponent not quarters of the above district, situated on the River Burá- only of despotism but of democracy. At last, in 1848, his balang, in 21° 28' 45'' N. lat., and 86° 59' 33'' E. long., hopes were so far satisfied by the constitution granted by about

8 miles from the sea-coast as the crow flies, and 16 the king. He was appointed a member of the commission by the river. The English settlement of Balasor, formed of electoral law, and held a post in the first reformed gove in 1642, and that of Pippli in its neighborhood, seven ernment. With the ministry of Azeglio, which soon after years earlier, became the basis of the future greatness of got into power, he continued on friendly terms, and his pea the British in India. The servants of the East India Com continued the active defence of his political principles till pany here fortified themselves in a strong position, and his death, on the 3d June, 1853. The most important of carried on a brisk investment in country goods, chiefly cot- his writings are historico-political, and derive at once their tons and muslins. They flourished in spite of the oppres- majesty and their weakness from his theocratic theory sions of the Mahometan governors, and when needful of Christianity. His style is clear and vigorous, and not asserted their claims to respect by arms. In 1688, affairs unfrequently terse and epigrammatic. He published Quathaving come to a crisis, Captain Éeath, commander of the tro Novelle in 1829; Storia d Italia in 1830; Vita di Dante, Company's ships, bombarded the town. In the 18th cen- 1839; Meditazioni Storiche, 1842-5; Le Speranze d'Italia, tury Balasor rapidly declined in importance, on account of 1843; Sommario della Storia d'Italia. a dangerous bar which formed across the mouth of the BALBOA, Vasco NUÑEZ DE, one of the bravest and river. At present the bar has 12 to 15 feet of water at most successful of the Spanish discoverers of America, was spring tides, but not more than 2 or 3 feet at low water in born at Xeres de los Caballeros, in Estremadura, about the the dry season. Large ships have to anchor outside in year 1475. He was by birth a hidalgo, or gentleman, the open roadstead. The town contains a population of but was in poor circumstances. Little is known of his 18,263; municipal income in 1872, £519; expenditure, life till the year 1501, when he was one of the company £514; rate of taxation, 6 d. per head of population. of adventurers who followed Roderigo de Bastidas in his

(W. W. H.) voyage of discovery to the western seas. He appears to BALBI, ADRIAN, one of the most eminent geographers have settled in Hispaniola, and look to cultivating land in of modern times, was born at Venice in 1782. In 1820 he the neighborhood of Salvatierra, but with no great success, visited Portugal, and there collected materials for his well as his debts soon became oppressive. In 1509 the famous known work entitled Essai Statistique sur le Royaume de Ojeda sailed from San Domingo with an expedition, and Portugal et d' Algarve, which was published at Paris in founded the_settlement of San Sebastian. He had left 1822. This was followed by Variétés Politiques et Statis- orders with Enciso, an adventurous lawyer of the town, to tiques de la Monarchie Portugaise, which contains some fit out two ships and convey provisions to the new settlecurious observations respecting that country under the ment. Enciso set sail in 1510, and Balboa, whose debts Roman sway, and on the state of literature and the arts. made the town unpleasant to him, managed to accompany In 1826 he published the first volume of his Allas Ethno- him, by concealing himself in a cask which was conveyed graphique du Globe, &c., a work of great erudition, embody- from his farm to the ship as if containing provisions. The ing the researches of the most distinguished German phi- expedition, after various adventures, reached San Sebastian lologists and geographers. In 1832 appeared the Abrégé to find Ojeda gone and the settlement in ruins. While de Geographie, which added greatly to the author's repu- Enciso was undecided how to act, Vasco Nuñez proposed tation. This work, in an enlarged form, was translated that they should sail for Darien, on the Gulf of Uraba, into the principal languages of Europe. Balbi afterwards where he had touched when with Bastidas. His proposal retired to Padua, where he continued to pursue his favor- was at once accepted, and carried out. The new town was ste science with unabated ardor. Besides those already named Sta Maria de la Antigua del Darien. Bitter quarmentioned, he was the author of several other works in the rels soon broke out among the adventurers, caused chiefly same department of science. He died on the 14th of by Enciso prohibiting all private interchange for gold with March, 1848.

the natives. Enciso was deposed from the office of authorBALBO, CESARE, an important Italian writer and ity which he had assumed, but it was found no easy statesman, was born at Turin, November 21, 1789. His matter to elect a successor. Nicuesa, in whose province father, Prospero Balbo, held á high position in the Pied- they were, was proposed by several, and was brought from montese court, and at the time of Cesare's birth was syn- Nombre de Dios by a ship which had been sent out to dic of the capital. His mother, a member of the Azeglio bring assistance to him. The inhabitants of Darien, how. family, died when he was three years old; and he was ever, would not receive him, and, in their wrath, seized brought up in the house of his great-grandmother, the him and placed him, with seventeen companions, in a crazy countess of Bugino, "a noble and proud old lady." In bark with which to find his way back to Hispaniola 1798 he joined his father at Paris. From 1808 to 1814 The party of Vasco Nuñez grew strong; Enciso was thrown Balbo served in various capacities under the Napoleonic into prison, and finally sent off to Spain along with Vasco's empire, helping, at Florence and Rome, to fix the chains ally, the alcalde Zamudio. Being thus left in authority, of despotism on his country. Gradually, however, his eyes Balboa began to make excursions into the surrounding were opened, and, on the fall of Napoleon, he was ready, country, and by his bravery and conciliatory manners in various capacities, to serve the cause of his country. gained the friendship

, of several native chiefs. On one of While his father was appointed minister of the interior, he these excursions he heard for the first time of the great entered the army, and undertook political missions to Paris ocean that lay on the other side of the mountains, and of and London. On the revolution of 1821 he was forced into the wondrous land of gold, afterwards called Peru. Soon exile, and though, not long after, he was allowed to return after his return to Darien he received letters from Zamudio, to Piedmont, all active service as a statesman was denied informing him that Enciso had complained to the king, him. Reluctantly, and with frequent endeavors to obtain and had obtained a sentence condemning Balboa and some appointment, he gave himself up to literature as the summoning him to Spain. In his despair at this message only means left him to influence the destinies of his coun- Vasco resolved to attempt some great enterprise, the suc try. This accounts for the fitfulness and incompleteness of cess of which he trusted would conciliate his sovereign. Bo much of his literary work, and for the practical, and in On the 1st September, 1513, he set out with about 190 men, many cases temporary, element that runs through even his well armed, and sailed to Coyba, where he left half his most elaborate productions. The great object of his labors forces to guard the canoes and ships. With the remainder was to help in securing for Italy that independence from he started on his perilous journey across the isthmus. Os foreign control which, even more than internal freedom, he the 26th September they reached the summit of the range of mountains, and the glorious expanse of the Pacific was Cronica dei Matematici is an abridgment of a larger work, displayed to them. Three days later, they began to de- on which he had bestowed twelve years of labor, and scend the mountains on the western side, and Vasco, which was intended to contain the lives of more than two arriving at the sea-shore, formally took possession of the hundred mathematicians. His life has been written by ocean in the name of the Spanish monarch. He remained Affo, Mazzuchelli, and others. on the coast for some time, heard again of Peru, had the BÁLDINGER, ERNEST GOTTFRIED, a German physician Pearl Islands pointed out to him, and set out for Darien. of considerable eminence, and the author of a great number On the 18th January, 1514, he reached the town, and was of medical publications, was born near Erfurt, 13th May, received with the utmost joy. He at once sent messengers 1738. He studied medicine at Erfurt, Halle, and Jena, to Spain bearing presents, to give an account of his dis- and in 1761 was entrusted with the superintendence of the coveries; but, unfortunately, these did not arrive till an military hospitals connected with the Prussian encampment expedition had sailed from Spain, under_Don Pedro Arias near Torgau. He published, in 1765, a dissertation on the de Avila (generally called Pedrarias, or Davila), to replace diseases of soldiers, which met with so favorable a reception Vasco Nuñez, and to take possession of the colony. For that he published an enlarged edition, under the title of some time after Pedrarias reached Darien Vasco was in Treatise on the Diseases that prevail in Armies, Langensalza, great straits, but at length letters came from the king, 1774, 8vo. In 1768 he became professor of medicine at announcing to him his satisfaction with his exploits, and Jena, whence he removed, in 1773, to Göttingen, and in naming him Adelantado, or admiral. Pedrarias was pre- 1785 to Marburg, where he died of apoplexy on the 21st Failed upon to be reconciled with Vasco, and gave him of January, 1804. Among his pupils were Akermann, one of his daughters in marriage. Vasco then resolved to Sömmering, and Blumenbach. Some eighty-four separate accomplish his grand project of exploring the western sea. treatises are mentioned as having proceeded from his pen, With infinite labor materials for building ships were con- in addition to numerous papers scattered through various reyed across the isthmus, and two brigantines were con- collections and journals. structed. With these the adventurers took possession of BALDINUCCI, FILIPPO, a distinguished Italian writer the Pearl Islands, and, had it not been for the weather, on the history of the arts, was born at Florence about would have reached the coast of Peru. This career of dis- 1624, and died in 1696. His chief work is entitled Notizie covery was stopped by the jealousy of Pedrarias, who de Professori del Disegno da Cimabue in qua (dal 1260 sino feared that Balboa would throw off his allegiance, and al 1670), and was first published in six vols. 4to, 1681who enticed him to Acla by a crafty message. As soon as 1728. The capital defect of this work is the attempt to he had him in his power, he threw him into prison, had derive all Italian art from the schools of Florence. A good him tried for treason, and forced the judge to condemn him edition is that by Ranalli (5 vols. 8vo, Florence, 1845– to death. The sentence, to the grief of all the inhabitants, 47). Baldinucci's whole works have been published in was carried into execution on the public square of Acla in fourteen vols. at Milan, 1808-12. 1517.

BALDOVINETTI, ALESSIO, was a distinguished painter BALBRIGGAN, a seaport of Ireland, in the county of of Florence in the 15th century, whose works have now Dublin and parish of Balrothery, 184 miles N.N.E. of the become very scarce. Hogarth takes him as a type of those capital. The harbor, though dry at low tides

, has a depth obscure artists to whom the affected amateurs of his time of 14 feet at high-water springs, and affords a good refuge were wont to ascribe old paintings~"'Tis a fine piece of from the E. or S.E. gales. It is formed by a pier 600 feet Alessio Baldovinetti, in his third manner." His father, long, with a lighthouse at its extremity, in 530 37' N. lat., Baldovinetti, belonged to a merchant family of good stand6° 12' W. long. A viaduct of eleven arches crosses thé ing and fortune. Alessio was born in 1422, and took to harbor. The town has considerable manufactures of cot- painting, according to Vasari, against his father's desire. tons and hosiery, and is much frequented as a watering- His art was distinguished rather for study than for genius. place in summer. Population in 1871, 2332.

It represents completely some of the leading characters of BALDE, JAKOB, a modern Latin poet of considerable the Florentine school in that age. It was an age of diligent repute, was born at Ensisheim in Alsace in 160 and died schooling and experiment, in which art endeavored to in 1668. He entered the Society of the Jesuits in 1624, master more of the parts and details of nature than she and for the greater part of his life acted as court-preacher had mastered heretofore, and to improve her technical and professor of rhetoric at Munich. His Latin poems means for their representation. Among the parts of nature were very numerous, and those in imitation of Horace are especially studied in the 15th century, were landscape and particularly successful. Although Balde has received some natural history, the particulars of scenery, and the characattention since Herder translated several of his best pieces, ters of birds, beasts, and plants. Alessio Baldovinetti surand although some of his poems are by no means deficient passed all his contemporaries in attention to these matters. in lightness, grace, and skilful versification, it would be a In Vasari's words, you see in his paintings "rivers, bridges, mistake to look upon him as a poet of high rank. A col- stones, grasses, fruits, roads, fields, cities, castles, arenas, and lected edition of his works in 4 vols. was published at an infinity of suchlike things.” From this quality of his Cologne in 1650; a more complete edition in 8 vols., at art it has been guessed, without sufficient cause, that he was Munich, 1729. Extracts have been given by Orelli, 1805, the pupil of Paolo Uccelli

, the first Florentine master who 1818; and some detached poems have been published by devoted himself to such matters. For the rest, this exvarious editors.

treme care and minuteness renders his manner somewhat BALDI, BERNARDINO, a distinguished mathematician hara. Like many other painters of his time, he treats and miscellaneous writer. was descended of a noble family draperies, hair, and such parts, with a manner that shows at Urbino, in which city he was born on the 6th of June, the influence of the goldsmith, and is more proper to metal 1533. He pursued his studies at Padua with extraor- work than to painting. His principal extant works are a dinary zeal and success, and is said to have acquired, dur- nativity in the church of the Annunziati, an altar-piece, ing the course of his life, no fewer than sixteen languages, No. 24, in the gallery of the Uffizi, and another, No. 2, in though according to Tiraboschi, the inscription on his tomb the gallery of ancient pictures in the Academy of Arts at limits the number to twelve. The appearance of the plague Florence. The great work of his life was a series of frescoes at Padua obliged him to retire to his native city, whence from the Old Testament in the chapel of the Gianfigliazzi he was, shortly afterwards, called to act as tutor to Fer- family in the church of Sta Trinita, containing many inrante Gonzaga, from whom he received the rich abbey of teresting contemporary portraits; but these were lestroyed Guastalla. Hé held office as abbot for twenty-five years, about 1760. He also designed a likeness of Dante for the and then retired to his native town. In 1612 he was cathedral of Florence in 1465. His technical experiments employed by the duke as his envoy to Venice, where he were of the same nature as those made by his contempodistinguished himself by the congratulatory oration he raries— Pesellino, Pollaiuolo, and Domenico Veniziano, who delivered before the Venetian senate on the election of the endeavored to find out an oil medium at Florence before new doge, Andrea Memmo. Baldi died at Urbino on the Antonello da Messina had brought to Venice the secrets of 12th of October, 1617. He was, perhaps, the most uni- the Flemish practice. Vasari relates how Alessio thought versal genius of his age, and is said to have written up- he had made a great discovery with the mixture of yolk of wards of a hundred different works, the chief part of which egg and heated vernice liquida, but how the work so painted have remained unpublished. His various works give sat presently became discolored. He understood mosaic as isfactory evidence of his abilities as a theologian, mathe- well as painting, and between 1481 and 1484 was engaged matician, geographer, antiquary historian, and poet. The ' in repairing ancient mosaics, first in the church of San Mininto, next in the baptistery at Florence. He is said to attained through warfare; this theory has been advanced have instructed Dominico Ghirlandaio (see BIGORDI) in by Weinhold with much ingenuity. Several myths have this art. He died on the 29th of August, 1499, within two been cited as paralleling the story of the death of Baldur; years and a half of the completion of his frescoes in the those of Adonis and of Persephone may be considered as Gianfigliazzi chapel. (Vasari, ed. Lemonnier, vol. iv. pp. the most plausible.

(E. W. G.) 101-107; Crowe and Cavalcaselle, Hist. of Painting in Italy, BALDUS, an eminent professor of the civil law, and vol. ii. pp. 372-381.)

(s. c.) also of the canon law, in the university of Perugia. He BALDUINUS, JACOBUS, a distinguished professor of came of the noble family of the Ubaldi; and his two civil law in the university of Bologna. He was by birth brothers, Angelus de Ubaldis and Petrus de Ubaldis, werg a Bolognese, and is reputed to have been of a noble family, almost of equal eminence with himself as jurists. He was He was a pupil of Azo, and the master of Odofredus, of born in 1327, and studied civil law under Bartolus at PeruHostiensis, and of Jacobus de Ravanis, the last of whom gia, where he was admitted to the degree of doctor of civil has the reputation of having first applied dialectical forms law at the early age of seventeen in 1344. Fredericus to legal science. His great fame as a jurist caused him to Petrucius of Siena is said to have been the master under be elected podestà of the city of Genoa, where he was en- whom he studied canon law. Upon his promotion to the trusted with the reform of the laws of the republic. He doctorate he at once proceeded to Bologna, where he taught died at Bologna in 1225, and has left behind him some law for three years; after which he was advanced to a protreatises on Procedure, which have the merit of being the sessorial chair at Perugia, which he occupied for thirtyearliest of their kind.

three years. He taught law subsequently at Pisa, at FlorBALDUR, one of the most interesting figures of the 'ence, at Padua, and at Pavia, at a time when the schools Scandinavian mythology, was the son of Odin and Frigg. of law in those universities disputed the palm with the His name (from baldr, the foremost or pre-eminent one) school of Bologna. Baldus has not left behind him any denoted his supreme excellence and beauty. In the Gyl- works which bear out the great reputation which he feginning we read that he was so amiable that all loved acquired amongst his contemporaries. This circumstance him, so beautiful that a light seemed to shine about him, may be in some respects accounted for by the active part and his face and hair were for ever refulgent. He was the which he took in public affairs, and by the fame which he mildest, wisest, and most eloquent of the Æsir; and when acquired by his consultations, of which five volumes have he pronounced a judgment it was infallible. His dwelling been published by Diplovataccius. Baldus was the master was in Brejdablik (far-sight), where nothing impure could of Peter Beaufort, the nephew of Pope Clement VI., who come, and where the most obscure question could be became himself Pope under the title of Gregory XI., and explained. The wonderful legend of his death is first whose immediate successor, Urban VI., summoned Baldus dimly recorded in the Völuspa, the grandest and most to Rome to assist him by his consultations against the antiancient of Eddaic poems, and more fully in the younger pope Clement VII. Cardinal de Zabarella and Paulus de Edda. Baldur was visited by evil dreams, and felt his Castro were also amongst his pupils. His Commentary on life to be in danger. His mother, Frigg, took oath of all the Liber Fendorum is considered to be one of the best of his things in the world, animal, vegetable, and mineral, that works, which have been unfortunately left by him for the they should not slay her son. The gods being then secure, most part in an incomplete state. found pastime in setting the good Baldur in their midst

, BALDWIN, Thomas, a celebrated English prelate of and in shooting or hurling stones at his invulnerable body, the 12th century, was born of obscure parents at Exeter, Then Loki, the evil god, took on him the form of a woman where, in the early part of his life, he taught a grammar and went to Frigg in Fensal. From Frigg he learned that school

. After this he took orders, and was made archof all things in the earth but one could injure Baldur, and deacon of Exeter; but he resigned that dignity, and became that was a little tree westward from Valhal, that was too a Cistercian monk in the monastery of Ford in Deronyoung to take the oath. Thither went Loki and found the shire, of which, in a few years, he was made abbot. In plant; it was the mistletoe. He plucked it up, fashioned the year 1180' he was consecrated bishop of Worcester, it into an arrow, and went back to the Æsir. They In 1184 he was promoted to the see of Canterbury, and were still in a circle, shooting at Baldur; and outside the by Urban III. was appointed legate for that diocese. He ring stood the blind god Höder, of whom Loki asked laid the foundation of a church and monastery in honor wherefore he did not shoot. When Höder had excused of Thomas à Becket at Hackington, near Canterbury, for himself because of his blindness, Loki offered to aim for secular priests; but being opposed by the monks of Canhim, and Höder, shooting the arrow of mistletoe, Baldur terbury and the Pope, he was obliged to desist. Baldwin suddenly fell, pierced and dead. No such misfortune had then laid the foundation of the archiepiscopal palace at ever yet befallen gods or men; there was long silence in Lambeth. In 1189 he crowned King Richard I. at Westheaven, and then with one accord there broke out a loud minster, and two years later, after making a pilgrimage noise of weeping. The Æsir dared not revenge the deed, through Wales to preach the Crusade, followed that prince because the place was holy, but Frigg, rushing into their to the Holy Land, where he died at the siege of Ptole onidst, besought them to send one to Hel to fetch him mais or St. Jean d'Acre. Giraldus Cambrensis, who back. Hel promised to let him go if all things in heaven accompanied him in an expedition through Wales, says and earth were unanimous in wishing it to be so; but he was of moderate habits and of an extremely mild diswhen inquiry was made, a creature called Thökt was found position. He wrote various tracts on religious subjects, in the cleft of a rock that said, “Let Hel keep its booty.” some of which were collected and published by Bertrand This was Loki, and so Baldur came not back to Valhal. Tissier in 1662. His death was revenged by his son Vale, who, being only BALE, John, Bishop of Ossory, in Ireland, was born one night old, slew Höder; but Loki fled from the revenge at Cove, near Dunwich in Suffolk, in November, 1495. of the gods. In Baldur was personified the light of the He was educated in the monastery of the Carmelites at sun; in his death the quenching of that light in winter. Norwich, and afterwards at Jesus College, Oxford. He In his invulnerable body is expressed the incorporeal belonged at first to the Roman Catholic Church, but was quality of light; what alone can wound it is mistletoe, the converted to the Protestant religion by Thomas Lord symbol of the depth of winter. It is noticeable that the Wentworth. On the death of Lord Cromwell, the favorite Druids, when they cut down this plant with a golden sickle, . of Henry VIII., who had protected him from the persecudid so to prevent it from wounding Baldur again. Accord- tions of the Romish clergy, he was obliged to take refuge ing to the Völuspa, Baldur will return, after Ragnarök, to in Flanders, where he continued eight years. Soon after the new heavens and the new earth; so the sun returns in the accession of Edward VI. he was recalled; and being spring to the renovated world. In the later versions it was first presented to the living of Bishop's Stocke (Bishop no ordinary season, but the Fimbul winter, which no sum- stoke), in Hampshire, he was nominated in 1552 to the see mer follows, which Baldur's death prefigured. It must of Ossory, in Ireland. During his residence there he was not be overlooked that the story of Baldur is not merely remarkably assiduous in propagating the Protestant doc8 sun-myth, but a personification of that glory, purity, and trines, but with little success, and frequently at the hazard innocence of the gods which was believed to have been lost of his life. On the accession of Queen Mary the tide of at his death, thus made the central point of the whole opposition became so powerful that, to avoid assassination, drama of the great Scandinavian mythology. Baldur has he embarked for Holland; and, after various vicissitudes, seen also considered, in relation to some statements of Saxo reached Basel in Switzerland, where he continued till the Grammaticus, to have been a god of peace, - peace accession of Queen Elizabeth. After his return to England

be was, in 1560, made prebendary of Canterbury, where he from his works was published in 1849 by the Parker Soci. died in November, 1563, in the sixty-eighth year of his ety, containing the Examinations of Cobham, Thorpe, and age. Bale is noted as being one of the last (though not the Anne Askew, and the Image of the two Churches. Bale's last, as has sometimes been said) of those who wrote style is frequently coarse and violent, and his truthfulness miracle plays. Several of his are extant, and a list of has been sometimes challenged. titles of about twenty is given by Collier (ii. 238). They BALEARIC ISLANDS, a remarkable group in the are remarkable for the determination they manifest to western part of the Mediterranean Sea, lying to the S. and introduce and inculcate the doctrines of the Reformed E. of Spain, between 38° 40' and 40° 5' N. lat., and between religion. The best of his historical plays, Kynge Johan, 1° and 5° E. long: The name, as now employed, includes has been published by the Camden Society, 1838. Of his not only the ancient Insulæ Baleares (Major and Minor), numerous other works the most noted is his collection of but also the Pityrusc or Pine Islands, as the two more British biography, entitled Illustrium Majoris Britannic western were called. The origin of the name Baleares is a Scriptorum Catalogues, a Japheto sanctissimi Noah filio ad An. mere matter of conjecture, and the reader may choose any of Dom. 1559. This work was first published in quarto in the derivations usually offered with about an equal chance 1548, and afterwards, with various additions, in folio, in of not being right. On the other hand, it is obvious that 1557–59. Although slightly inaccurate, it is still a work the modern Majorca (or, in Spanish, Mallorca) and Minorca of great value for the minute notices it gives of writers, in Spanish, Menorca) are obtained from the Latin Major concerning whom little is otherwise known. A selection I and Minor, through the Byzantine forms Malopika and

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Sketch-Map of the Balearic Islands. Mivopika; while Iviza is plainly the older Ebusus, a name There are quarries of marble, of various grains and colors of, probably, Carthaginian origin. The Ophiusá of the those of Santagny, in the partido of Manacor, being espe Greeks (Colubraria of the Romans) is now known as For- cially celebrated; while lead, iron, and cinnabar have also mentera.

been obtained. "Coal of a jet-like character is found at Majorca

Majorca is the largest island of the group, Benisalem, where wo were commenced in 1836, at Selva,

having an area of 1430 square miles. Its shape where it has been mined since 1851, near Santa Maria, and is that of a trapezoid, with the angles directed to the car- elsewhere. It is used in the industrial establishments of dinal points; and its diagonal, from Cape Grozer in the W. Palma, and in the manufacture of lime, plaster, and bricks, to Cape Pera in the E., is about sixty miles. On the N.W. in the neighborhood of the mines,-a considerable quantity the coast is highly

precipitous, but on the other sides it is being also exported to Barcelona. The inhabitants are low and sloping. On the N.E. there are several consider principally devoted to agriculture, and most of the arable able bays, of which the chief are those of Alcudia and land of the islands is under cultivation. The mountains Poltenza; while on the 8.W. is the still more important are terraced ; and the old pine woods have in many places bay of Palma. No fewer than twelve ports or harbors are given place to the olive, the vine, and the almond tree, to enumerated round the island, of which may be mentioned fields of wheat and fax, or to orchards of figs and oranges. Andrais, Soller, and Porto Colom. In the N.W. Majorca For the last-mentioned fruits the valley of Soller is one of is traversed by a chain of mountains running parallel with the most important districts, the produce being largely transthe coast, and attaining its highest elevation in Silla de mitted to France, and realizing about £25,000 per annum. Torillas, 4600 feet above the sea. Towards the south and The oil harvest is very considerable, and Inca is the centre east the surface is comparatively level, though broken by of the oil district. The wines are light but excellent, espeisolated peaks of considerable height. The northern moun- cially the Muscadel and Montona. The agricultural methods tains afford great protection to the rest of the island from of the islands are still somewhat primitive, but the introthe violent gales to which it is exposed, and render the duction of machinery indicates improvement, as well as the climate remarkably mild and pleasant, while the heats of drainage, by an English company, of a marsh and lake, summer are tempered by the sea-breezes. The scenery of 8000 acres in extent, near the town of Alcudia. During Majorca is varied and beautiful, with all the picturesque the summer there is often great scarcity of water ; but, ness of outline that usually belongs to a limestone formation. according to a system handed down by the Moors, the Some of the valleys, such as those of Valdemoza and Soller, rains of autumn and winter are collected in enormous with their luxuriant vegetation, are delightful resorts. I reservoirs, which contain sufficient water to last through

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