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same manner.

desired by the baker-carbonic acid and alcohol ; but when , by steam power. In order to make a sack of flour into the influence of cerealin prevails, lactic fermentation ensues, dough, a lid at the top of the mixer is opened, and the and dextrin, sugar, and acid substances are formed, which flour passed down into it through a spout from the floor it is the object of the baker to avoid. Several methods of above. The lid of the mixer is then fitted tightly on, and avoiding this deteriorating influence of cerealin, and at the the air within it exhausted by the pump. †he requisite same time securing the use of the maximum of four, have quantity of water, about 17 gallons, is drawn into the water been put in operation by M. Mège Mouriès. The process vessel, and carbonic acid is forced into it, till the pressure now in use at the Boulangerie Centrale de l'Assistance amounts to from 15 to 25 tb per square inch. The Publique (the Scipion) in Paris, for the preparation of the aërated water is then passed into the mixer, and the mixflour and baking white bread with the whole of the mill ing arms are set in motion, by which, in about seven products excepting the bran, he thus describes :—“The minutes, the flour and water are incorporated into a corn is moistened with from 2 to 5 per cent. of water satu- perfectly uniform paste. At the lower end of the mixer rated with sea-salt, and at the end of some hours the ex- a cavity F is arranged, gauged to hold sufficient dough terior coverings only become moist and tender. The grain for a 2-Ib loaf, and by a turn of a lever that quantity is then thrown between nearly closed millstones, and 70 is dropped into a pan ready for at once depositing in per cent. of flour is obtained without cerealin, plus 10 to the oven. The whole of these operations can be per 14 per cent. of meal. This is bruised between light stones, formed in less than half an hour. When 4-ib loaves and separated by winnowing from the greater part of the husk remnants. To prepare the bread, all the leaven is made with flour at 70 per cent., and the meal is added to the soft dough last of all; as, in spite of the small amount of cerealin which it still contains, it will not produce brown bread, because at that time the length of incubation is not sufficient to change it into a leaven. Thus white bread is produced containing all the farinaceous part of the wheat.”

It not unfrequently happens that flour of good color, and unexceptionable chemical composition, fails to yield a dough which will rise by fermentation, and the loaf from which is sweet, solid, sodden, and adhesive. Wheat that has been badly harvested, or which in any way has been allowed to sprout, has part of the gluten chaliged into the form of diastase, which, like cerealin, changes starch into dextrin and bugar. The gluten of flour which has been dried at a too high temperature, and of four which has been kept in a damp situation, is modified and acts in the

Fig. 3.—Dauglish Apparatus-double set. If dough is made with an infusion of malt, it yields a result exactly the same as that above de- , are to be baked the lever has simply to be twice turned. scribed. It is to guard the starch of inferior flour against At another part of the lower end of the mizer is placed this deteriorative influence that a proportion of alum a pipe G, with a stop-cock, by which dough intended, to is used by many bakers of second-class bread. Alum has be fired as Paris bread, on the sole of the oven, is drawn the power of preserving starch to a large extent from the off and weighed before being placed in the oven. The metamorphic action of altered gluten, diastase, or cerealin, pressure of gas within the mixer is sufficient to force out and of producing from an inferior flour a loaf of good the whole of the dough, which, immediately on being texture and color. The use of alum is regarded as an liberated, swells up by expansion of the gas confined within adulteration, and heavy penalties have been imposed on its the tenacious mass. Currant loaves and various kinds of detection; but its estimation in bread is a process of the fancy bread are made by the aërated process by placing the greatest difficulty, and authorities are by no means agreed necessary ingredients in the mixer along with the flour. as to its deleterious influence. Other mineral salts have The advantages claimed for Dr. Dauglish's process a similar protective power on the starch of inferior wheat, are:and lime-water has been successfully employed in place of alum. To this also it is objected by some that the addition “(1.) It does away entirely with fermentation, and with all of lime renders the valuable phosphatic salts of flour in- those chemical changes in the constituents of the flour which soluble by transforming them into phosphate of lime. are consequent upon it. Aërated Bread.—When carbonic acid, instead of being of the portion of starch or glucose consumed in the process of

(2.) It avoids the loss consequent upon the decomposition generated by fermentation within dough, is separately pre, fermentation, estimated at about from 3 to 6 per cent. pared and incorporated with flour and water, aërated bread

(3.) It reduces the time requisite to prepare a batch of dough is produced. The system by which this is effected was invented by the late Dr. Dauglish, and aërated bread has than thirty minutes.

for the oven, from a period of 'from eight to twelve hours to less been manufactured under his patent since March, 1859. (4.) Its results are absolutely certain and uniform. The system is now in operation in all the principal towns “(5.) It does away with the necessity for the use of alum with in the United Kingdom, and it appears to be steadily poor flour, and the temptation which bakers are under to use it gaining in public favor.

with all. The Dauglish apparatus (see fig. 3) consists of the follow- “(6.) It has the recommendation of absolute and entire cleaning parts: 1st, a generator A, in which carbonic acid is liness, the human hand not touching the dough or the bread eyolved from chalk by sulphuric or hydrochloric acid; from the beginning to the end. 2d, a gas-holder, in which the carbonic acid is stored for destructive to their health—that of inhaling the flour dust in

(7.) The journeymen are relieved from a circumstance most use after being purified in passing through water; 3d, an the process of kneading. . air-pump, for pumping carbonic acid from the gas-holder, "18.) It will produce a healthier condition of the baking and forcing it into the water vessel and mixer; 4th, trade, and thereby diminish to a great extent the inducements another air-pump, for withdrawing atmospheric air from which lead to the extensive system of fraud now practised upon the mixer before the aërated water is admitted ; 5th, a the public by the production of adulterated and inferior bread. water vessel B, a strong cylinder of copper capable of "79.) It will effect an immense saving in the material from withstanding a pressure of 100 ib on the square inch, another source, namely, by preventing the sacrifice of at least and of sufficient size to contain water for a full charge of

10 per cent. in the nutritive portion of the grain, hitherta the mixer; attached to this water vessel there are a gauge- lost as human food by the method of grinding and dressing glass C, and a pressure gauge D, for indicating the pressure necessary in the preparation of flour for making white bread

by fermentation. of gas as it is pumped in ; 6th, the mixer É, a globular

“(10.) Together with the preservation of this large proportion vessel of cast-iron, capable of bearing high pressure, through of the entire quantity of wheat converted into flour, there is also the centre of which an axle runs, fitted with iron kneading- the important result of the proportion preserved (the cerealin) arms extending to the circumference of the vessel. The being a most powerful agent in promoting the easy and healthy pumps and the revolving arms within the mixer are worked digestion of food."


It is objected by opponents of the Dauglish system that fully adapted, are the mixing of the sponge and the kneadthe product is not really bread, but only an artificial prod- ing of the dough. Attempts have been made to mould uct resembling bread. It is held that the process of fer- loaves by machinery, but these have hitherto failed; nor mentation has a specific influence on the constitution of has the endeavor to fire bread in travelling ovens yet bread, beyond its mechanical effect of rendering the mass been practically successful. A great variety of kneadspongy or porous. One of the chief hindrances to the ing machines have been suggested and used, since the more general use of aërated bread is the fact that it is, as first trial of such an implement in Paris upwards of a compared with fermented bread, insipid and tasteless. In century ago. The various plans upon which such machines practice, the public have not hitherto derived any advan- have been constructed will be seen in he accompanying tage from the alleged economy of manufacture, and the illustrations. Fig. 4 is a form of dough-making machine suitability of inferior and cheap flour for the process. Al in common use. It consists of a trough or box, the lower though fermented bread is hurtful in some conditions, it is portion of which is semi-cylindrical, hung on a spindle, not easy to supplant well-made fermented loaves in general with a series of iron crossbars revolving inside. It is public estimation, and aërated bread can scarcely be said to have hitherto had a fair trial, as with the necessarily expensive machinery a large trade is necessary in order to return a fair profit on the capital invested.

Unfermented Bread.—Under this head is included such bread as is vesiculated by means of carbonic acid evolved from chemical substances introduced in the making of the dough. In writing the article on “Baking” for the supplement to the fifth edition of this Encyclopædia, published in 1816, Professor Thomas Thomson of Glasgow stated that the only end served by fermentation was the generation of carbonic acid gas, and that this might be accomplished by the use of hydrochloric acid and bicarbonate of soda. About 1842 Mr. Henry Dodson commenced to manufacture bread on this system, and obtained a patent for his process. He used hydrochloric acid and bicarbonate of soda in such proportions that while, by their reaction, they liberated sufficient carbonic acid to aërate the dough, they formed chloride of sodium or common salt enough for the bread. Liebig, in his Familiar Letters, says regarding this system :-“Chemists,

Fig. 4.-Kneading Machine. generally speaking, should never recommend the use of chemicals for culinary preparations, for chemicals are sel- | made to be worked by either hand or steam-power, and of dom met with in commerce in a state of purity: Thus, for various sizes, as required by bakers. In this machine the example, the muriatic [hydrochloric) acid which it has been whole of the operations connected with setting the sponge, proposed to mix with carbonate of soda in bread is always breaking the sponge, and mixing the dough, are performed. very impure, and very often contains arsenic.” The sesqui- The gearing is arranged to give a fast motion for setting carbonate of ammonia is also used as a source of carbonic the sponge, and a slow motion towards the close of the acid in vesiculating bread, and it, on account of its highly dough making, when it is desirable to draw out the mass volatile nature, is entirely driven off in the process of baking: in order to give it a "skin,” or smooth superficial texture. A great amount of private or domestic baking is conducted A worm-wheel, working in toothed gearing, tilts over the on the same principle, butter milk and bicarbonate of soda machine when the process of kneading is complete, and the being used for mixing the dough in making "scones.” In dough is then conveyed to the scaling and moulding table. this case the lactic acid of the milk combines with the Fig. 5 represents a kneading-machine, of a highly approved soda, liberating carbonic acid. The baking powders and form, used in the great Scipion bakery of Paris, the invenyeast powders which are sold, and the so called self-raising | tion of M. Boland. Externally it is like the former, and four, all depend for their action on the mixture of bicarbonate of soda with some organic acid, such as tartaric or citric acid.

Baking Machinery and Ovens.—The art of baking, Maebinery. although it is the most important of all in

dustries connected with the preparation of human food, is one which is still carried on in the most rude and primitive manner. While modern inventions and the progress of improvement have changed the conditions under which nearly all arts and manufactures are conducted, the baking of bread is still conducted as it was during the palmy days of ancient Greece. The nature of the processes necessary for the preparation of bread, the limited time it will keep, and the consequent impossibility of storing the product or sending it any considerable distance, tend to keep the trade in the position of a limited and local handicraft. It is, therefore, not a pursuit which attracts capitalists, and master bakers are mostly in the

Fig. 5.—Boland's Kneading Machine. position of small tradesmen, without either the inclination or ability to invest money in expensive ma- it is also geared to move at two rates of rapidity. It has chinery and fittings. In the case of biscuit-baking the further an adjustment by which the force of the motion is conditions are quite different, and it, as has been seen, increased while its rate is diminished. The main peculihas developed into a great manufacture, with elaborate arity of M. Boland's pétrin méchanique consists in the form and complex machinery and the most perfect mechanical of the revolving blades inside the trough. These blades appliances. Many forms of machine have been proposed are so arranged that they operate when in motion someas substitutes for the rude and laborious manual labor- what like alternate screws, and so toss backward and foralways unfavorable to health, and sometimes not very cleanly ward the

dough when it is thin, and lift and draw it out -involved in baking. Many of these machines admittedly when stiff, passing it to each side of the trough alternately. produce better bread than can be made by handwork, and An entirely different form of kneader is seen in fig. 6 that at no inconsiderable saving of material and time, but This also is of French origin, the invention of M. Delirythe necessity of either steam or water power for their effect- Desboves of Soissons (Aisne). Its construction and operive working greatly restricts their use.

ation are thus described :-"The trough_is a cast-iron The two processes to which machinery has been success- basin, which turns on a vertical axis. The interior is

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provided with a kneader, shaped like a lyre, which first passing each other, they have a screw action, pressing works up the dough and then divides it during the entire the dough down on one side and up on the other. The period of operation. Two other implements are also used, vessels containing the dough are made of wood, of an oval of a helical form, to draw out and inflate the dough in all form, to correspond with the action of the machine. One directions, part by part, as is practised in kneading by considerable advantage connected with Messrs. Vicars' hand. . . . The baker in charge can regulate the paste machine is, that any number of troughs can be worked by without stopping the mechanism. The water and leaven the same pair of mixing shafts, as the troughs are mor. are first introduced, the trough is then set to work, the | able, and are raised to, or lowered from, the blades of the

mixer by means of friction wheels and spur gear. A baker can thus have several troughs containing sponges in different stages of advancement, all mixed by one pair of shafts, and all in their turn being made into dough by the same shafts.

Much thought and skill have been expended in the endeavor to effect im- Ovens. provements in the ordinary form of a baker's oven, but hitherto no plan has been devised which produces bread of a quality superior to that fired in the oven which is commonly used. A baker's oven of the common description is a low vaulted chamber, about 10 feet long, by 8 feet wide, and 30 inches high. It is built and floored of stone or brick, and has a small door in front by which the moulded dough is put in and the loaves withdrawn. At one side of this door, in the extreme corner, are placed the furnace and fire-grate, opening into the oven, and at the opposite corner, the smoke flue by which smoke escapes from the interior. The heat is by this arrangement carried throughout the entire oven, and when the temperature is sufficient the fire is withdrawn, the flue shut, and the dough is quickly introduced on a peel,” or long wooden shovel. "Various efforts have been made to effect the heating of ovens by fire external to the chamber itself, but they fail to produce that radiation of heat which is found

essential to good baking. Perkin's hot-water oven Fig. 6.-Kneading-Machine of Deliry-Desboves.

for some time met with favor in Great Britain,

and a modification of it was employed in France. 'workers' employed to manipulate the dough are put in | On this system the oven is heated by superheated water, gear, and the leaven being diluted and flour added, the conveyed from a stove through closed pipes, which are kneaders are also put in gear. After the lapse of twelve or coiled round the entire interior of the oven. This oven fifteen minutes the dough is sufficiently kneaded, and, by has the recommendation of perfect cleanness, and the turning the hand wheel fixed to the screw on the vertical temperature in it is easily regulated ; but it is costly in shaft, the three kneaders are thrown out of gear. The construction, and the method has not commended itself in implement which effects the cleaning of the trough is then practice. Among ovens heated from the exterior, that of removed, and its place supplied by a balance-hook, by M. Rolland takes a high place for ingenuity and novelty which the dough may be weighed in the trough itself. It of construction. Its characteristic peculiarity consists in is simply necessary to turn the basin on its axis as required, the possession of a revolving sole, which not only allows

the easy introduction and withdrawal of the bread, but the bringing of the different parts regularly and uniformly under the influence of the heat applied. The revolution of the sole is accomplished by a hand'e worked from the front of the oven; and besides this rotatory motion the sole can also be raised or lowerert so as to bring either the upper or under side of the bread close to the heat as desired. The heating of M Rolland's oven is effected by means of flues, which pass radially under and over the revolving sole. The chief objection urged against this form of oven is, that the air within it becomes too dry, which detracts from the flavor of the loaves fired in it. The use of the Vienna oven is general in Germany, and is extending in Paris for the baking of small or Vierina bread. It is egg-shaped in form, with an inclined sole, a very small aperture, and a low roof. Its average internal dimensions are 12 feet in depth, 10 feet wide, and 18 inches high. In the best of these ovens glazed tiles are used for the sole. The inclination of the sole facilitates the filling and emptying of the oven; and the confined space of the interior retains a large proportion of moisture, which gives a fine color to the crust and

flavor to the crumb of the bread. Fig. 7.-Patent Vertical Mixer.

Qualities of Bread.—The process of baking changes

the structure of the crust or outer part of a loaf, and, antil the whole of the dough is weigned.”—(Villain, Etudes | according to Reichenbach, develops in it a substance termed sur l'Exposition de 1867.)

assamar, which he says has an influence in retarding the waste The fourth form of mechanical kneader we shall describe of tissue. It does not alter the starch of the crumb or inis that invented by Messrs. Vicars of Liverpool, who are ternal part, but only swells the granules, and by the induced extensive makers of all forms of machinery connected with sponginess of the mass renders it readily digestible. Wellbread and biscuit making. This machine (fig. 7) consists baked bread should have a yellowish-brown crust; the of two vertical shafts, carrying radial arms. These arms crumb should be uniform in texture, permeated with minute pass each other in opposite directions, so that, in addition


1 The Vienna oven is figured in Knapp's Technology, vol. iii. A to a tearing action on the dough, which the knives have on


cavities, and without "eyes" or large air-cells. The color | the prophet was riding. After Balaam's eyes had been of the crumb, unless in the case of whole wheaten bread, opened he saw the angel, and declared his willingness to should be white; it should be free from acidity and sour- go back, but received permission to continue his journey on Dess. It should keep sweet and eatable for several days; condition of saying nothing but what was suggested to him and when stale it will be found to become soft and pleasant by God. His reception by Balak was honorable and imposby again heating it in an oven, after which, however, it rapid- ing, yet he continued faithful to Jehovah, and told the king ly changes. According to Dr. Frankland's determinations, he would only announce what Jehovah revealed. Standing "1 tb of the crumb of bread, if digested and oxidized in on the height of Baal-Bamoth, and surveying the tents of the body, will produce an amount of force equal to 1333 Israel, he declared his inability to curse a people so peculiar tons raised 1 foot high. The maximum of work which it and righteous. Brought next to the top of Pisgah, and be. will enable a man to perform is 267 tons raised 1 foot high. holding thence a part of the Israelite camp, he announced 1 lb of crumb of bread can produce, at the maximum, 170 that Jehovah saw no iniquity or perverseness in Jacob; that oz. of dry muscle or flesh."

He was with them; that they were therefore strong and The adulteration of bread, and its detection, are treated victorious. Conducted afterwards to the top of Peor, he under the heading ADULTERATION, vol. i. p. 155. (J. PA.) surveyed the army of Israel, and predicted their future,

BAKU, or BADKU, the chief town of the government their goodly dwellings in Canaan, and their successful wars of the same name, in the Russian province of Transcaucasia against the nations down to Saul's time. Though Balak (Daghestan), situated in the peninsula of Apsheron, on the was angry and interrupted him, Balaam continued his west coast of the Caspian, and possessing one of the most prophecy, announcing Israel's valiant deeds, from David spacious and convenient ports in that sea. Long. 49° 53' down to Hezekiah. Upon this he returned to his home. E., lat. 40° 23' N. It is built in the form of an obtuse Another account of Balaam appears in Numbers xxxi. triangle, on the slope of an arid hill, and is defended by a 8-16, Joshua xiii. 22, where we learn that he advised the double wall and ditch constructed during the reign of Peter Midianite women to seduce the Israelites to the licentious the Great. The general appearance of the town is decidedly worship of Baal, and that he was slain in a war with the Oriental, with its flat-roofed houses rising one behind the Midianites. other, often in so close proximity that the top of the one The character given to Balaam in the first account is a forms the courtyard of the next. The hill is crowned by favorable one. He is a worshipper of Jehovah the true a castle, which dates from the 15th century, and the mosque God, receives divine revelations, and repeatedly declares of Shah-Abbas, still in good preservation. At the entrance that he will not go beyond or against them. Faithful to of the harbor stands the Maiden's Tower, now used as a his calling, he steadfastly resists temptations sufficiently lighthouse, which derives its name from a tragedy like that powerful, and therefore God communicates his Spirit to of the Cenci. Baku is not only a principal station of the him, enabling him to predict the future of Israel. Russian fleet, but it carries on a very extensive trade, ex- The second account is unfavorable. In it he appears porting naphtha, iron, linen, and woollen goods, and receiving in return cotton, grain, fruits, &c. The numerous

as a diviner, obip, a heathen seer, who tempted the wornaphtha wells in the neighborhood, and the remarkable shippers of the true God to idolatry. Instead of being a escape of inflammable gases, rendered Baku a favorite re- prophet of Jehovah, receiving visions and revelations, a sort of the fire-worshippers, who for long maintained their man to whom the Almighty came by night, giving him temples in the district; but, though the natural phenomena instructions what to do, he is an immoral soothsayer. Of display themselves as abundantly as ever, they are now the two accounts, the latter, brief as it is, seems entitled almost entirely deserted by devotees. The Arabian Ma- to greater consideration. The former is elaborate and sudi, in the 10th century, is supposed to be the first to men- artificial, the theme being the glorification of the chosen tion“ Baki” and its fire-breathing mountain; and the naph- people by the mouth of one of their enemies. An tha wells are probably those alluded to by Marco Polo. inspired seer from the far distant land of Aram is called In 1509 it was taken by the Persians, who lost it to the in to bless the Israelites. He does so reluctantly, but Turks, but recovered it under Shah-Abbas. Captured by like a true prophet, announcing nothing but what came the Russians in 1723, it was restored to Persia in 1735, but to pass. The way in which he is taught the high desafter various vicissitudes it was finally incorporated with tiny of the chosen people is instructive.' Ignorant at the Russian empire in 1806. (See Goldschmid's Telegraph first of Israel's relation to the true God, and thinking and Travel, 1874; Filippi's Viaggio in Persia, 1865; Hist. they were like others, he was disposed to curse them, des découvertes faites par div. sav. voyageurs, Lausanne, 1784; but is enlightened, and forcibly impelled to follow the La Tour du Monde, 1863; “Baku” in Zeitschrift der Deutsch. divine revelations. From a heathen mantis he is converted Geol. Gesellsch., 1874.)

into a true prophet by revelations and visions which he BALA, a market-town of Wales, county of Merioneth, cannot resist. The seer is taken to three places in succesand hundred of Penllyn, at the northern extremity of the sion, whence he surveys Israel, and utters oracular sayings lake of the same name, 17 miles N.E. of Dolgelly. It con- concerning them. Three times the angel of the Lord sists principally of one wide street. Its manufactures are stands in the way, and three times the ass is smitten by fannels, stockings, gloves, and other woollen hosiery. There Balaam. There are four prophetic announcements-xxiii. is an endowed grammar school, founded in 1712, and a the- 7-10, 18-24; xxiv. 3-9, 15-24. The first refers to the ological college, belonging to the Calvinistic Methodists. separate condition of Israel, their numbers, and their worThe Rev. Thomas Charles, well known in connection with ship of the true God amid the idolatry of the surrounding the religious literature of his country, was long a minister nations. The second declares that God blesses Israel at Bala. Population, 1539. The Lake of Bala, which is 4 because there is no iniquity or perverseness in them, that miles long and about half a mile broad, is subject to sudden He dwells among them, reveals himself to them, and and sometimes dangerous floods. It is very deep and clear, makes them powerful and victorious. Both these refer to and abounds with pike, perch, trout, eels, and the gwyniad, Mosaic times, or at least to times not later than Joshua. or Coregonus sera.

But the third announcement has the character of prediction, BALAAM, or rather BILEAM, the son of Beor, belong- and refers to future events. Hence Balaam is introduced ing to Pethor, by the River Euphrates in Aram, is repre- as a man whose eyes are opened, who hears the words of sented in Scripture as a seer who possessed the power of God, and sees visions of the Almighty. The condition blessing and cursing effectually. According to the narra- of the people down to the time of Saul is glanced at, their tive in Numbers xxii.-xxiv., he was invited by Balak, king secure settlement in Canaan, and victorious wars with the of Moab, to come and curse Israel, in order to ensure the native races. The fourth prophecy apparently carries latter's defeat. Jehovah, however, forbade him to go as he down the history to the time of Hezekiah; and a future was requested, and therefore he refused to accompany the ruler is distinguished as the star out of Jacob, the sceptre deputation of elders, who had been sent to invite him, out of Israel, the conqueror of the Moabites and Edomites, " with the rewards of divination in their hand.” After thé The mention of the Kenites and Assyria in ver. 22, the arrival of a second embassy more imposing than the first, .former of whom were allies of Edom, shows, in the opinion he received divine permission to go, but only on condition of some recent critics, that the writer was acquainted with that he should adhere strictly to what Jehovah should tell the Edomite wars under Amaziah and Uzziah, and hoped him. He set out accordingly, and in his journey expe that the latter power would permanently subjugate the rienced the anger of the Lord, an angel being sent to stop restless Edomites. This would bring the composition his progress, who was perceived only by the ass on which | down to the first half of the 8th century. Verses 23 and

24 are ohscure, but probably refer to no event later than tongue; or if thou let him alone, putteth forth his tongae Hezekiah. A feet from the Phænician Cyprians seems to also.” have attacked the Canaanitish and Phoenician coasts, It has been conjectured with much probability that the threatening the Syrians farther north.

Arabic wise man, commonly called Lokman, is identical The writer of Num. xxxi. 8, 16, Joshua xiii. 22, is the with Balaam. The two names coincide in meaning, de Elohist, whose account is very brief. Meagre, however, vourer, swallower;' and the names of their fathers are also as it is, it is probably historical. A heathen soothsayer

, alike. The Jews suppose Balaam to have been a Nahorite, connected with the Midianites

, perished in one of their and so Lokman is regarded by many Arabic authors, battles with Israel. The writer of Numbers xxii.-xxiv. though the more general opinion is that he was an Abys is, in this view, the Jehovist, who, under the name of sinian slave who lived in the time of David, and was reBalaam, gives expression to his ideas and hopes in the nowned as a Hakim. The proverbs or fables attributed to elevated diction of an inspired prophet. As Jacob and him are of Greek origin. Moses had pronounced blessings on Israel under the imme- Modern critics are divided in opinion respecting hina. diate inspiration of the Almighty, so Balaam is summoned Three leading views embrace the varieties of belief as to from a distant land to eulogize the same people.

his true position, viz., that he was an idolater and soothThe character of Balaam has been apprehended very sayer, whose soul was uninfluenced by true religion-a variously. Such diversity must exist according as the sorcerer who had acquired reputation by his insight into Elohist or Jehovist is followed. The Old Testament the force of nature and his incantations; that he was a writers who mentioned him afterwards were influenced by true prophet of God, a pious man who fell through covetthe Jehovistic notice, and pronounce no judgment upon the ousness; and that he was a heathen soothsayer and a seer (Deut. xxiii

. 5, 6; Joshua xxiv. 9, 10; Micah vi. 5; prophet of Jehovah at the same time, occupying an interNehemiah xiii. 2); but the New Testament authors followed mediate position, with an incipient knowledge and fear of the Elohistic account, and speak of him disparagingly, attrib- God, needing but to be developed, though checked by the uting to him love of the wages of unrighteousness," mad- love of gain. It appears impossible to arrive at a definite ness, idolatrousness, and impietv (2 Peter ii. 15, 16; Jude or comprehensive view of one who is described in different 11; Rev. ii. 14). Josephus calls him pávtig åpuotos TūV sources inconsistently. Bishop Butler, not recognizing that TÓTE, “the best prophet of his time," supposing him to be the history of Balaam has poetical elements, and that difa prophet of the true God, but with a disposition ill- ferent traditions are given respecting him, considers him a adapted to resist templation. Philo describes his character very wicked man under a deep sense of God and religion, more critically: “There was a man at that time celebrated persisting still in his wickedness, and preferring the wages for divination, who lived in Mesopotamia, and was an adept of unrighteousness even when he had before him a lively in all the forms of the divining art; but in no branch was view of death. His mind was distracted by contradictory he more admired than in augury; to many persons, and principles of action. All we know about him amounts to on many occasions, he gave great and astounding proofs of very little. After admitting that a heathen soothsayer of his skill. For to some he foretold storms in the height of this name existed in Mesopotamia, and had acquired some summer; to others drought and heat in the depth of win- renown in the regions adjoining, and that he was employed ter; to some scarcity succeeding a fruitful year, and then in some way as a medium for uttering eulogiums upon Isagain abundance after scarcity; to others the overflowing rael, of whose pre-eminence and permanence he is fully and drying up of rivers, and the remedies of pestilential conscious, nothing else can be affirmed with certainty. diseases, and a vast multitude of other things, each of which (Davidson's Introduction to the Old Testament, vol. i. p. 323, he acquired great fame for predicting." The unfavorable &c.; Ewald's Geschichte des Volkes Israel, zweyter Band, p. character drawn of him by Philo is that which is generally 298, &c., 3d edition, and his Jahrbücher, part 8, p. 1, &c.; taken by the later Jews. The later Targumists call him a Kurtz's Geschichte des alten Bundes, zweyter Band, p. 454, sinner and an accursed man, while the Talmudists make &c.; Hengstenberg's Die Geschichte Bileam's und seine Weis him the representative of the godless, in contrast with sagungen, 1842; Winer's Realwörterbuch, s.v.

“ Bileam;" Abraham, the representative of the pious. Yet they do Knobel's Die Bücher Numeri, Deuteronomium, und Josua not ignore his prophetic gift.. The Midrashim about him erklärt, p. 121, &c.; Schenkel's Bibel-Lexicon, s.v. “Bil. are hardly worth mentioning, such as that he was one of eam;" and Hamburger's Real-Encyclopædie fur Bibel und Pharaoh's counsellors, that he was governor of a city in Talmud,,s.v. “Bileam.”). Ethiopia which he excited to rebellion, but was unable to BÁLÁGHÁT, a British district in the Central Provinces defend against Moses at the head of an army who stormed of India, situated between 21° and 23° N. lat. and 80° and the place and put Balaam to flight. In Yalkut (& She- 81° E. long:; bounded on the N. by the district of Mancia moth) he is said to have been identified by some with on the E. by the district of Chhattisgarh ; on the S. by Laban, Jacob's father-in-law; by others with Elihu, Job's Chhattisgarh and Bhandárá; and on the W. by the district friend; while others say that Janres and Jambres were of Seoní. Bálághát forms the eastern portion of the cen. his sons. In Sanhedrin (& Chelek) he is said to have been tral plateau which divides the province from east to west. blind of an eye. These, and other rabbinical fables, are These highlands, formerly known as the Ráigárh Bichhis entirely worthless; and Origen's belief that the Magi from tract, remained desolate and neglected until 1866, when the Persia, who came to worship the infant King of the Jews, district of Bálághát was formed, and the country opened to learnt the meaning of the star from Balaam's prophecies, the industrious and enterprising peasantry of the Waingangá is of the same character."

valley. Geographically the district is divided into three Most of the Fathers, including Augustine and Ambrose, distinct parts :-(1.) The southern lowlands, a slightly, un judged him to be a soothsayer or magician, a prophet in- dulating plain, comparatively well cultivated, and drained spired by the devil. A few, as Tertullian and Jerome, by the Waingangá, Bágh, Deo, Ghisrí, and Son rivers took a more favorable view of his character. The Ma- (2.) The long narrow valley, known as the Mau Táluká hometans have various fables concerning Balaam. They lying between the hills and the Waingangá river, and comsay that he was of the race of Anakim, or giants of Pales- prising a long, narrow, irregular-shaped lowland tract, tine, and that he read the books of Abraham, where he got intersected by hill ranges and peaks covered with dense the name Jehovah, by virtue of which he predicted the jungle, and running generally from north to south. (3.) future, and got from God whatever he asked. This pro- The lofty plateau, in which is situated the Raigarh Bich cured him great renown. In consequence, however, of his hiá tract, comprising irregular ranges of hills, broken into prevarication, God was offended with him, and left him to numerous valleys, and generally running from east to west. himself, so that he fell into infidelity. It is generally The highest points in the hills of the district are as fol. supposed that the words in the Koran ( Al-Araf) refer to lows:--Peaks above Lánjí, 2300 or 2500 feet; Tepágarh him :-“The history of him unto whom we brought our hill, about 2600 feet; and Bhainsághát range, about 3000 signs and he departed from them; wherefore Satan followed feet above the sea. The principal rivers in the district are him, and he became one of those who were seduced. And the Waingangá, and its tributaries, the Bágh, Nahrá, and if we had pleased, we had surely raised him thereby into wisdom; but he inclined unto the earth, and followed his rived from py-352 (Sanhed. 105), destroyer or corrupter of the peo

1 Dyna from yna, with the formative letter 3. It has been da own desire. Wherefore his likeness is as the likenessple, so that the name has passed for a typical designation of Israel's of a dog, which, if thou drive him away, putteth forth his enemy; and this is reflected in the Greek word Nikodairns (Rev. ii.

la amites, or seducers. "But this etymology of the name Balaam is 1 See Fabricius's Codex Pseudepigraphus Vet. Test., p. 807, &c. improbable.

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