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which they held till 1641, when the Spaniards expelled steamers and their crews departed, and New Providence them but made no attempt to settle there themselves. subsided into its usual state of quietude. This, however, The English again took possession in 1667, and in 1680 was not fated to last long, for in October, 1866, a most Charles II. made a grant of the islands to George, Duke violent hurricane passed over the island, injuring the of Albemarle; William, Lord Craven ; Sir George Carteret; orchards, destroying the fruit-trees, and damaging the John, Lord Berkeley ; Anthony, Lord Ashley; and Sir Peter sponges, which had proved hitherto a source of profit. Colleton. Governors were appointed by the lords proprie- The hurricane, too, was followed by repeated droughts, tors, and there are very copious records in the state papers and the inhabitants of the out-islands were reduced to of the attempts made to develop the resources of the island; indigence and want. There was an increase, however, in but the repeated attacks of the Spaniards, and the tyranny the production of salt. The exports as a whole fell off.. and mismanagement of the governors, proved great obstacles Those of native produce, which in 1866 had been to success. In July, 1703, the French and Spaniards made £77,604, were reduced in 1867 to £71,117, and the a descent on New Providence, blew up the fort, spiked the remaining exports of 1866, amounting to £184,372, were, guns, burnt the church, and carried off the governor, with in 1867, £156,131. The depression has continued almost the principal inhabitants, to the Havannah ; and in October to the present time (1875). The public debt paid off the Spaniards made a second descent, and completed the during the days of the blockade-running swelled again to a work of destruction. It is said that when the last of the sum of £54,161, 13s. 2d., and the revenue until very lately governors appointed by the lords proprietors, in ignorance was steadily on the decline. It was £47,530 in 1870, of the Spanish raid, arrived in New Providence, he found while the expenditure was £48,598, and in 1872 there the island without an inhabitant. It soon, however, was a further decrease of revenue to £37,574, with an became the resort of pirates, and the names of many of expenditure of £39,000. In 1873 there was, however, the worst of these ruffians is associated with New Provi- an improvement. The revenue rose to £44,053, the exdence, the notorious Blackbeard being chief among the penditure being only £42,737. The improvement in the number. At last matters became so intolerable that the finances is due principally, it would seem, to the readjustmerchants of London and Bristol petitioned the Crown ment of the customs duties. In a recent Blue Book it is to take possession and restore order, and Captain Woods stated that the Government in 1873 increased the duties Rogers was sent out as the first Crown governor, and on ale, brandy, gin, rum, and whisky by 50 per cent.; on arrived at New Providence in 1718. Many families of cigars and tobacco, by 100 per cent.; and on wine by 200 good character now settled at the Bahamas, and some pro- per cent. As regards other articles the Assembly at the gress was made in developing the resources of the colony, same time relieved the general consumer by reducing the although this was interrupted by the tyrannical conduct of 25 per cent. ad valorem duties to 15 per cent. They abolsome of the governors who succeeded Captain Woods ished the export duty on vessels in distress, and they re Rogers. At this time the pine-apple was introduced as an duced the tonnage and wharfage dues. They also abolarticle of cultivation at Eleuthera; and a few years subse- | ished a license fee, payable hitherto by the men employed quently, during the American war of independence, as wreckers, and they repealed a special income-tax levied colonists arrived in great numbers, bringing, with them upon public officers. The last colonial report expresses a wealth and also slave labor. Cotton cultivation was now hope and a belief that the sound financial condition to attempted on a large scale. In 1783, at Long Island, 800 which the colony has been restored will continue. The slaves were at work, and nearly 4000 acres of land under hope, however, hardly seems justified at present by the cultivation. But the usual bad luck of the Bahamas pre commercial progress of the Bahamas. In 1870 the imvailed; the red bug destroyed the cotton crops in 1788, ports were of the value of £283,970. In 1872 they had and again in 1794, and by the year 1800 cotton cultiva- fallen to £201,051, and in 1873 they had increased to tion was almost abandoned. There were also other causes £226,306. In like manner the exports of 1873 contrasted that tended to retard the progress of the colony. In favorably with those of 1872, having increased from 1776 Commodore Hopkins, of the American navy, took £136,224 to £156,613. But the increase in exports is due the island of New Providence; he soon, however, aban- to the development of trade in articles, such as pine-apples doned it as untenable, but in 1782 it was retaken by and oranges, the production of which is uncertain, since a the Spanish governor of Cuba. The Spaniards retained season's crop may perish in a hurricane. The

sponge trade nominal possession of the Bahamas until 1783, but before is not so prosperous as it should be, the Spanish authoripeace was notified New Providence was recaptured by a ties, it appears, interfering with the spongers working on loyalist, Colonel Deveaux, of the South Carolina militia, in the reefs near Ćuba ; while the excessive duty levied in the Jupe, 1783. In 1787, the descendants of the old lords United States on salt has almost paralyzed the salt-making proprietors received each a grant of £2000 in satisfaction trade of the Bahamas. The total number of pine-apples of their claims, and the islands were formally reconveyed exported to the United States and England in 1873 was to the Crown. The Bahamas began again to make a little 422,994 dozen, valued at £38,767. To this must be progress, until the separation of Turk's and Caicos Islands added the tinned fruit, a branch of industry introduced in 1848, which had been hitherto the most productive in 1872. Pine-apples in tins were exported in the followof the salt-producing islands, unfavorably affected the ing year to the number of 69,165 dozen, valued at finances. Probably the abolition of the slave-trade in £13,018, and cases of pine-apples from the same establish1834 was not without its effect upon the fortunes of the ment to the value of £1712. The exportation of other landed proprietors.

fruit was-of oranges, 2,252,000, valued at £3822; of The next event of importance in the history of the bananas, 7172 bunches, valued at £346; and about £700 Bahamas was the rise of the blockade-running trade, con- worth of grape-fruit, shaddocks, lemons, limes, and melons. sequent on the closing of the southern ports of America One great and profitable business ar the Bahamas has by the Federals in 1861. At the commencement of 1865 decreased, and is not likely to flourish again. There has this trade was at its highest point. In January and been of late years a marked diminution in the number of February, 1865, no less than 20 steamers arrived at Nassau, marine casualties, which in past times threw into the ports importing 14,182 bales of cotton, valued at £554,675. of the colony a large amount of valuable property, of which The extraordinary difference between the normal trade of the a great part was frequently exported. The erection of islands and that due to blockade-running, will be seen by lighthouses, the diversion of trade from the southern ports comparing the imports and exports before the closing of of America, and the increased use of steam, have all tended the southern ports in 1860 with those of 1864. In the to this decline of the wreckers' trade, and it is said that the former year the imports were £234,029, and the exports people of Harbor Island, at one time the great stronghold £157,350, while in the latter year the imports were of the wreckers, have now all turned their attention to the £5,346,112, and the exports, £4,672,393. The excite- cultivation of pine-apples. In 1864 the number of wrecks ment, extravagance, and waste existing at Nassau during reported was, including complete and partial, 67, while in the days of blockade-running exceed belief. Individuals 1871 it was but 39. may have profited largely, but the Bahamas probably The colony is divided into 13 parishes, although the benefited little. The Government managed to pay its division is now used for civil purposes only. An Act to debt, amounting to £43,786, but crime increased, and amend the ecclesiastical laws of the colony was assented to sickness became very prevalent. The cessation of the on the 1st of June, 1869, and confirmed on the 7th of Oce trade was marked, however, by hardly any disturbance; tober, 1869, and the Church of England at the Bahamas there were no local failures, and in a few months the disestablished. The population of the islands taken at

: [Esek. Hopkins (1718-1802), of Rhode Island, commander-in-chief of the navy (1775-77). Died at Providence.-AM. ED.]

70

Max.
75
76
78
81

Min.
66
66
66
68

75

races.

75

88 88 88 86

82
81

73

74

70

the census of 1871 was 39,162 (being an increase in the press, the Agricultural Society, Bahama Institute, Fire decennial period since 1861 of 3875), of whom 19,349 were Brigade, the New Providence Asylum, Public Dispensary, males, and 19,813 females. With regard to race, it may St. Andrew's Charitable Society, a provincial grand lodge be said that the native and colored inhabitants now enor. of freemasons, &c. There are also libraries at Dunmore mously outnumber the white colonists. The last return Town, in Harbor Island, at Matthew Town, Inagua, at showing the varieties of race was published in 1826; the New Plymouth, at Abaco, &c.

(J. T. W. B.) population was 16,033, of whom 4588 were white, 2259 BAHIA, a province of the Brazilian empire, situated on colored, and 9186 black; since then the proportion of the S.E. coast, and extending from the Rio Grande do colored and black to white has increased. The health of Belmonte in the S. to the Rio Real in the N. It is the colony has been improving of late years; the death bounded by Sergipe and Pernambuco on the N., by Piauhi rate of 1872 was only 17.9 in 1000. The total births were on the N.W., by Goyaz on the W., and on the S. by Minas 1475 against 704 deaths. The climate of the Bahamas Geraes and 'Espirito Santo. It has an area of 202,272 has always borne a reputation for salubrity. The mean of square miles, and its population is stated at 1,450,000. a series of daily observations of temperature for 10 years Bahia sends 14 deputies to the general assembly of the is as follows:

empire, and 7 senators to the upper house, while its own

legislative assembly consists of 36 members. Besides Heighi af Thermometer in Degrees Fahr. at 9 A.M.

Bahia the capital, Olivença, Branca, Jacobina, and Joa

Med. January

zeira are important towns. A chain of mountains, broken February

71

into numerous sierras, runs from N. to 8. through the March.....

72

province at the distance of 200 miles from the coast, while April..

the intermediate district gradually rises in successive terMay.

84
78
71

The maritime region, the so-called Reconcavo, is June

81

74 remarkably fertile, and is studded with thriving towns and July........

villages, but the interior is often very dry and barren, and August

75

is only thinly peopled in many places with wandering BeSeptember....

81

75

lacudos. The main sources of the wealth of the province October .....

.82

77 November................79

are cotton, coffee, sugar, and tobacco, all of which are cultiDecember................

..77
73

69

vated with the greatest success. Mandioc, rice, beans, and

maize are grown; also jalap, ipecacuanha, and saffron, as The rainfall is heavy from May to October. During the well as oranges, mangoes, and various other fruits. A large winter months it is small, and from the month of Novem- portion is still covered with primeval forest, but the woodber up to April the climate of New Providence is most man is rapidly diminishing the extent. The mineral wealth agreeable. Advantage has been taken of this for many of the province is but partially explored and still more paryears by the inhabitants of the mainland of America, tially utilized. In 1844 diamond mines were discovered to who can escape by a four days' voyage from the icy the N. of the River Peraguass, and, till the deposits near winter of New York to the perpetual summer of the the Cape of Good Hope were brought to light, afforded emBahamas. New Providence has gained a name as a resort ployment to a large number of garimpeiros or “washers." for the consumptive, and perhaps justly so far as the The discovery of amethysts at Catiié in 1872 attracted Anglo-Saxon race is concerned, but the Africans and numerous searchers; and about the same time coal was colored races suffer greatly from diseases of the lungs, and found in the island of Itaparica. Gold is present in the the black troops stationed at Nassau have always been alluvium of the river San Francisco. notorious for the proportion of men invalided from con- BAHIA, or, in full, SAN SALVADOR DA BAHIA DE sumptive disease. The principal religious denominations TODOS os Santos, a large city, and, till 1763, the capital are the Wesleyan, Baptist, Church of England, and of Brazil, is situated on the S.E. coast on the Bay of All Presbyterian. The following figures represent approxi- Saints, from which it takes its name, in 13° S. lat., and 38° mately the number of persons generally attending the 20' W. long. Built partly along the foot and partly on the churches and chapels of the several denominations : top of a steep hill, it consists of an upper and lower town, Wesleyan, 7370; Baptist, 7971 ;. Church of England, communication between the two being effected by large 4250 ; Presbyterian, 300. There is no Roman Catholic flights of steps, and since 1873 by a powerful hydraulic place of worship in the islands, and the members of elevator. The carrying of goods and passengers up and that church are very few in number. The constitution of down these stairway-streets affords employment to a large the Bahamas consists of a governor, aided by an executive number of negro porters and chairmen. The lower town, council of 9 members, a legislative council of 9 members, or Praya, consists mainly of one long and narrow street, and a representative assembly of 28 members. The quali- with still narrower and more tortuous lanes. The houses fications of electors are full age, a residence of twelve are built of stone, and many of them are several stories months, six of which must have been as a freeholder, or a high. This is the business part of the city, where are sitresidence of six months and a payment of duties to the uated the quays, docks, warehouses, custom-houses, ex amount of £26, Os. 10d. The qualification of members is change, and arsenal; and here the sailors, porters, and possession of an estate of real or personal property to the lower classes generally reside. The church of Nostra Sevalue of £500. The executive is composed partly of offi- ñora da Praya is remarkable as having been built of stones cial and partly of unofficial members; the latter have that were hewn in Lisbon and shipped across the ocean. usually a seat in one of the branches of the legislature. The upper city has wide and well-paved streets, open There are 35 Government schools in the Bahamas, 5 of squares, and pleasant promenades, adorned with orange which are in New Providence, and 30 in the out islands. trees and bananas. The most important is the Passeio Pub These schools are managed by an education board com- lico, which was opened in 1814, and overlooks the beautiful posed of 5 or more members, with the governor as presi- bay. There is no city in Brazil that can vie with Bahia in dent. The legislative grant for educational purposes is the number and splendor of its ecclesiastical buildings, £2200 a year, exclusive of the salary of the inspector of among which the Jesuits' college, now used as a hospital, schools, who is borne upon the civil establishment on a sal- and the cathedral, which is built of marble, are pre-eminent. ary of £200. The number of children on the books is about There are likewise numerous educational institutions, in3006, and there are 1200 in addition attending schools in cluding a lyceum (in which Latin, Greek, French, and connection with the Church of England. It is calculated English, mathematics, philosophy, &c., are taught), a theothat about 55 per cent. of the children between 5 and 15 logical seminary, and a medical academy, which is sup attend school. The isolation of the settlements, the low ported by the imperial Government, and has about 400 salaries of the teachers, and the indifference of parents, are students. The museum and public library also deserve great obstacles to the spread of sound education in the mention. Among the buildings connected with the civic Bahamas.

and commercial activity of the city are the governmentThere are numerous lighthouses in the group, the princi- 'house, the court-house, the mint, and the town-house; also pal being at Gun Cay, Abaco, Cay Sal, Great Isaacks, Cay the Alfandega, where all foreign importations have to be Lobos, Stirrups Cay, Elbow Cay, Castle Island, Hoy Island, entered, and the Consolado, where all native productions and Athol Island. The chief institutions of the Bahamas are registered for exportation. There are likewise a numare to be found in New Providence. They include a ber of banks and commercial associations of various kinds. savings bank, a public library, a well-conducted newspaper | Bahia has long been a place of great traffic. The streets of the upper city are very inconveniently paved, but the tone. He has been well called by Herzog a caricature of city and its suburbs are now connected by street railways, the rationalism of the 18th century. two running in the upper town and one in the lower. BAHREIN, the principal island of a cluster in the Bomsim is the name of the northern suburb, and Victoria Persian Gulf, in an indentation of the Arabian coast. that of the southern; the foreign merchants for the most It is about 70 miles long and nearly 25 broad, and is part reside in the latter. The commerce principally con- very flat and low except towards the east, where a sists in the exportation of cotton, coffee, sugar, rum, to- range of hills attain an elevation of 800 or 900 feet. bacco, and rosewood, and the importation of miscellaneous The climate is mild, but humid, and rather unhealthy. foreign goods. The value of the imports in 1870 was The soil is for the most part fertile, and produces rice, £1,671,676, of which £885,206 belonged to Britain. The pot herbs, and fruits, of which the citrons are especiexports of the same year were valued at £1,790,928. The ally good. Water is abundant, but frequently brackish. bay is one of the finest in America, and is well defended Fish of all kinds abound off the coast, and are very cheap by forts. The entrance is protected by the large island of in the markets. _The inhabitants are a mixed race of Arab, Itaparica, which has upwards of 16,000 inhabitants, of Omanite, and Persian blood, slender and small in their whom more than 7000 are collected in the town of San physical appearance; they possess great activity and inGonzalo. A large number of these are employed in the telligence, and are known in all the ports of the Persian whale-fishery, which has greatly fallen off, however, from Gulf for their commercial and industrial ability. The its former prosperity.

traffic in the island itself is great and various, the harbor Bahia was visited in 1503 by Amerigo Vespucci. The of Manama, which admits vessels of 200 tons, being largely first settlement was founded and called San Salvador by frequented by ships from Persia, Sindh, India, &c. This Diego Alvarez Correa, who had been shipwrecked on the town, which has in some respects supplanted the older and coast; but the Portuguese governor who gave formal ex- more inland Ruffin, is well built, and contains about 25,000 istence to the city was Thomas de Souza, who landed in inhabitants; and there are besides about 15 villages in the 1549. It owed its increase to the Jesuits, who defended island. There is a city of almost equal extent in the it against the English in 1588. In 1623' it fell into the neighboring and smaller island of Mohanek, but the hands of the Dutch, who held it for two years. In 1823 trade is not so great. Bahrein has from a remote period it was surrendered by the Portuguese to the Brazilian been famous for its pearl fishery, which produces the finest nationality. A revolution, which broke out in the city in pearls in the world. The Portuguese obtained possession 1837, was suppressed by the imperial Government. The of the islands in 1507, but were driven from their settlefirst printing-press was introduced in 1811, and the first ments in that quarter by Shah Abbas in 1622. The islands sugar-mill in 1823. In 1858 railway communication was afterwards became an object of contention between the established to Joazeiro.

Persians and Arabs, and at last the Arabian tribe of the BAHRDT, KARL FRIEDRICH, a German theologian, Athubis made themselves masters of them in 1784. Since distinguished for his extreme rationalism and his erratic then they have been for some time subject more or less life, was born in 1741 at Bischofswerda, of which place his to the Wahabees, whose interference has greatly damaged father, afterwards professor of theology at Leipsic, was the commerce of the ports, and led to extensive emigration for some time pastor. He was educated chiefly at the of the inhabitants. (See Palgrave, in J. Roy. Geo. Soc., celebrated school of Pforta, and afterwards entered the vol. xxxiv.) university of Leipsic, where he studied theology, and at BAIÆ, an ancient town of Campania, Italy, situated first attached himself to the strongly orthodox party headed between the promontory of Misenum and Puteoli, on the by Crusius. After graduation he lectured for a time as Sinus Baianus, and famous for its warm springs and baths, adjunct to his father, and then with the rank of catechist which served the wealthier Romans for the purposes both of proceeded to Leipsic, where he became exceedingly popular health and pleasure. The variety of these baths, the mildas a preacher, and was appointed extraordinary professor of ness of the climate, and the beauty of the landscape, captiBiblical philology. During this period of his life he pub- vated the minds of the opulent nobles. The habitations lished a popular book of devotions, called the Christian in at first were small and modest; but increasing luxury Solitude. In 1768 the notorious irregularity of his conduct added palace to palace, and enterprising architects, supported necessitated his resignation and his departure from Leipsic. by boundless wealth, said the foundations of new erections By some influence he obtained a professorship of Biblical in the sea. From being a place of occasional resort for a antiquities in the philosophical faculty of the new univer- season, Baiæ grew up into a city, and the confluence of sity of Erfurt, and having procured a theological degree wealthy inhabitants rendered it as much a miracle of art from Erlangen, he again began to read theological lectures. as it had before been of nature, though it never attained His orthodoxy had by this time completely vanished; he the rank of a municipium, but continued to be dependent was an avowed rationalist of the extreme school, and with on Cumæ. C. Marius, Lucullus, Pompey, and Julius Cæsar great diligence and ability sought to popularize the prin- are among the most remarkable of those who gave éclat to ciples of his creed. At the same time his bitter and Baiæ during the republic; and at a later period it was a quarrelsome disposition embroiled him with his colleagues, favorite resort of Nero, Caligula, Hadrian, and Severus. and in 1771 he left Erfurt, but obtained another professor- It flourished till the days of Theodoric the Goth; but its ship at Giessen. Here also the bold expression of his destruction followed quickly upon the irruption of the opinions cut short his tenure of office; in 1775 he resigned northern conquerors. When the guardian hand of man was and became director of Von Salis's educational establish- withdrawn, the sea reclaimed its old domain; moles and ment, the philanthropin at Marschlins, a post he held for buttresses were washed away; and promontories, with the only one year. For a brief period he acted as general proud towers that once crowned their brows, were undersuperintendent at Dürkheim, and then endeavored, but mined and tumbled into the deep. Innumerable ruins, unsuccessfully, to set up an educational institution at heaps of marble, mosaics, and other relics of the past, attest Heidesheim. He had now become most obnoxious to the the ancient splendor of the city. The most remarkable German Government, who prohibited him from lecturing or are the so-called temples of Mercury, Venus, and Diana, publishing any work on theology, or from holding any and various buildings which, rightly or wrongly, have been professorial office. In 1779 he took refuge in Halle, assigned to the more famous of those who are known to where he resided for ten years, lecturing in the forenoon on have had villas in the town. The Castello di Baja was moral philosophy, and officiating in the afternoon as land- built in the 16th century by Pietro di Toledo. Long. 14° lord of a public house which he had opened at the gate of 3' E., lat. 40° 50' N. the town, and which was largely patronized by the students. BAIBURT, a town of Asiatic Turkey, in the pashalic In 1789 he was arrested, partly on account of a pasquinade of Erzeroum, and 65 miles W.N.W. from that city. Accordhe had written upon the Prussian religious edict, and was ing to Neumann it was an Armenian fortress in the 1st condemned to two years' imprisonment. The period of his century, and it is identified by Ritter with the Baiberdon confinement, reduced by the king to one year, was employed fortified by Justinian. It was afterwards one of the strong. by Bahrdt in writing memorials of his life and opinions. holds of the Genoese, when prosecuting their trade with After his release he continued his former course of life, and India. Remains of their fortifications still exist, but in a died after a severe illness, 230 April, 1792. His numerous very dilapidated state, the Russians having blown up the works, including a translation of the New Testament, are defences in 1829. (See view in Yule's Marco Polo, vol. i.) comparatively worthless, and are written in an offensive | Population of town about 6000.

BAIF, JEAN ANTOINE DE, poet of the French Renais- | Landing from a small boat with one or two natire followers sance and member of the Pleiad, was the natural son of at the confluence of the Quorra and Benue, he here chose Lazare de Baïf and an Italian girl. He was born in 1532 at the old model farm ground as the base of his future operaVenice, where his father was residing as French ambassador. tions—a spot memorable from the disasters of the explorThanks, perhaps, to the surroundings of his childhood, he ing party of 1841. After purchasing the site, and congrew up a fanatic for the fine arts, and surpassed in zeal cluding a treaty with the native chief, he proceeded to all the leaders of the Renaissance in France. Besides clear the ground, build houses, form enclosures, and pave writing an immense number of short poems of an amorous the way for a future city. Numbers flocked to him from or congratulatory kind, he translated or paraphrased various all parts round, and in his settlement were representatives pieces from Bion, Moschus, Theocritus, Anacreon, Catullus, of almost all the tribes of Central Africa. To the motley and Martial. He resided in Paris, enjoyed the continued commonwealth thus formed he acted not merely as ruler, favor of the court, and founded the Académie Royale de but also as physician, teacher, and priest. Before five Musique; his house became famous for the charming con- years he had opened up the navigation of the Niger, made certs which he gave, entertainments at which Charles IX. roads, and established a market, to which the native and Henry III. frequently flattered him with their presence. produce was brought for sale and barter. He had also He was a dear friend of Ronsard and the other members collected vocabularies of nearly fifty African dialects, and of the Pleiad. His works were published in 4_thick translated portions of the Bible and prayer-book into volumes, entitled Amours, Jeux, Passetemps

, et Poëmes Housa. Once only during his residence had he to employ (1571-74), containing, among much that is now hardly armed force against the surrounding tribes. He died on readable, some pieces of infinite grace and delicacy. He his way home, at Sierra Leone, in November, 1863, aged died in 1589 or 1591. His father, Lazare de Baïf, pub- thirty-nine years. An appropriate monument has been lished a translation of the Electra of Sophocles in 1537, | erected to his memory within the nave of the ancient and afterwards a version of the Hecuba, was an elegant cathedral of St. Magnus. versifier in Latin, and is commended by Joachim du Bellay BAIL (Ballium) is used in common law for the free as having introduced certain valuable words into the French ing or setting at liberty of one arrested or imprisoned language.

upon any action, either civil or criminal, on surely taken BAIKAL (i.e., Baïakhal, or Abundant Water), a great for his appearance at a certain day and place. fresh-water lake of Siberia, in the government of Irkutsk, BAILEN, a town of Spain, in the province of Jaen, 397 miles in length from S.W. to N.E., and from 13 to 54 | 24 miles N.N.W. of Jaen. It seems to correspond to the miles in breadth, with an area of about 12,500 square ancient Bæcula, where Scipio gained signal victories over miles. This vast reservoir is situated 1360 feet above the Hasdrubal, 209 B.C., and over Mago and Masinissa, 206 level of the sea, in the midst of steep mountain ranges, that B.C. (Polyb., X. 38, xi. 20; Liv., xxvii. 18-20, xxviii. 13). often rise sheer from the water's edge in lofty walls of In the neighborhood also, in 1212, was fought the great syenite, gneiss, or conglomerate, while elsewhere their battle of Navas de Tolosa, where Alphonso VIII. is said to sloping Aanks are thickly clad with dark forests of conifer- have left 200,000 Moors dead on the field, with the loss of ous trees. The lake is fed by several rivers,--the Upper only 25 Christians. Here again, on the 23d of July, 1808, Angara, the Selenga, which descends from the basin of the French general Dupont, after a bloody contest of Lake Kossogol, the Barguzin, and others; while the only several days, signed the capitulation of Bailen, by which visible outlet is by the Lower Angara, a tributary of the 17,000 men were delivered up to the Spaniards as prisoners Yenesei. The water is excellent, and is extremely clear, so of war. This disaster was the first great blow to the French that the bottom can be seen at the depth of 8 fathoms. arms in the Peninsula. There is nothing remarkable about The depth of the lake varies from 22 to upwards of 300 the town, except the ruins of a castle, formerly belonging to fathoms. It yields abundance of salmon, and there is a the counts of Benavente, and now the property of the profitable fishery of seals on its shores during the whole Osuna family. Glass and tiles are manufactured, and the summer. The climate is extremely severe; and the lake, weaving of cloth and pressing of olives are carried on. which is frozen over from November to May, is almost Population, 7831. (Madoz, Diccionario; Ukert, vol. 1. perpetually swept by the wind. It facilitates, however, p. 379.) the Russian trade with China, and that between Irkutsk BAILEY, or BAILY, NATHANAEL or NATHAN, an emiand Dauria. It is navigated by the Russians in summer, nent English philologist and lexicographer, whose Etymo and in winter they cross it on the ice. Europeans em- bogical English Dictionary, published apparently in 1721, barked on its waters for the first time in 1643. Steam- was a great improvement on all previous vocabularies, vessels were introduced in 1846, and the passage across is and really formed the basis of Johnson's great work. It made in about eight hours. Several hot springs and is still worthy of being consulted for information with mineral waters are seen on the margin, and naphtha is regard to the change of signification in certain words, and sometimes found floating on the surface. The lake is between to the date at which others were introduced into the 51° 20' and 55° 30' Ñ. lat., and 103° and 110° E. long. language. Bailey had a school at Stepney, near London, The island of Olkhon, near its north shore, is 32 miles and was the author of Dictionarium Domesticum and several long and nearly 10 broad. This island. and the southern other educational works. He died in 1742. borders of the lake are inhabited by Mongolian tribes, BAILEY, SAMUEL, an able writer on philosophical and while towards the north the Tungooses are to be found in literary subjects, was born at Sheffield in 1791. His father gradually diminishing numbers. (See “ Description du lac carried on a large general business in that town, and for de Baikal,” trad. du russe par M. Klaproth, in Nouv. Ann. some years the son devoted himself to mercantile purdes Voy. t. xvii. p. 289; Erman's Siberia, 1848; Semenoff, suits. It was not long, however, before he gave up this Slovar Ross. Imp.)

occupation, and, having a competent fortune, withdrew BAIKIE, WILLIAM BALFOUR, M.D., eldest son of from all business concerns, with the exception of the ShefCaptain John Baikie, R.N., was born at Kirkwall, Orkney, field Banking Company, of which he was chairman for on the 21st August, 1824. He studied at Edinburgh, and many years. Although an ardent Liberal of most adon obtaining his degree, joined the royal navy. He early vanced views, he took little or no active part in political attracted the notice of Sir Roderick Murchison, through affairs. On two occasions, at the earnest solicitation of his whom he was appointed surgeon and naturalist to the numerous friends and admirers, he stood for Sheffield, but Niger Expedition of 1854. The death of the senior officer without success. The “Bentham of Hallamshire," as he occurring at Fernando Po, Dr. Baikie succeeded to the has been called, was of too retiring a disposition, and had command. The results of the voyage are given in his too much of the philosophical politician about him to win own and other narratives. Ascending the river about 250 the admiration or suffrages of an ordinary body of electors. miles beyond the point reached by former explorers, the His life is for the most part a history of his numerous and little steamer Pleiad returned and reached the mouth after varied publications, and his name is known to a very lima voyage of 118 days without the loss of a single man. ited circle. The intimation of his sudden death on the 18th The second expedition started in March, 1857. After two January, 1870, with the subsequent notice of his munificent years passed in exploring, the navigating vessel was wrecked gift of £90,000 to his native town, excited some curiosity in passing through some of the rapids of the river, and Dr. and interest, which, however, quickly died away. This is Baikie was unable longer to keep his party together. All not quite as it should be. Bailey has certainly given to returned home but himself; no way daunted, he determined the world no work of first-rate importance, but there are single-handed to carry out the purposes of the expedition. I few authors of modern times who have written more ele

gantly and clearly, or with more originality of treatment, | lage, but he picked up some Latin from the friars of a on the various problems of psychology and political science. neighboring convent, who brought him under the notice His first work, Essays on the Formation and Publication of of the bishop of Beauvais. By his kindness Baillet reOpinions, published anonymously in 1821 (2d ed., 1826, ceived a thorough education at the theological seminary, 3d ed., 1837), a thoughtful, practical

, and clearly written and was afterwards appointed to a post as teacher in the treatise, has attracted a greater share of public attention school of Beauvais. In 1676 he took orders, and was preand favor than any of his other writinys. A sequel to it sented to a small vicarage. His duties interfering too appeared in 1829, Essays on the Pursuit of Truth, on the much with his studies, he accepted in 1680 the appointment Progress of Knowledge, and on the Fundamental Principle of of librarian to M. de Lamoignon, advocate-general to the all Evidence and Expectation (2d ed., 1844). Intermediate parliament of Paris, of whose library he .nade a Catalogue between these two were Questions on Political Economy, Pol- Raisonné in thirty-five volumes folio, all written with his itics, Morals, &c., 1823, and a Critical Dissertation on the own hand. The remainder of his life was spent in incesNature, Measure, and Causes of Value, directed against the sant, unremitting labor; so keen was his devotion to study opinions of Ricardo and his school. His next publications that he scarcely allowed himself even natural rest. In the were also on economic or political subjects, Rationale of list of his numerous works the following are among the Political Representation, 1835, and Money and its Vicissitudes, most conspicuous :-1. Histoire de Hollande depuis 1609 1837 ; about the same time also appeared some of his jusqu'à 1690, 4 tom. 12mo, a continuation of Grotius, and pamphlets, Discussion of Parliamentary Reform, Right of published under the name of Neuville. 2. Les Vies des Primogeniture Examined, Defence of Joint-Stock Banks. Saints, 3 tom. fol. 3. Des Satires personnelles, traité historique Bailey seems then to have turned his attention almost en- et critique de celles qui portent le titre d' Anti, 2 tom. 12mo. tirely' to speculative philosophy. In 1842 appeared his 4. Vie de Descartes, 2 tom. 4to. 5. Jugemens des Savants Review of Berkeley's Theory of Vision, an acute and able sur les principaux Ouvrages des Auteurs, 9 tom. 12mo. The work, which called forth rejoinders from J. S. Mill in the last is the most celebrated and useful of all the works of Westminster Review (reprinted in Dissertations), and from this learned and indefatigable writer. The edition in seven Ferrier in Blackwood (reprinted in Lectures and Remains, ii.). volumes quarto, published in 1722 by M. de la Monnoye, Bailey replied to his critics in A Letter to a Philosopher, &c., contains the Anti-Baillet of M. Menage, besides notes; but 1843. In 1851 he published one of his best works, Theory the edition published at Amsterdam in 1725 is more es of Reasoning (2d ed., 1852), a thoughtful discussion of the teemed. nature of inference, and an able criticism of the functions BAILLEUL, an ancient town of France, in the depart. and value of the syllogism. In 1852 he published Dis- ment of Nord, near the Belgian frontier, situated on a courses on Various Subjects ; and finally summed up his rising ground to the north of the River Lys. It was philosophic views in the Letters on the Philosophy of the Hu- formerly a place of great strength, and is now a busy nan Mind (three series, 1855, 1858, 1863), which is at once industrial town, with manufactures of lace, thread, black the most considerable and the most valuable of his contri- soap, pottery, woollen stuffs and ribbons, brandy, leather, and butions to mental science. Bailey had not entirely given cheese. Population, 12,896. Lat. 50° 45' N., long. 2° 44' E. himself up to abstract studies; in 1845 he had ventured on BAILLIE, JOANNA, poet and dramatist, was born at poetical composition. Maro, a poem in four cantos (85 pp., the manse of Bothwell, on the banks of the Clyde (ScotLongmans), contains a somewhat lively description of the land), in 1762. At an early period of her life she mental state of a young poet who printed 1000 copies of his removed with her sister Agnes to London, where their first poem, of which only 10 were sold. He had also been brother, the celebrated Dr. Matthew Baillie, was settled. a diligent student of Shakespeare, and his last literary. The two sisters were left a small competence by their work was the treatise, in two volumes, On the Received uncle, Dr. William Hunter, and took up their residence at Text of Shakespeare's Dramatic Writings and its Improve- Hampstead, on the outskirts of London, where they passed ment. It must be confessed that many of the emendations the remainder of their lives. Miss Baillie died on the 23d suggested by him are more fantastic than felicitous. Feb., 1851, at the advanced age of 89, her faculties remain

The Letters contain, in clear and lively language, a very ing unimpaired to the last. Her gentleness and sweetness fresh discussion of many of the principal problems in phil- of disposition made her a universal favorite, and her little esophy, or rather in psychology. Bailey can hardly be cottage at Hampstead was the centre of a brilliant literary classed as belonging either to the strictly empirical or to society. Miss Baillie had received an excellent education, the idealist school, but his general tendency is towards the and probably cultivated very early her faculty of poetical former. The following are the most interesting points in composition, but it was not till 1798 that she published the his work :-(I.) In regard to method, he founds psychol- first volume of her Plays on the Passions. Her design, ogy entirely on introspection; critical study of one's own founded on a careful study of the nature of dramatic consciousness is, according to him, the only means of ob- poetry, was to illustrate each of the deepest and strongest taining materials for philosophy. He thus, to a certain passions of the human mind, such as Hate, Jealousy, Fear, extent, agrees with the Scotch school, but he differs from Love, by a tragedy and a comedy, in each of which should them in rejecting altogether the doctrine of mental facul- be exhibited the actions of an individual under the influties. What have been designated faculties are, upon his ence of these passions. The success of the first volume was view, merely classified facts or phenomena of conscious- very considerable, and a second edition was soon called for, ness. He criticises very severely the habitual use of figur- A second volume followed in 1802, a third in 1812, and ative or metaphorical language in describing mental opera- three more in 1836. Some miscellaneous dramas were tions. (2.) His doctrine of perception, which is, in brief, published in 1804, and the Family Legend appeared in that “the perception of external things through the organs 1810. Miss Baillie herself intended her plays not for the of sense is a direct mental act or phenomenon of conscious. closet but for the stage. The Family Legend, brought out ness not susceptible of being resolved into anything else,” | at Edinburgh under the enthusiastic patronage of Sir Waland the reality of which can be neither proved nor dis- ter Scott, had a brief though brilliant success; De Monfort proved, is not worked out in detail, but is supported by had a short run in London, mainly through the acting of elaborate and sometimes subtle criticisms of all other theo- Kemble and Mrs. Siddons; Henriquez and The Separation ries. Upon this point Bailey's remarks are deserving of were coldly received. The popular verdict has thus been attention. (3.) With regard to general and abstract ideas given against the dramas as good stage plays, and the almost and general propositions, his opinions are those of the em- universal decision of readers has confirmed this judgment. pirical school, but his analysis frequently puts the matter in With very few exceptions, they are unsuited for stage a new light, and brings forward points of novelty. (4.). In exhibition. Not only is there a flaw in the fundamental the theory of morals Bailey is an advocate of Utilitarian- idea, that, viz., of an individual who is the embodiment of ism, and works out with great skill the steps in the forma- a single passion, but there is a want of incident, and a tion of the "complex" mental facts involved in the recog- narrowness, consequent upon the attention being too much pition of duty, obligation, right. His handling of the directed on a single point, that present insuperable obmoral sentiments (Letters, iii. 193-258) is one of the best stacles to their success as acting pieces. The plot is specimens of his general style of psychological analysis. generally well constructed, but the very consciousness of

BAILLET, ADRIEN, a French writer and critic, was aim with which it is wrought out gives to the whole a born in June, 1649, at the village of Neuville, near Beau- morbid and unnatural aspect; there is rarely, if ever, any vais, in Picardy, and died in January, 1706. His parents progress in the play; the whole is apparent from the outcould only afford to send him to a small school in the vil. set, and the action never heightens the spectators' interest.

VOL. III.-110

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