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has been frequently restored. The two towns of Old the city by Sultan Amurath IV. in 1638, is a good specimen and New Baghdad are connected by a bridge of thirty pon- of Saracenic brick-work. It was formerly called "the white toons. The form of the new city is that of an irregular Gate," but is now known as the " Bab-el-Tülism," or oblong, about 1500 paces in length by 800 in breadth; "Talismanic Gate,” from a fine Arabic inscription in relief and a brick wall, about five miles in circuit, encloses the on a scroll border round the tower, which bears the date town on both sides of the river. This wall, which is built of 618 A.H. (1220 A.D.). The town has been built without of brick, has been constructed and repaired at different the slightest regard to regularity. The streets are even more periods; and, as in most other works of the same nature intricate and winding than those in most other Eastern in Mahometan countries, the oldest portion is the best, towns; and, with the exception of the bazaars and some and the more modern the worst part of the fabric. At open squares, the interior is little else than a labyrinth of the principal angles are large round towers, with smaller alleys and passages. The streets are unpaved, and in towers intervening at short distances; and on these large many places so narrow that two horsemen can scarcely towers batteries are planted, with brass cannon of different pass each other; and as it is seldom that the houses have calibre, badly mounted. Of two of these angular towers windows facing the great public thoroughfares, and the Mr. Buckingham remarked that the workmanship is equal doors are small and mean, they present on both sides the to any ancient masonry that he had ever seen. The wall gloomy appearance of dead walls. All the buildings, both has three gates-one on the S.E., one on the N.E., and a public and private, are constructed of furnace-burat bricks, third on the N.W. of the city; and it is surrounded by a of a yellowish-red color, taken chiefly from the ruins of dry ditch of considerable depth. A fourth gate on the other edifices, as their rounded angles evidently show. A northern side, which has been closed since the capture of house is generally laid out in rangas of apartments open.

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Ground-Plan of the Enceinte of Baghdad. Reduced from Survey made by Commander F. Jones and Mr. W. Collingwood of the Indian Navy, 1853–54. ing into a square interior court, and furnished with subter- of the city near the river, a considerable space between the ranean rooms called serdaubs, into which the inhabitants houses is occupied by gardens, where pomegranates, grapes, retreat during the day for shelter from the intense heats figs, olives, and dates grow in great abundance, so that the of summer; and with terraced roofs, on which they take city when seen from a distance has the appearance of ristheir evening meal, and sleep in the open air. Occasion- ing out of the midst of trees. ally in the months of June, July, and August, when the The principal public buildings in Baghdad are the Sherki or south wind is blowing, the thermometer at break mosques, the khans or caravanserais

, and the serai or pal. of day is known to stand at 112° Fahr.; while at noon it ace of the pasha. The palace, which is situated in the rises to 119°, and a little before two o'clock to 122°, stand- north-western quarter of the town, not far from the Tigris, ing at sunset at 117°, and at midnight at 114°. But this is distinguished rather for extent than grandeur. It is a scale of temperature is exceptional. During the summer comparatively modern structure, built at different periods, months the wind is usually in the north-west, and the air, and forming a large and confused pile, without proportion, though hot, is fresh and exhilarating, the thermometer beauty, or strength. There are no remains of the ancient ranging from about 75o at sunrise to 107° at the hottest palace of the caliphs. time of the day. The interiors of the houses of the rich In all Mahometan cities the mosques are conspicuous are splendidly furnished, and ornamented in the ceilings objects. The number in Baghdad is above 100; but of with a sort of chequered work, which has a handsome ap- these not more than thirty are distinguished by the characpearance. A great portion of the ground within the walls teristic minarets or steeples, the rest being merely chapels of the town is unoccupied by buildings, especially in the and venerated places of prayer. The most ancient of these north-eastern quarter; and even in the more populous parts | mosques was erected in the year of the Hegira 633 or 1235 of the Christian era, by the Caliph Mustansir. All that they have merely the aid of the current, the passage occuremains of the original building is the minaret, and a small pies from ten to fifteen days. Sir R. K. Porter mentions portion of the outer walls; the former a short heavy erec- that the stream of the Tigris runs at the rate of seven knots tion, of the most ungraceful proportions, built of bricks of an hour. This, however, is probably during floods, since, various colors, diagonally crossed. The jamah or mosque with such a powerful current, a boat could not occupy ten of Merjaneeah, not far distant from the former, though the or fifteen days on its passage from Baghdad to Bussorah. body of it is modern, has some remains of old and very In coming up the stream, thirty or forty days are required rich arabesque work on its surface, dating from the 14th to reach Baghdad. Of late years, however, steam comcentury. The door is formed by a lofty arch of the Point- munication has almost entirely superseded the use of the ed form, bordered on both sides by rich bands exquisitely native craft between Baghdad and Bussorah. British sculptured, and having numerous inscriptions. The mosque steamers were first placed upon the Tigris and Euphrates of Khaseki, supposed to have been an old Christian by Colonel Chesney in 1836, and, with the sanction of the church, is chiefly distinguished by the niche for prayer, Turkish Government, they have ever since been mainwhich instead of a simple and unadorned recess, is crowned tained there, one small vessel of the Indian naval service by a Roman arch, with square pedestals, spirally futed being attached to the British Residency, and two commershafts, a rich capital of flowers, and a fine fan or shell-top cial steamers belonging to an English company being emin the Roman style. Around the arch is a sculptured ployed in navigating the Tigris for trade purposes. The frieze; and down the centre, at the back of the niche, is Turks have also endeavored to establish a line of mercana broad band, richly sculptured with vases, flowers, &c., tile steamers of their own between Baghdad and Bussorah, in the very best style of workmanship,-the whole exe- but they have not hitherto been very successful. The cuted on a white marble ground. The building in its pres- smaller craft, used for bringing supplies of provisions and ent state bears the date of 1682 A.D., but the sculptures fruit to the city, are circular boats of basket-work, covered which it contains belong probably to the time of the early with skins, the same that have been employed from the recaliphs. The mosque of the vizier, near the Tigris, has a motest antiquity. The Euphrates and the Tigris are fine dome and lofty minaret; and the great mosque in the liable to spring floods; and the streams of both rivers square of El Meidan is also a noble building. The others being sometimes joined, inundate the desert plain on which do not merit any particular notice. The domes of Baghdad Baghdad stands, when the city appears like an island in are mostly high, and disproportionately narrow. They are the midst of the sea. The inhabitants are supplied with richly ornamented with glazed tiles and painting, the col- water from the Tigris, which is brought to their houses in ors chiefly green and white, which, being reflected from a goats' skins, the convenience of water-works, cisterns, and polished surface, impart more liveliness than magnificence pipes being entirely unknown. to the aspect of these buildings. In the opinion of Mr. Baghdad has much declined from its ancient importance. Buckingham, they are not to be compared to the rich and It was formerly a great emporium of Eastern commerce; stately domes' of Egypt, as the minarets, although they and it still receives, by way of Bussorah, from Bengal the have the same bright assemblage of colors, are far from be- manufactures and produce of India, which are distributed ing equal" to the plain and grave dignity of some of the over Arabia, Syria, Kurdistan, Armenia, and Asia Minor. Turkish towers at Diarbekir, Aleppo, and Damascus, or to At the same time the inland' trade from Persia and the the lighter elegance of many of those in the larger towns East has fallen off. The productions and manufactures of on the banks of the Nile."

Persia, which were intended for the Syrian, Armenian, and There are about thirty khans or caravanserais in Baghdad, Turkish markets, and were sent to Baghdad as a central all of inferior construction to those in the other large towns dépôt, now reach Constantinople by the more direct route of Turkey. The only remarkable building of this class is of Erzeroum and Tocat. Wealth, indeed, appears to be called Khan-el-Aourtmeh, and adjoins the Merjanecah deficient among all classes, and Baghdad has many sympmosque, to which it formerly belonged. The vaulted roof toms of a decayed city. It must, however, be noted that of this building is a fine specimen of Saracenic brick-work, a very considerable trade has sprung up of late years beand like the adjoining mosque, bears the date of 1356 A.D. tween the European markets and Baghdad, several EngIt is said, however, to occupy the site of an ancient Chris- lish houses being established in the city, who import goods tian church. The bazaars, which are numerous, are mostly direct from London and Liverpool, via the Suez Canal and formed of long, straight, and tolerably wide avenues. The Bussorah, and French, German, Swiss

, and Greek merone most recently built is the largest and the best; still it chants being also engaged in the traffic. The staple has an air of meanness about it that is not common in the articles of export are dates, wool, and grain, to which may bazaars of large Turkish cities. It is long, wide, and lofty, be added cloth of various kinds, drugs, dye-stuffs, and and well filled with dealers and wares of all sorts. Several miscellaneous productions. A very considerable trade in of these bazaars are vaulted over with brick-work; but the horses is also carried on. The total value of the exports in greater number are merely covered with flat beams which 1870–71 reached about £46,900, while the imports for the support a roof of straw, dried leaves, or branches of trees same year were stated at upwards of £285,000. There is a and grass. There are about fifty baths in Baghdad, which considerable manufacture of red and yellow leather, which are also very inferior in their accommodations to those in is made into shoes, and finds a ready sale. the other large towns of Mesopotamia. The only other The population is a mixture of nations from various Mahometan remains which it is necessary to mention are-quarters of the East. The chief officers of Government, 1. The Tekiyeh, or shrine of the Bektash dervishes, on the whether civil or military, are of the families of ConstantiWestern bank of the river. The shrine is in ruins, but it nopolitan Turks, though they are mostly natives of the contains a fine Cufic inscription now mutilated, which city; the merchants and traders are almost all of Persian or bears the date of 333 A.H. (or 944 A.D.). 2. The tomb of Arabian descent; while the lower classes consist of Turks, the famous Maaruf-el-Kerkhi, in the immediate vicinity, Arabs, Persians, and Indians. There are some Jews and dating from 1215 A.D. 3. In Eastern or New Baghdad the Christians, who still remain distinct from the other classes ; college of Mustansir, near the bridge, now in ruins, but while the strangers in the town are Kurds, Persians, and bearing a fine inscription dated 630 A.H. (or 1233 A.D.). I desert Arabs in, considerable numbers. The dress of the 4. The shrine of the famous Saint Abdul Kadir, which is Baghdad Turks is not nearly so gay or splendid as that of visited by pilgrims from all parts of the Mahometan their northern countrymen; and the costume of the resiworld. The original tomb was erected about 1252 A.D., dents is, upon the whole, unusually plain in comparison but the noble dome which now canopies the grave dates with that of other Asiatics. As every nation retains its from about two centuries later. An aqueduct, the only gwn peculiar dress, it may be easily conceived what an one in the city, conveys water from the river to this amusing variety of costume must be seen in the streets of shrine. None of the other mosques or tombs require par- Baghdad. The dress of the females is as mean as that ticular notice.

used in the poorest villages of Mesopotamia; women of all Baghdad is about 500 miles from the mouth of the classes being enveloped in a blue checked cloth, such as is Tigris (following its course), and about 400 from Busso- worn by the lowest orders in Egypt, and having their faces rah; and with the latter place it carries on a constant covered by hideous veils of black horse-hair. communication by means of boats of from twenty to fifty Baghdad is governed by a pasha, assisted by a council. tons burden, though the river is navigable for larger He was formerly chosen from the ranks of the Georgian vessels. With a northerly wind these boats will make the Mamelukes, but is now always selected from among the passage to Bussorah in seven or eight days; in calms, when highest officers of the Constantinople court, his terin of office being usually for four or five years. He is also Expedition (1850); Rousseau's Description du pachalik de governor-general of Irak, and possesses supreme authority Bagdad (1809); Wellsted's City of the Caliphs ; Grove's from Diarbekir to Bahrein, though he does not under ordi- Residence in Baghdad (1830–32); Transactions of Bombay nary circumstances interfere with the subordinate govern- Geog. Soc. (1856).

(H. C. R.) vents of Mosul and Kurdistan.1

BAGHERMI, or BAGIRMI, a district or kingdom of The East India Company used to maintain a resident in Central Africa, lying to the S. of Lake Chad and S.W. of Baghdad with a large establishment, and his post is now Bornu. It extends about 240 miles from N. to S, and has replaced by that of a consul-general and political agent. a breadth of barely 150 miles. The surface is almost flat, A French consul is also regularly appointed.

with a slight inclination to the N., and the general elevaUntil recently Baghdad was supposed to be entirely a tion is about 950 feet above sea-level. The Shari, a large Mahometan city, dating from the time of Al Mansúr; but and always navigable river, forms the western boundary, Sir H. Rawlinson discovered in 1848, during an unusually and throws out an important effluent called the Bachikam, dry season, when the rivers had fallen six feet below the which passes through the heart of the country. The soil ordinary low-water mark, that the western bank of the consists partly of lime and partly of sand, and is by no Tigris was lined with an embankment of solid brick-work, means unfertile. In many parts not a stone is to be seen. dating from the time of Nebuchadnezzar, as the bricks Negro-millet, sesamum, and sorghum are the principal were each stamped with his name and titles; and it has grains in cultivation, but rice grows wild, and several kinds been since remarked that in the Assyrian geographical of grass or poa are used as food by the natives. Cotton catalogues of the time of Sardanapalus, one of the Baby- and indigo are grown to a considerable extent, especially lonian cities bears the name of Bagdad, and may thus very by Bornu immigrants. Among the trees the most importpossibly represent the after site of the capital of the caliphs. ant are the Tamarind, the deleb-palm, the dum-palm, the According to the Arabian writers, however, there were no hajilij or Balanites ægyptiaca, the sycamore, and the traces of former habitation when Al Mansúr laid the foun- cornel. The country often suffers from drought, and is dation of the new city. It was adorned with many noble greatly plagued with worms and insects, especially ants of and stately edifices by the magnificence of the renowned all kinds, red, black, and white. The Kungjungjudu, a Haroun el Raschid, who also built on the eastern side of sort of beetle which does great damage to the crops, is eaten the river, connecting the two quarters of the town by a by the natives. A large proportion of the people have bridge of boats. Under the auspices of Zobeide, the wife their feet mutilated by the attacks of a small worm, which of that prince, and Jaffer the Barmecide, his favorite, the takes up its residence in the first joint of the little toe and city may be said to have attained its greatest splendor. It eats it gradually away. The inhabitants of Baghermi are continued to flourish and increase, and to be the seat of a vigorous, well-formed race, who, according to their own elegance and learning, until the 656th year of the Hegira traditions, came from the Far East several centuries ago. (1277 A.D.), when Hulaku the Tatar, the grandson of They speak a language cognate with those spoken by the Genghis Khan, took it by storm, and extinguished the Sara, who dwell about two degrees further south, and the dynasty of the Abbassides.' The Tatars retained possession Dor, who are situated at the confluence of the Dyor with of Baghdad till about the year 1400 of our era, when it the White Nile. On their arrival they soon extended their was taken by Timur, from whom the Sultan Ahmed Ben power over the Fellata and Arabs already settled in the Avis fled, and finding refuge with the Greek emperor, district, and after being converted to Mahometanism under contrived afterwards to repossess himself of the city, whence Abd-Allah, their fourth king, they extended their authority he was finally expelled by Kara Yusef in 1417. In 1477 over a large number of heathen tribes. The most importhis descendants were driven out by Usum Cassim, who ant of these are the Sokoro, the Bua, the Nyillam, the reigned 39 years in Baghdad, when Shah Ishmael the Sara, the Tumok, and the Busso. They are almost all in First, the founder of the royal house of Sefí, made him- a low state of civilization, and practise strange superstiself master of it. From that time it continued for a long tions—a belief in a god whom they identify with thunder period an object of contention between the Turks and being the greatest extent of their religion. They are subPersians. It was taken by Soliman the Magnificent, and ject to the barbarous raids of their Baghermian masters, retaken by Shah Abbas the Great; and it was afterwards who derive from them a constant supply of slaves with besieged by Amurath the Fourth, with an army of 300,000 which to pay the tribute demanded from them in their men. After an obstinate resistance, it was forced to sur- turn by the sultan of Bornu. For our knowledge of this render 1638 A.D.; when, in defiance of the terms of ca- district we are principally indebted to Barth and Nachtipitulation, most of the inhabitants were massacred. Since gal; the former was for some time a prisoner in Massena, that period it has remained under a nominal subjection the capital. to the Turks. Achmet, the greatest of the pashas of See Barth, Travels in Northern and Central Africa in Baghdad, and the first who rendered the pashalic inde 1849–53, vol. iii., and Nachtigal, in Petermann's Mittheil. pendent of the Porte, defended the town with such courage for 1874, and in Zeitsch. d. Ges. f. Erdkunde zu Berlin, 1875. against Nadir Shah, that the invader was compelled to BAGHMATI, a river of Hindustán, which has its source raise the siege, after suffering great loss. Baghdad, ac- in the hills to the north of Kátmandu, the capital of Nepál, cording to Colonel Chesney, had 110,000 inhabitants pre- whence it flows in a southerly direction through the disviously to the great plague of 1830; but in 1853 Mr. trict of Tirhut, in the province of Behar, and, receiving Layard estimated its population under 50,000. An esti- the waters of the Buchiá on its north bank, and of Burs mate made in 1872 on a census taken in 1869 rises as Gandak on its south bank, joins the Ganges, after a course high as 150,000, but this is in all probability an exagger- of 285 miles, in 25° 23' N. lat. and 86° 34' E. long., about ation (v. Allen's Indian Mail, 1874). Long. 44° 24' E., 8 miles below the town of Monghir, but on the opposite lat. 33° 21' N. Buckingham's Travels in Mesopotamia bank. (1827); Sir R. K. Porter's Travels in Georgia, Persia, BAGLIVI, GIORGIO, an illustrious Italian physician, Armenia, and Ancient Babylonia (1821–22); Kinneir's Geo- descended from a poor persecuted Armenian family, was graphical Memoir of the Persian Empire (1613); Chesney's born at Ragusa in 1669, and assumed the name of his

Besides the court of superior officers which assists the pasha in adoptive father, Pietro Angelo Baglivi, a wealthy physithe general administration of the province, there is also a Mejlis, or cian of Lecce. He studied successively at the

universities affairs

, to which both Christian and Jewish merchants are admitted. of Salerno, Padua, and Bologna ; and after travelling over Much, of course, depends on the individual character of the pasha, Italy he went in 1602 to Rome, where, through the inbut, on the whole, justice is fairly administered, and with less dispo- Aluence of the celebrated Malpighi, he was elected professition perhaps to press on the non-Mussulman portion of the population than in any other city of Asiatic Turkey. The Jewish and sor of anatomy in the college of Sapienza. He died at Christian communities, indeed, from their wealth, intelligence, and Rome in 1707, at the early age of thirty-eight. A collecong standing in the country, enjoy an exceptionally,

favorable tion of his writings, which are all in the Latin language, social position, and live on terms of equality with their Mahometan neighbors.

was published in 4to in 1704, and has been several times Baghdad is also the headquarters of the army of Irak, and regular reprinted in the same form. An edition in 2 vols. 8vo troops to the amount of five or six thousand men of all arms are was published in 1788. Baglivi's work De Fibra Motrice, usually kept together in the city, while an equal force is distributed in small

garrisons in the Arab and Kurdish districts. Baghdad, after is the foundation of that theory of medicine which was paying all its expenses, remits about £100,000 per annum to the substituted by Hoffmann and Cullen for the Humoral imperial treasury, but its resources are capable of almost

indefinite Pathology. tigris and Euphrates should not, under an enlightened overnment, who flourished about the beginning of the 16th century,

BAGNACAVALLO, BARTOLOMMEO, an Italian painter vield a revenue fully equal to that of the valley of the Nile. *[The 656th year of the Hegira is 1258 A.D., which is Gibbons' date. Article MONGOLS, Vol. XVI., p. 768, puts this event in 1263 A.D.-Ax. ED.) His real name was Ramenghi, but he received the cogno- | form it is mentioned in Scripture (1 Sam. x. 5; Isa. v. 12; men Bagnacavallo from the little village where he was Jer. xlviii. 36), and was used by the Egyptians, the born in 1484. He studied first under Francia, and then Greeks, and the Romans. The strain upon the player of proceeded to Rome, where he became a pupil of Raffaelle. these pipes was so great that he had to bandage up his lips While studying under him he worked along with many and cheeks with a popßeia or nepiOTÓulov, the Roman others at the decoration of the gallery in the Vatican, capistrum, a leathern muzzle or headstall. It seems very though it is not known what portions are his work. On probable that the bagpipe derived its origin from these his return to Bologna he quickly took the leading place as double and triple reed-pipes, by the after addition to them an artist, and to him were due the great improvements in of a wind-bag made of the skin of a goat or kid, together the general style of what has been called the Bolognese with a valved porte-vent, in order to relieve the strain on school. His works were considered to be inferior in point the lungs and cheeks of the player. There are several of design to some other productions of the school of , evidences that the bagpipe was well known in the time of Raffaelle, but they were distinguished by rich coloring Nero. It is represented on a coin of that reign, copied in and graceful delineation. They were highly esteemed by Montfaucon's Antiquities, and Suetonius (Ner., 54) speaks Guido and the Carracci, who studied them carefully and of a promise made by Nero shortly before his death, that in some points imitated them. The best specimens of he would appear before the people as a bagpiper (utricum Bagnacavallo's works, the Dispute of St. Augustin and a larius). In mediæval Latin the instrument is designated Madonna with Child, are at Bologna. He died in 1542. the Tibia utricularia. Chaucer represents the miller as

BAGNÈRES-DE-BIGORRE (the Vicus Aquensis of the skilled in playing the bagpipe; and Shakspeare's familiar Romans), the capital of an arrondissement in the depart. allusion to the drone of a Lincolnshire bagpipe” is suffiment of Hautes-Pyrénées, is situated on the left bank of cient of itself to disprove the common notion that the inthe Adonr, 13 miles S.E. of Tarbes. It is one of the princi- strument has always been peculiar to Scotland. pal watering-places in France, and is much admired for its BAGRATION, PETER, PRINCE, a distinguished Russian picturesque situation and the beauty of its environs, par- general, descended from the noble Georgian family of the ticularly the valley of Campan, which abounds with beauti- Bagratides, was born in 1765. In 1782 he entered the ful gardens and handsome villas. The town is remarkably Russian army and served for some years in the Caucasus. neat and clean, and many of the houses are built or orna- In 1788 he was engaged in the siege of Oczacow, and aftermented with marble. Its thermal springs and baths are wards accompanied Suwaroff, by whom he was highly numerous and varied, and are very efficacious in debility of esteemed, through all his Italian and Swiss campaigns. the digestive organs and other maladies. Their temperature He particularly distinguished himself in 1799 by the is from 90° to 135° Fahr. The season commences in May capture of the town of Brescia. In the wars of 1805 his and terminates about the end of October, during which achievements were even more brilliant. With a small force time the population is more than doubled.' Manufactures he withstood for several hours the united troops of Murat of woollen cloth, worsted, leather, pottery, and toys are and Lannes, and though half his men fell, the retreat carried on, and marble from the neighboring quarries is of the main army under Kutusoff was thereby secured. At wrought in the town. Greatly frequented by the Romans, Austerlitz he had the command of the advanced guard of and destroyed by the Gothic invaders, Bagnères begins to Prince Lichtenstein's column, and at Eylau and Friedland appear again in history in the 12th century, and rose into he fought with the most resolute and stubborn courage. permanent importance under the reign of Jeanne d'Albret, In 1808 he commanded in Finland, and in 1809 in Turkey, ihe mother of Henry IV. Permanent population, about and was almost uniformly successful in his operations. In 9500.

the famous Russian campaign of 1812, the corps under his BAGNÈRES-DE-LUCHON, a small well-built town of leadership had been separated from the main army under France, department of Haute-Garonne, pleasantly situated Barclay de Tolly, and was defeated by Davoust at in the valley of the Luchon, at the foot of the Pyrenees. Mohilev. Bagration, however, succeeded in effecting the It is celebrated for its sulphurous thermal springs, which desired junction at Smolensk. He was mortally wounded vary in temperature from 889 to 180° Fahr. The bathing in the bloody battle of the Borodino, 7th Sept, 1812, and establishment is one of the most complete in Europe. died one month later. The waters are employed with success in a variety of BAHAMAS, or Lucayas, a very numerous group of chronic affections, and about 10,000 patients visit the town islands, cays, rocks, and reefs, comprising an area of 3021 annually. Resident population, about 3600.

square miles, lying between 21° 42' and 27° 34' N. lal. BAGPIPE (Fr. musette

, Ger. Sackpfeife

, Ital. cornamusa), and 72° 40' and 790 5' W. long. They encircle and almost a musical instrument of unknown antiquity, which seems enclose the Gulf of Mexico, stretching more than 600 miles to have been at one time or other in common use among from the eastern coast of Florida to the northern coast of all the nations of Europe, and still retains its place in St. Domingo, and are traversed by only three navigable many Highland districts, such as Calabria, the Tyrol, and channels – Ist, the Florida Channel to the N., which the Highlands of Scotland. The wind is generally sup- runs along the coast of the United States and lies to the plied by a blowpipe, though in some cases bellows are used. westward of the whole Bahama group; 2d, the Providence These and other slight variations, however, involve no Channels, passing through the group to the N., and essential difference in character or construction, and a separating the Great and Little Banks; and 3d, the old description of the great bagpipe of the Highlands of Bahama Channel, which passes to the S. of the Great Bahama Scotland will serve to indicate the leading features of the Bank, between it and Cuba. The islands lie for the most instrument in all its forms. It consists of a large wind- part on the windward edge of the Great and Little Banks, bag made of greased leather covered with woollen cloth; a or of the ocean sounds or tongues which pierce them. The mouth-tube, valved, by which the bag is inflated with the total number of islands is 29, while the cays are reckoned player's breath; three reed drones; and a reed chanter with at 661, and the rocks at 2387. The principal islands are finger-holes, on which the tunes are played. Of the three New Providence (which contains the capital Nassau), Abaco, drones, one is long and two are short. The longest is tuned Harbor Island, Eleuthera, Inagua, Mayaguana, St. Salvato A, an octave below the lowest A of the chanter, and the dor,'Andros Island, Great Bahama, Ragged Island, Rum two shorter drones are tuned each an octave above the A Cay, Exuma, Long Island, Crooked 'Island, Acklin Island, of the longest drone; or, in other words, in unison with Long Cay, Watling Island, the Berry Islands, and the the lowest A of the 'chanter. The scale of the chanter Biminis. Turk's Island and the Caicos, which belong has a compass of nine notes, all natural, extending from G geographically to the Bahama group, were separated politon the second line of the treble stave up to A in alt. In ically in 1848. The formation of all the islands is the the music performed upon this instrument, the players same, -calcareous rocks of coral and shell hardened into introduce among the simple notes of the tune a kind of limestone, honeycombed and perforated with innumerable appoggiatura, consisting of a great number of rapid notes cavities, without a trace of primitive or volcanic rock; the of peculiar embellishment, which they term warblers. No surface is as hard as flint, but underneath it gradually exact idea of these warblers can be formed except by hear- softens and furnishes an admirable stone for building, ing a first-rate player upon the Highland bagpipe. The which can be sawn into blocks of any size, these hardhistory of the bagpipe can be clearly traced from the ening on exposure to the atmosphere. The shores are earliest periods by means of pictorial representations and generally low, the highest hill in the whole range of the references occurring in literature. The instrument probably islands being only 230 feet high. The soil, although very consisted at first of the pipes without the bag, and in this thin, is very fertile. On Andros Island and on Abaco there

' (St Salvador and Watling islands are officially the same. The former is here given as the equivalent of Cat Island.-AM. ED.)

is much large timber, including mahogany, mastic, lignum group. The inhabitants derive their water supply from vitæ, iron, and bullet woods, and many others. Unfortu- wells, the rain-water in which appears to have some connately the want both of labor and of roads renders it im- nection with the sea, as the contents of the wells rise and possible to turn this valuable timber to useful account. The fall with the tide upon the neighboring shore. The Babafruits and spices of the Bahamas are very numerous,--the mas are far poorer in their fauna than in their flora. It fruit equalling any in the world. The produce of the islands is said that the aborigines had a breed of dogs which did includes tamarinds, olives, oranges, lemons, limes, citrons, not bark, and a small coney is also mentioned. The guana pomegranates, pine-apples, figs, sapodillas, bananas, sower- also is indigenous to the islands. Oxen, sheep, horses, and sops, melons, yams, potatoes, gourds, cucumbers, pepper, other live stock introduced from Europe, thrive well

, but cassava, prickly, pears, sugar cane, ginger, coffee, indigo, of late years very little attention has been paid to stock Guinea corn and pease. Tobacco and cascarilla bark also rearing, and Nassau has been dependent upon Cuba for flourish; and cotton is indigenous, and was woven into its beef, and on the United States or Nova Scotia for its cloth by the aborigines.

mutton. There are many varieties of birds to be found It is a remarkable fact that except in the island of Andros, in the woods of the Bahamas; they include flamingoes and no streams of running water are to be found in the whole the beautiful humming-bird, as well as wild geese, ducks,

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pigeons, hawks, green parrots, and doves. The waters of doomed to utter destruction. Ovando, the governor of the Bahamas swarm with fish, and the turtle procured here Hispaniola, who had exhausted the labor of that island, is particularly fine. In the southerly islands there are turned his thoughts to the Bahamas, and in 1509 Ferdinand salt ponds of great value.

authorized him to procure laborers from these islands. The story of the Bahamas is a singular one, and bears It is said that reverence and love for their departed relaprincipally upon the fortunes of New Providence, which, tives was a marked feature in the character of the aborig. from the fact that it alone possesses a perfectly safe harbor ines, and that the Spaniards made use of this as a bait to for vessels drawing more than 9 feet, has always been the trap the unhappy natives. They promised to convey the seat of Government, when it was not the headquarters of ignorant savages in their ships to the “heavenly shores,” lawless villainy. St. Salvador (Cat Island, or as some sup- where their departed friends now dwelt, and about 40,000 pose, Watling Island), however, claims historical precedence were transported to Hispaniola to perish miserably in the as the landfall of Columbus on his memorable voyage. mines. From that date until after colonization of New He passed through the island, and in one of his letters to Providence by the English, there is no record of a Spanish Ferdinand and Isabella, he said, “This country excels all visit to the Bahamas, with the exception of the extraordinary others as far as the day surpasses the night in splendor; cruise of Juan Ponce de Leon, the conqueror of Porto Rico, the natives love their neighbors as themselves; their con- who passed months searching the islands for “ Bimini," versation is the sweetest imaginable; their faces always which was reported to contain the miraculous "Fountain smiling; and so gentle and so affectionate are they, that I of Youth.” swear to your highness there is not a better people in the The deserted islands were first visited by the English world.” But the natives, innocent as they appeared, were in 1629, and a settlement formed in New Providence

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