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Elector; and by the treaty of Presburg in 1805 his domains repression. Matters were beginning to readjust themselves were still further increased by the accession of Breisgau. when the revolution of 1848 again aroused the opposing On the dissolution of the empire in 1806, the elector forces. In 1849 the Duke was constrained to flee, and joined the Confederation of the Rhine, and received the i Brentano, the democratic leader, took possession of Carlstitle of Grand Duke, with 1950 square miles of additional ruhe in the name of the national committee. By the territory. Shortly after this extension and consolidation 25th of June, however, the Prussian forces, after several had taken place, Bavaria laid claim to a portion of the severe engagements with the revolutionists, effected the duchy, but her demands were indignantly rejected, and in restoration of the duke, who returned to his capital on 1818 the grand duke bestowed on the country a political 18th August; and it was not ng before the country constitution, the fundamental principle of which was the began to recover from the effects of the outbreak. Not, territorial integrity of Baden. In the following year this indeed, that it became quiescent; for Baden has had its integrity was guaranteed by the Frankfort Commission. full share in the political and ecclesiastica: disputes that The first session of the Baden parliament fell into dis- have been so rife throughout Germany during recent years. putes and had to be dissolved; but the second, in 1820, The Roman Catholic clergy, with the bishop of Freiburg commenced the work of reform by the complete abolition at their head, have maintained an obstinate struggle with of serfdom and the establishment of ministerial responsi- the Liberal party, which is now predominant. The sepbility. In 1821 the union of the two Protestant churches aration of church and state has been established; the Jews in Baden was brought about. Other questions of import- have been admitted to full civic rights; freedom of trade ance, such as trial by jury, freedom of the press, abolition has been promulgated, and a number of minor reforms of tithes, and extension of education, became subjects of successfully carried through. In the German war of 1866 interest and debate; but, unfortunately, the influence of Baden sided against Prussia; but in 1870 it joined in the the French revolution of 1830 led the democratic party to formation of the new German empire, and its troops are excesses, which the Government met with acts of ill-advised 'incorporated in the 14th corps of the imperial army.
BADEN (or BADEN-BADEN, to distinguish it from other town in pipes to supply the different baths. The town places of the name), a town and celebrated watering-place proper is on the right bank of the Oos, but the principal reof Germany, in the grand duchy of Baden. It stands on sorts of the adventitious population are on the other side. A the side of a hill
, near the Oos or Oel, in a beautiful valley Conversationshaus and a Trinkhalle or pump-room (1842), a of the Black Forest, 18 miles S.W. of Carlsruhe; and it is theatre (1861), and a picture gallery, are among the chief connected by a branch with the Manheim and Basel rail- | fashionable buildings, to which may be added the library way. The superiority of its situation, its extensive pleasure and reading-room. The gaming-tables, which for so many grounds, gardens, and promenades, and the brilliancy of the years were a striking feature of Baden-Baden, are now life that is led during the season, have for a long series of abolished. The only building of much antiquarian interest, years continued to attract crowds of visitors from all parts with the exception of the castles, is the parish church, which of the world. The resident population amounts to about dates from the 15th century, and contains the tombs of sev. 10,000, but that number is frequently augmented fourfold. eral of the margraves. There is a Protestant church a The prevailing nationality is, or rather was, the French, but short distance to the east of Leopoldsplatz, and not far off a Americans, Russians, and English are all numerously rep- small Episcopalian church; while on the Michaelsberg is resented. The hot springs, which were among the earliest the Greek chapel, with its gilded dome, which was erected attractions of the place, are twenty-nine in number, and over the tomb of the Roumanian prince, Michael Stroudza, vary in temperature from 37° to 54° R., i.e., from 115° to who died at Baden in 1863.
of , gallons per minute, and the water is conveyed through the the foundation of the town is referred to the Emperor Hadrian by an inscription of somewhat doubtful authenticity: / turnal and solitary in its habits, sleeping by day in its The name of Aurelia Aquensis was given to it in honor of burrow, and issuing forth at night to feed on roots, beechAurelius Severus, in whose reign it would seem to have mast, fruits, the eggs of birds, some of the smaller quadbeen well known. Fragments of its ancient sculptures are rupeds, frogs, and insects. It is said also to dig up the still to be seen, and in 1847 remains of Roman vapor nests of wasps in order to eat the larvæ, as the ratel-a baths, well preserved, were discovered just below the New closely-allied South African form-is said to rob the bees Castle. From the 14th century down to the close of the of their honey. The male and female are seldom seen to17th, Baden was the residence of the margraves, to whom gether, and are supposed to trace each other by means of it gave its name. They first dwelt in the Old Castle, the the odor of the secretion contained in a glandular ponck ruins of which still occupy the summit of a hill above the beneath the tail. Although the badger does not seek to town, but in 1479 they removed to the New Castle (still so attack, yet, when driven to bay, its great muscular power called), which is situated on the hill-side nearer to the and tough hide render it a formidable antagonist, as was town, and is remarkable for its subterranean dungeons. often seen in the days, now happily gone by, when badgerDuring the Thirty Years' War Baden suffered severely baiting was a favorite amusement of the English peasantry. from the various combatants, but especially from the Fossil remains of the badger have been found in this counFrench, who pillaged it in 1643, and laid it in ashes in try, apparently contemporaneous with the extinct cave 1688. The margravine Sibylla rebuilt the New Castle in bear, hyena, and tiger; still more ancient remains are said 1697, but the margrave Louis removed to Rastadt in 1706. to have been found in the Red Crag of Suffolk, and should Since the beginning of the present century the Government these prove authentic, the European badger, says Professor has greatly fostered the growth of the town,
Owen, “will be the oldest known species of mammal now BADEN. Switzerland, a small town in the canton of living on the face of the earth.” The American badger Aargau, on the Limmat, 14 miles N.W. of Zurich. It is (Meles Labradorica) is a native of California and Texas, much frequented on account of its warm medicinal springs, and in its habits closely resembles the former species; it which are about 20 in number, and vary in temperature seems, however, to be more carnivorous. According to from 98° to 126° Fahr. About 15,000 persons visit the Gray, several species inhabit the southern parts of Asia. place annually. Tacitus, in the first book of his Histories. When badgers were more abundant than they now are (c. 67), incidentally speaks of it as in modum municipii ex- their skins dressed, with the hair attached, were comtructus locus, amæno salubrium aquarum usu frequens; and monly used for pistol furniture. They are now chiefly numerous remains of pillars and inscriptions, coins, and valued for the hair, that of the European badger being other antiquities confirm his description. It was de- used in the manufacture of the best shaving-brushes, stroyed by the Alemanni and the Huns, but was again while the softer hair of the American species is employed frequented during the reign of Charlemagne, though its for the same purpose, and also for painters' pencils. 5197 modern prosperity only dates from the 15th century. For skins of the American badger were imported into London a long time the countship of Baden was in the hands of the during 1873. Hapsburgs, but it was conquered by the Swiss Confederates BADIA Y LEBLICH, DOMINGO, a celebrated Spanish in 1415. It was here that the famous disputation of Eck traveller, better known under his assumed name of Ali with Zwingle and Ecolampadius took place in 1526 ; and Bey, was born in Biscay in the year 1766. After receiving here was held the conference of 1589. In 1714 the peace a liberal education he devoted particular attention to the which put an end to the war of the Spanish Succession Arabic language, and made special preparation otherwise was concluded at Baden between Austria and France; and for his Oriental travels. Under the name of Ali Bey and four years afterwards a treaty between Zurich, Berne, and in Mussulman costume, he visited Egypt, Marocco, Tripoli, St. Gall received its name from the town. Resident popu- Arabia, and Syria, and was received as a person of high rank lation, 3412.
wherever he appeared. On his return to Europe in 1807 BADEN, the chief town of a circle in Lower Austria, he declared himself a Bonapartist, and was made Intendant, about 12 miles S. of Vienna on the railway to Gratz. It is first of Segovia, and afterwards of Cordova. When the beautifully situated at the mouth of the romantic Helenen- French were driven from Spain, Badia was compelled to thal, near the banks of the Schwachat, a rapid stream with take refuge in France, and there, in 1814, published an several waterfalls, and has become a favorite summer re- account of his travels under the title of Voyage d Ali Bey sort with the inhabitants of the neighboring capital. The en Asie et en Afrique, &c., in 3 vols. 8vo. A few years warm baths, which give name to the town, are thirteen in later he set out again for Syria, under the assumed name number, and vary in temperature from 72° to 97° Fahr. of Ali Othman, and, it is said, accredited as a political They rise, for the most part, at the foot of the Calvarienberg, agent by the French Government. He only reached which is composed of dolomitic limestone. The number Aleppo, and there died, 30th August, 1818, not without of patients is about 8000 annually. The celebrity of Baden suspicion of having been poisoned. dates back to the days of the Romans, who knew it by the BADIUS, JODOCUS or Josse, sometimes called BADIUS name of Aquce Cetiæ; and remains of their occupation still ASCENSIUS, from the village of Asche, near Brussels, exist. In 1812 the town suffered severely from a fire, but where he was born in 1467, was an eminent printer al it has since been elegantly rebuilt. The principal build- Paris, whose establishment was celebrated under the name ings are the church of St. Stephen, the theatre, the casino, of Prelum Ascensianum. He was himself a scholar of conand the military hospital. A short distance to the west siderable repute, had studied at Brussels and Ferrara, of the town stands the castle of Weilberg, which belongs and before settling in Paris, had taught Greek for several to members of the imperial family. The only manufac- years at Lyons. He illustrated with notes several of the ture of much importance that is carried on in Baden is classics which he printed, and was the author of numerous the production of steel-wares; these, especially the razors, pieces, among which are a life of Thomas à Kempis, are of excellent quality. Permanent population, about 6500. and a satire on the follies of women, entitled Navicula
BADGER (Meles), a family of Plantigrade Carnivora, Stultarum Mulierum. He died in 1535. His epitaph was possessing greatly elongated bodies and short limbs, each written by his grandson, the celebrated Heprv Stephanus. of the latter furnished with five toes, provided at their ex- BADMINTON, a game of recent introduccion.' It may tremities with long, powerful claws, by means of which be played in or out of doors, by any number of persons from they form deep burrows in the earth. The carnassial two to eight; two or four makes the best game. The tooth, which in the bears is wholly tuberculate, is in the following description applies to the outdoor game; the inbadgers provided also with a cutting edge, their whole door follows the same plan, modified only by circumstances dentition being specially adapted to the partly vegetable, affecting a room. partly animal diet on which they subsist. The badger dif- A tolerably level surface is required to form a ground fers from all other mammals in having the lower jaw so Turf or asphalt is the best. The size of the ground varies articulated to the upper, by means of a transverse condyle from 40 ft. by 20 ft. to 30 ft. by 15 ft., according to the firmly locked into a long cavity of the cranium, that dis- space at command and the activity of the players. location of the jaw is all but impossible, and this enables The ground is divided into courts as shown in the dia those creatures to maintain their hold' with the utmost gram, which gives the marking-out and measurements of a tenacity. The European badger (Meles Taxus) may be full-sized ground. taken as typical of the entire family. It is nowhere The boundaries of the ground and of the courts should abundant, but is found over the entire northern parts of be defined by means of whiting and water, or peggedEurope and Asia. It is a quiet, inoffensive animal, noc- l down tape, the former being preferable.
On each of the spots marked "post,” half-way between on the boundary line, it is generally reckoned as a let, i.e., the service lines, and 15 ft. apart, a post about 6 ft. high the stroke or innings goes for nothing, and the server must be erected, either on a staud or driven into the serves again. But this is an utterly useless rule, and it is ground, and supported by guy-ropes,
better to count everything that drops on the line to the A net, about 5 ft. 6 in. or 5 ft. high should be stretched from striker. post to post. The depth of the net is of but little conse- In the case of a fault, or in the case of returns that are quence. Where expense is no object, it should reach to not according to the conditions, if the adversary returns or the ground.
attempts to return the shuttlecock, the service or return The implements required in playing the game are- counts the same as though it had been properly made. If (1), shuttlecocks, and (21, rackets or battledores. The former the server scores he serves again, this time from his other should be about 5 in. high, and about 1 oz. in weight. court, and so on alternately from one court to the other as For outdoor play the shuttlecocks are sometimes made long as he scores. When he is hand-out, his adversary heavier by being loaded with lead. The body should be commences serving from either of the courts at his end, covered with india-rubber. The rackets should be similar and, on scoring, serves from his other court, and so on. In to those used at the game of the same name, only smaller, partner games the disposition of the players, and the rules about 2 ft. 6 in. long.
by which they conduct the game, as to the two hands in, The game consists in sending the shuttlecock with the and so forth, are identical with those which prevail at lawn racket over the net, forwards and backwards, until one tennis. See TENNIS.
(H. J.) of the players fails to return it. The players decide BADNUR, a town of India, headquarters of the district by lot which shall commence or have first hand-in and lof Betúl, consists, besides the European houses, of two bás
zárs. The largest, the Kothi Bázár, has a population -40 FT...
of 2015 souls. The public buildings are the Commissioner's court-house, the district court-house, the
jail, the schools, the police station, the post-office, LEFT
the dispensary, &c. There is a good sarái or inn for COURT COURT native travellers, and a ddk bangalow or resting
place for Europeans. Not far from Badnúr is Kherlá, the former residence of the Gond Rájás, where there is an old fort, now in ruins, which used to be held by them. Lat. 21° 57' N., long. 77° 59' E.
BADRINATH, a town and celebrated temple in RIGHT
Hindustán, in the British district of Garhwal, situate COURT
COURT on the right bank of the Vishnugangá, a tributary of
the Alaknandá River, in the middle of a valley nearly 4 miles in length, and 1 in breadth, in 30° 44' N. lat.
and 79° 32' E. long. The town is small, containing -15 FI--------** ---10 FI---* ----15 FT only twenty or thirty huts, in which reside the BráhDiagram illustrating the game of Badminton.
mans and the attendants on the temple. The build
ing, however, which is considered a place of high choice of ends. The player who is hand-in (say A) stations | sanctity, by no means corresponds to its great celebrity. himself in one of the courts at his end, his adversary (say It is about 40 or 50 feet in height, built in the form of a B) in the diagonally opposed court at the other end. A cone, with a small cupola, on the top of which is a gilt then serves to B, i.e., A, standing in the court chosen by him, ball and spire, and contains the shrine of Badrinath, dedistrikes the shuttlecock over the net with the racket into cated to an incarnation of Vishnu. The principal idol is the diagonally opposed court. B then has to return the of black stone, and is 3 feet in height. Badrinath is the service by striking the shuttlecock back over the net with- favorite resort of pilgrims from all parts of India. In out allowing it to touch the ground, and so on alternately ordinary years the number varies from 7000 to 10,000; until one player fails. If this is the player who served, but every twelfth year, when the festival of Kumbh Melá he is hand-out, his adversary becomes hand-in, and serves, is celebrated, the concourse of persons is said to be 50,000. and no score accrues. But if the player failing is the one In addition to the gifts of votaries, the temple enjoys a who was served to, his adversary scores one point towards further source of revenue from the rents of villages assigned game, called an ace. The player who first scores 15 aces by former Rájás. Some years ago the temple was shattered wins the game; but if the score arrives at 14 all, it is ne- by an earthquake, and has only been partially restored. cessary for one player to score two consecutive aces in order It is situate among mountains rising 23,000 feet above the to win.
level of the sea. Elevation of the site of the temple, 10,294 The server must serve according to the following con- feet. ditions :He must stand with both feet in the court served BAENA, a town of Spain, in the province of Cordova, from; he must send the shuttlecock clean ove the net (i.e., 8 leagues S.E. of the city. It is picturesquely situated, without touching net or posts), and so that it will drop near the River Marbello, on the slope of a hill crowned with into or beyond the service line bounding the court served a castle, which formerly' belonged to Gonzalo de Cordova, into, and into the diagonally opposed court. If he fails to and is now the property of the Altamira family. It has comply with these conditions it is a fault, and he has to four parish churches and three schools, one of which, exserve again. Two consecutive faults put his hand out. clusively for girls, has a high reputation in the province.
The server's hand is also out if he fails to send the shut- The education, which is conducted by sisters of charity, tlecock over the net; if he hits the shuttlecock beyond the does not go beyond reading, writing, arithmetic, and religexternal boundary of the ground, or more than once; or, ious instruction. Grain and oil are the principal articles if after the server has loosed it, it touches him. No fault of commerce. The site of the Roman town (Baniana or is allowed for these failures, as they are considered more Biniana) can still be traced, and various antiquities are serious than those first enumerated. After service is frequently met with. A subterranean vault was discovered properly given, if either player fails to return the shuttle in 1833, containing twelve cinerary urns, with inscriptions cock clean over the net, and so that it drops within the commemorating various members of the Pompeian family. external boundary of the ground on the side of the net In 1292 Mahomet Ibn Aljama vainly besieged the city, furthest from the striker, the player failing loses an ace, or the defence of which on that occasion is commemorated is hand-out as the case may be. It will be observed that by the five Moorish heads in its coat-of-arms. Baena is in the service the shuttlecock must be sent from right court the birthplace of Juan de Peñalosa. Population, about to right court, or from left to left, but in the return, by 12,000. either player, it is only required that the shuttlecock shall BAEZA (ancient Beatia), a city of Spain, in the province drop within any part of the ground, bounded by the external of Jaen. It stands on a considerable elevation, about 3 line of all. In addition the shuttlecock must be struck miles from the right bank of the Guadalquivir. Lat. 37° 59' before it touches the ground, and must be touched only N., long. 3° 28' W. It is well built, and has a cathedral with the racket, and must only be hit once, otherwise it and several fine public buildings, among which the most counts against the striker. If the shuttlecock drops on the worthy of notice are the university (founded in 1533, and line enclosing the court served into, or in the return drops for some time unct), the oratorio of the order of St. Philip Neri, and the marble fountain with Caryatides in lodge his own, or the colored ball, or both balls, in the the Plaza de la Constitucion. The Cordova and Ubeda holes. 4. The red ball counts double when it is played gates, and the arch of Baeza, are among the remains of its into a hole; and for each white ball lodged or holed, a old fortifications, which were of great strength. There is corresponding number of points is scored to that marked little trade or manufacture here. The principal productions in the cup. (Sometimes two colored balls are used, in of the neighborhood are grain and oil. The red dye made which case both count double.) 5. The red ball must be from the native cochineal was formerly celebrated. In the first struck, and the remainder of the balls are played up time of the Moors Baeza was a flourishing city of 50,000 to the holes—the sum total of the holes made being the inhabitants, and the capital of a separate kingdom, but it striker's score. 6. Any number of rounds may be played never recovered from the sack of 1239. It is the birthplace for the game, as agreed on at the commencement; and the of Gaspar Becerra, the celebrated sculptor and painter. player (or side) obtaining the highest aggregate score wins. Present population, about 11,000.
7. Any ball that rebounds beyond the baulk line, or is BAFFIN, WILLIAM, an able and enterprising English forced over the table, is not re-used in that round. seaman, born in 1584. Nothing is known of his early life, Sans Egal, or the French Game, is the next most genand his fame rests entirely on the voyages undertaken by erally played game on the bagatelle table. It is governed him during the years 1612 to 1616. In 1612 he accom- by the following laws :-1. The player who takes the lead panied Captain James Hall on his fourth voyage in search (which is decided as in bagatelle) makes choice of four balls of the north-west passage, and in 1613 he commanded one of of either color, and placing the black one on the spot, the English vessels engaged in the Greenland fisheries. In commences by striking it with a ball from baulk. 2. The 1615 and 1616 Baffin made two voyages in the “Discovery” other player then strikes up one of his balls, and so on under Bylot, and on the second of them explored the large alternately. 3. He who holes the black ball counts it inlet, afterwards called Baffin's Bay. The only accounts of towards his game, together with any number made by the these expeditions were given by Baffin himself, and later white. 4. If either player hole his adversary's ball
, the investigators have thoroughly confirmed his descriptions. number scored by such ball, or balls, is marked to the In 1618 he is said to have been mate in a voyage to Surat other side. 5. The player who makes the greatest number and Mocha; and in 1621 he was killed while attempting, in of points in each round wins the game, and takes the lead conjunction with a Persian force, to expel the Portuguese in the next. The rule as to balls rebounding beyond the from Ormuz. (See Purchas's Pilgrims and the publications baulk line, or being forced off the table, is the same as in of the Hakluyt Society for 1849.)
the preceding game. BAFFIN'S BAY, or BAFFIN's Sea, is properly neither The Cannon Game, sometimes played on a table without a bay nor a sea, but part of the long strait or inlet which holes, consists entirely of cannons, that is to say, two balls separates Greenland from the N.E. coast of America. It struck in succession by the cue-ball. This game is played extends from about 699 to 78° N. lat., and from 54° to 72° 50, 100, or 150 up, and the holes into which the balls fall W. long., and is connected by Lancaster Sound and Barrow's are sometimes counted in addition to the cannon. Three Strait with the Arctic Ocean. It was first explored in 1616 balls only are used—a white, a spot-white, and a black ball
. by the English navigator Baffin. The part of the strait At starting the latter is placed on the spot, and the adverto the south known as Davis Strait, and the narrower sary's ball on a point equi-distant between the first and cenchannel to the north takes the name of Smith's Sound. tre holes, 1 and 9. If the striker make a cannon, he goes The coasts are generally high and precipitous, and are on as long as he can score, but no hole can be counted with. deeply indented with gulfs. The most important island on out first making the cannon. To miss the white involves the east side is Disco to the north of Disco Bay, where the loss of 1 point; and to miss the black ball, 5 points, there is a Danish settlement. During the greater part of the striker's break is ended when he fails to cannon, and the year this sea is frozen, and it is navigable only from the then the other player goes on-he who first gains the rebeginning of June to the end of September. It is annually quired number winning the game. When there are pockets visited by vessels engaged in the whale and seal fishery. to the table, two points are taken for every white ball pock. (See Petermann's Mittheil., 1873, map 13, and Markham's eted, and three points for the red. Should the player's ball Cruise in Bafin's Bay.)
fall into a pocket before he make the cannon, the score is BAGATELLE is an indoor game, probably derived from taken by the opponent. In the Irish Cannon Game the holes the old English shovel-board, described by Cotton in his do not count, except by way of penalty; all points made Compleat Gamester (1674), though many consider that its by holing the balls being added to the score of the adverinvention is due to the French. Like billiards, chess, and sary. Sometimes, in both the cannon games two points are draughts, its origin is not certainly known; but whatever its taken for a cannon from white to white and then to red, genesis, its name is undoubtedly French. Bagatelle games and three for a cannon from white to red and then to white; are played on an oblong board, usually from six to ten or, when two colored balls are used, three points are taken feet in length, by a foot and a half to three feet in width. for a cannon from the black to the red. Lately, bagatelle The bed of the table, which is ordinarily of slate or tables as much as 14 feet long by 6 feet wide have been mahogany, is covered with fine green cloth; and at the made for the cannon game. upper end, which is rounded, there are nine holes or cups, Mississippi is a game played on a bagatelle table with a numbered from 1 to 9, thus
bridge -pierced with arches, each arch bearing a certain 5
number-say, from 1 to 10 or 12. The balls are first
played from the baulk against the cushion on to the bridge, 7
which is placed just in front of the lowermost hole. The 6
rules are --1. If the ball pass through the bridge, all the 1
points indicated on the arch are counted towards the
player's score, in addition to any points made by the ball Into these holes ivory balls are driven by a cue in all falling into a hole beyond the bridge. The game may be respects similar to the instrument used in BILLIARDS, played by two or more persons, and he who first makes the which see. The sides and circular end of the table are number of points agreed on-100, 200, 500, &c.—wins. A furnished with elastic cushions; and in some of the newer modification of this game is called tables there is also a pocket on each side. Nine balls- Trou Madame. In this the balls are played from the eight white, and one red or black (sometimes four white, baulk straight up to the bridge without touching the cushfour red, and one black)—are used in the most popular of ion, and only the points marked upon the arches score-all the several bagatelie games.
points made by the balls dropping into the holes beyond The ordinary game is played according to the following being scored to the opponent. Another variety, called rules :
Cockamaroo, or Russian Bagatelle, is played on a table 1. Any number of persons may play, whether singly or prepared with a number of pins, holes, arches, and bells, up in sides. 2. Each player strings for lead, and he who to and through which the ball is played from the baulk end lodges his ball in the highest hole begins. In the case of of the table. It is a childish amusement, requiring little partners, one only on each side need string for the lead. skill, and therefore needing only the barest mention. 3. The player who wins the lead takes the nine balls and In playing the bagatelle games a much less degree of plays them one after the other up the table from baulk, first force is required for the stroke than is necessary for bilstriking at the red ball which is placed on the spot about liards. Some adepts are able to fill all the holes at one a foot below the 1 hole. The object of the player is to ssay; first, by striking the red ball on the side, making a
donble hazard, say, into the 7 and the 8 holes, and then, I tamia; and the second, that which is beyond the Tigris, either by playing direct at the holes or at the cushion, commonly called Lower Kurdistan. This tract of country lodging each successive ball till the whole nine are pock- is an extensive and very fertile plain, and is watered by eted. In this way, counting double for the red, as many as the Tigris and the Euphrates, which at Baghdad approach 54 points can be scored in a single round of the balls. within 25 miles of each other, and afford an inexhaustible When two colored balls are used, of course a proportionally supply of the finest water. Only some parts of these larger score is made. The cue should be held lightly be- fertile districts, however, are cultivated, as the population tween the fingers and thumb, not grasped in the palm of consists in many places of wandering Arabs, who are the hand; and much use may be made of the various averse to agriculture, and who, in their vagrant life of strokes employed in billiards-as the side, the screw, the idleness and rapine, neglect all the natural advantages of twist, and the drag; for which terms see the article Bil- the country. The most productive portion of the pashalic LIARDS.
(G. F. P.) is on the banks of the Shatt-el-Arab, in the neighborhood BAGGESEN, JENS EMMANUEL, the most prominent of Bussorah. This tract, for upwards of 30 miles below literary figure in Denmark during the latter part of last that city, is well cultivated, and yields vast quantities of century, was born on the 15th of February, 1765, at Korsör. dates, wheat, barley, and various kinds of fruits. The His parents were very poor, and before he was twelve he banks of the Euphrates produce abundant crops of dry was sent to copy documents at the office of the clerk of the grain. Higher up the Euphrates, the country which is district. By dint of indomitable perseverance, he managed possessed by the Arabs is a low marshy tract, formed by to gain an education, and in 1782 entered the university the expansion of the Euphrates, and is famed for plentiful of Copenhagen. His success as a writer was coeval with crops of rice. Among the mountainous districts of the his earliest publication; his Comical Tales in verse, poems Upper Euphrates the country is highly picturesque and that recall the Broad Grins that Colman the younger beautiful; it is watered by the River Mygdonius (the Gozan brought out a decade later, took the town by storm, and the of Scripture), and is in a tolerable state of cultivation. It struggling young poet found himself a popular favorite produces in abundance the finest fruits, such as grapes, at twenty-one. He then tried serious lyrical writing, and olives, figs, pomegranates, which are considered the most his tact, elegance of manner, and versatility, gained him a delicious in the East; apples, pears, apricots of an inferior place in the best society. This sudden success received a quality; and the finest dates, on which the inhabitants, as blow in 1788, when a very poor opera he had produced was in other parts of Asia, depend in many cases for subsistreceived with mockery, and a reaction against him set in. ence. The domestic animals are, the horse, for which the He left Denmark in a rage, and spent the next years in country has long been famed, the ass, camel, drome Germany, France, and Switzerland. In the country last dary, buffalo, and mule. Of the wild animals, the lion, mentioned he married, began to write in German, and pub- the hyena, the jackal, the wolf, and the wild boar, are lished in that language his next poem, Alpenlied. In 1790 common; and antelopes are very numerous. Hares are he returned to his mother-country, bringing with him as a plentiful, but foxes are seldom seen. All sorts of poultry peace-offering his fine descriptive poem, the Labyrinth, in are bred except the turkey. On the cultivated lands, Danish, and was received with unbounded homage. The and on the borders of the rivers, the black partridge next twenty years were spent in incessant restless wan- is met with in great numbers. Snipes and almost every derings over the north of Europe, Paris latterly becoming species of wild fowl may be found in the marshes, and his nominal home. He continued to publish volumes alter- pelicans on the banks of the Euphrates and Tigris. In nately in Danish and German. In 1811 he returned to addition to these two rivers, the country is watered by Copenhagen to find the young Ohlenschläger installed as the Khabour or Chaboras, formed by the junction of the great poet of the day, and he himself beginning to lose several small streams about ten miles to the S.W. of his previously unbounded popularity. Until 1820 he re- Merdin, and by the Mygdonius, or Gozan, the Hermas of sided in Copenhagen, in almost unceasing literary feud the Arabs, which used formerly to discharge a part of its with some one or other, abusing and being abused, the waters into the Euphrates through the Khabour, and a most important feature of the whole being Baggesen's de part into the Tigris through the Thirthar, passing by termination not to allow Ohlenschläger to be considered Hatra, but which is now entirely lost in a salt marsh at a greater poet than himself. He then went back to his the foot of the Singar hills. beloved Paris, where he lost his wife and youngest child, In ancient times the plain of Mesopotamia was occupied and fell at last into a state of hopeless melancholy madness. by the great and wealthy cities of Nineveh, Babylun, In 1826, having slightly recovered, he wished to see Den- Seleucia, Ctesiphon, &c., and was in a high state of cultimark once more, but died at Hamburg on his way, on the vation. It was intersected by many well-constructed canals 3d of October, and was buried at Kiel. His many-sided and other works, which, in dispersing over the country the talents achieved success in all forms of writing, but his superfluous waters of the Tigris and Euphrates, proved domestic, philosophical, and critical works have long ceased extremely useful to agriculture. These works are now all to occupy attention. A little more power of restrain- ruined, and not a vestige remains of many of the canals, ing his egotism and passion would have made him one while the course of others can only be faintly traced in of the wittiest and keenest of modern satirists, and his their imperfect remains. One canal, however, called Elcomic poems are deathless. The Danish literature owes Hye, still exists; it connects the Euphrates and the Tigris Baggesen a great debt for the firmness, polish, and form exactly half-way between Bussorah and Baghdad, and is which he introduced into it—his style being always finished navigable in spring for large boats. and elegant. With all his faults he stands as the greatest BÅGHDAD, a city of Asia, formerly the capital of the figure between Holberg and Ohlenschläger. Of all his empire of the caliph, and long renowned for its commerce poems, however, the loveliest and best is a little simple and its wealth, is situated on an extensive and desert song, called There was a time when I was very little, which plain, which has scarcely a tree or village throughout its every Dane, high or low, knows by heart, and which is whole extent; and though it is intersected by the Tigris, matchless in its simplicity and pathos. It has outlived all it stands mostly on its eastern bank, close to the water's his epics.
(E. W. G.) edge. Old Baghdad on the W. is now considered as merely BAGHDAD, a Turkish pashalic or government of a suburb to the larger and more modern city on the eastern Asia, computed to have an area of above 100,000 square shore, the former containing an area of only 146 acres, miles. It stretches in a N.W. direction, from the mouth while the latter extends over 591. It has, however, of the Shatt-el-Arab at Bussorah, to Merdin, situated near numerous and extensive streets, well furnished with shops, the source of the Tigris; and from the confines of Persia and is protected by strong walls, with three gates opening to the banks of the Khabour, which separates it from towards Hillah on the Euphrates and Kazimeen. Beyond the pashalic of Diarbekir. Its general boundaries are the these modern bulwarks vestiges of ancient buildings, Euphrates and the Arabian desert of Nejd to the W. spreading in various directions, are visible in the plain, and S., Kusistan and Mount Zagros to the E., the pashalic which is strewed with fragments of brick, tiles, and of Diarbekir to the N.W., and Armenia with the terri- rubbish. A burying-ground has extended itself over a tories of the Kurdish chief of Julamerick to the N. large tract of land formerly occupied by the streets of the This great tract comprehends ancient Babylonia and the city; and here is the tomb of Zobeide, the favorite wife greatest part of Assyria proper. The first includes the of Haroun el Raschid, built of brick, of a high octagonal space enclosed by the Tigris and the Euphrates, which is shape, and surmounted by a lofty superstructure in the also known under the general appellation of Mesopo- | form of a cone. It was originally built in 827 A.V., but