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Bacon makes a vehement attack upon the ignorance and error is the most dangerous, and is, in a sense, the cause vices of the clergy and monks, and generally upon the in- of all the others. The offendicula have sometimes been sufficiency of the existing studies. In 1278 he underwent looked upon as an anticipation of the more celebrated doc the punishment which seems to have then been the natural trine of Idola ; the two classifications, however, have little consequence of outspoken opinions. His books were con- in common. In the summary of this part, contained in demned by Jerome de Ascoli, general of the Franciscans, the Opus Tertium, Bacon shows very clearly his perception a gloomy bigot, who afterwards became Pope, and the un- of the unity of science, and the necessity of an encyclo fortunate philosopher was thrown into prison, where he pædical treatment. “Nam omnes scientiæ sunt annexe, remained for fourteen years, During this time, it is said, et mutuis se fovent auxiliis, sicut partes ejusdem totius he wrote the small tract De Retardandis Senectutis Acci- quarum quælibet opus suum peragit, non solum propter se, dentibus, but this is merely a tradition. In 1292, as ap- sed pro aliis.”—(Op. Ined., p. 18.) pears from what is probably his latest composition, the Part II. (pp. 23-43) treats of the relation between philosCompendium Studii Theologic, he was again at liberty: ophy and theology. All true wisdom is contained in the The exact time of his death cannot be determined; 1294 Scriptures, at least implicitly; and the true end of phil. is probably as accurate a date as can be fixed upon. osophy is to rise from the imperfect knowledge of created
Bacon's Works.-Leland has said that it is easier to col things to a knowledge of the Creator. Ancient philoslect the leaves of the Sibyl than the titles of the works ophers, who had not the Scriptures, received direct illuwritten by Roger Bacon; and though the labor has been mination from God, and only thus can the brilliant results somewhat lightened by the publications of Brewer and attained by them be accounted for. Charles, referred to below, it is no easy matter even now to Part III. (pp. 44-57) treats of the utility of grammar, form an accurate idea of his actual productions. His writ- and the necessity of a true linguistic science for the ade ings, so far as known to us, may be divided into two quate comprehension either of the Scriptures or of books classes, those yet in manuscript and those printed. . An on philosophy. The necessity of accurate acquaintance enormous number of MSS. are known to exist in British with any foreign language, and of obtaining good texts, is a and French libraries, and probably all have not yet been subject Bacon is never weary of descanting upon. He lays discovered. Many are transcripts of works or portions of down very clearly the requisites of a good translator; he works already published, and therefore require no notice. should know thoroughly the language he is translating Of the others, several are of first-rate value for the com- from, the language into which he is translating, and the prehension of Bacon's philosophy, and, though extracts subject of which the book treats. from them have been given by Charles, it is clear that till Part IV. (57-255) contains an elaborate treatise on they have found an editor, no representation of his philos- mathematics, “the alphabet of philosophy,” and on its ophy can be complete.'
importance in science and theology. Bacon shows at great The works hitherto printed (neglecting reprints) are the length that all the sciences rest ultimately on mathematics, following :-(1.) Speculum Alchimiæ, 1541-translated into and progress only when their facts can be subsumed under English, 1597 ; (2.) De Mirabili Potestate Artis et Naturæ, mathematical principles. This singularly fruitful thought 1542.- English translation, 1659; - (3.) Libellus de Retar- he exemplifies and illustrates by showing how geometry dandis Senectutis Accidentibus, 1590-translated as the is applied to the action of natural bodies, and demonstrat
Cure of Old Age,” 1683; (4.) Sanioris Medicine Magistri ing by geometrical figures certain laws of physical forces. D. Rogeri Baconis Anglici de Arte Chymiæ Scripta, 1603— He also shows how his method may be used to determine a collection of small tracts containing Excerpta de Libro some curious and long-discussed problems, such as the light Avicennce de Anima, Breve Breviarium, Verbum Abbrevia of the stars, the ebb and flow of the tide, the motion of tum,Secretum Secretorum, Tractatus Trium Verborum, and the balance. He then proceeds to adduce elaborate and Speculum Secretorum; (5.) Perspectiva, 1614, which is the sometimes slightly grotesque reasons tending to prove that fifth part of the Opus Majus ; (6.) Specula Mathematica, mathematical knowledge is essential in theology, and closes which is the fourth part of the same; (7.) Opus Majus ad this section of his work with two comprehensive sketches Clementem IV., edited by Jebb, 1733, (8.) Opera Hactenus of geography and astronomy. That on geography is parInedita, by J. S. Brewer, 1859, containing the Opus Tertium, ticularly good, and is interesting as having been read by Opus Minus, Compendium Studii Philosophic, and the De Columbus, who lighted on it in Petrus de Alliaco's Imago Secretis Operibus Naturæ.
Mundi, and was strongly influenced by its reasoning. How these works stand related to one another can only Part V. (pp. 256–357) treats of perspective. This was be determined by internal evidence, and this is a, somewhat the part of his work on which Bacon most prided himself, hazardous method. The smaller works, which are chiefly and in it, we may add, he seems to owe most to the Arab on alchemy, are unimportant, and the dates of their com- writers, Alkindi and Alhazen. The treatise opens with an position cannot be ascertained. It is known that before able sketch of psychology, founded upon, but in some im. the Opus Majus Bacon had already written some tracts, portant respects varying from, Aristotle's De Anima. The among which an unpublished work, Computus Naturalium, anatomy of the eye is next described; this is done well on chronology, belongs probably to the year 1263; while, and evidently at first hand, though the functions of the if the dedication of the De Secretis Operibus be authentic, parts are not given with complete accuracy. Many other that short treatise must have been composed before 1249. points of physiological optics are touched on, in general
It is, however, with the Opus Majus that Bacon's real erroneously. Bacon then discusses very fully vision in a activity begins. That great work, which has been called right line, the laws of reflection and refraction, and the by Whewell at once the Encyclopædia and the Organum construction of mirrors and lenses. In this part of the of the 13th century, requires a much fuller notice than work, as in the preceding, his reasoning depends essentially can here be given. As published by Jebb it consists upon his peculiar view of natural agents and their activiof six parts ; there should, however, be a seventh, De ties. His fundamental physical maxims are matter and Morali Philosophia, frequently referred to in the Opus force; the latter he calls virtus, species, imago agentis, and
Tertium. Part I. (pp. 1-22), which is sometimes desig- by numberless other names. Change, or any natural phenated De Utilitate Scientiarum, treats of the four offendic- nomenon, is produced by the impression of a virtus or ula, or causes of error. These are, authority, custom, the species on matter-the result being the thing known. opinion of the unskilled many, and the concealment of real Physical action is, therefore, impression, or transmission of ignorance with show or pretence of knowledge. The last force in lines, and must accordingly be explained geomet
i The more important MSS. are:-(1.) The extensive work on the rically. This view of nature Bacon considered fundafundamental notions of physics, called Communia Naturalium, which mental, and it lies, indeed, at the root of his whole philis found in the Mazarin Library at Paris, in the British Museum,
and osophy. To the short notices of it given in the 4th and in the Bodleian and University College Libraries at Oxford; (2.) On 5th parts of the Opus Majus, he subjoined two, or perhaps part of which is in the Sloane collection, part in the Bodleian; (&.} three, extended accounts of it. We possess at least one Baconis Physica, contained among the additional MSS. in the British of these in the tract De Multiplicatione Specierum, printed Museum; (4.) The fragment called Quinta Pars Compendii Theologie, as part of the Opus Majus by Jebb (pp. 358-444). We in the Brit. Mus. ; (5.) the Metaphysica, in the Biblioth. Impér. at cannot do more than refer to Charles for discussions as to Paris; (6.)
The Compendium Studii Theologiæ, in the Brit. Mus.: (7.) The logical fragments, such as the Summa Dialectices, in the Bodleian, how this theory of nature is connected with the metaand the glosses upon Aristotle's physics and metaphysics in the li- physical problems of force and matter, with the logical brary at Amiens.
. At the close of the Verb. Abbrev. is a curious note, concluding doctrine of universals, and in general with Bacon's theory with the words, “ipse Rogerus fuit discipulus fratris Alberti !"
Part VI. (pp. 445-477) treats of experimental science, gotten that he believed in astrology, in the doctrine of * domina omnium scientiarum." There are two methods of signatures, and in the philosopher's stone, and knew that knowledge: the one by argument, the other by experience. the circle had been squared. Mere argument is never sufficient; it may decide a question, but gives no satisfaction or certainty to the mind, Charles, Roger Bacon, sa vie, ses Ouvrages, ses Doctrines d'après
The best work on Roger Bacon is undoubtedly that of E. which can only be convinced by immediate inspection or intuition. Now this is what experience gives. But expe- estimate and modern interpretation given in this work,
des textes inédits, 1861. Against the somewhat enthusiastio rience is of two sorts, external and internal; the first is Schneider in his Roger Bacon, Eine Monographie, Augsthat usually called experimer.., but it can give no complete burg, 1873, has reclaimed. He points out very clearly certain knowledge even of corporeal things, much less of spiritual. aspects in which Bacon appears as a mere scholastic. The new On the other hand, in inner experience the mind is illumi. inatter contained in the publications of Charles and Brewer was nated by the divine truth, and of this supernatural enlight- summarized by H. Siebert, Roger Bacon: Inaugural Dissertaenment there are seven grades.
tion, Marburg, 1861. Cf. also, J. K. Ingram, On the Opus Experimental science, which in the Opus Tertium (p. Majus of Bacon, Dublin, 1858 ; Cousin, Fragments, Phil. 'du 46) is distinguished from the speculative sciences and the Moyen Age (reprinted from Journal des Savana, 1848); Saisset, operative arts in a way that forcibly reminds us of Francis Revue de Deux Mondes, 1861); Pranti, Gesch. der Logik, iii
Précurseurs et Disciples de Descartes, pp. 1-58 (reprinted from Bacon, is said to have three great prerogatives over all other 120–129 (a severe criticism of 'Bacon's logical doctrines). sciences: (1.) It verifies their conclusions by direct experi
(R. AD.) ment; (2.) It discovers truths which they could never reach ; (3.) It investigates the secrets of nature, and opens BACONTHORPE, or Bacon,JOHN, called The Resolute to us a knowledge of past and future. As an instance of Doctor, a learned monk, born towards the end of the 13th his method, Bacon gives an investigation into the nature century, at Baconthorpe, a village in Norfolk. After spendand cause of the rainbow, which is really a very fine speci- ing the early part of his life in the convent of Blakeney, men of inductive research.
near Walsingham, he removed to Oxford, and from that The seventh part of the Opus Majus, not given in Jebb’s city to Paris, where he obtained great reputation for his edition, is noticed at considerable length in the Opus Ter- learning, and was esteemed the principal of the Averroists. tium (cap. xiv.). Extracts from it are given by Charles In 1329 he returned to England, and was chosen twelfth (pp. 339-348).
provincial of the English Carmelites. In 1333 he was As has been seen, Bacon had no sooner finished this sent for to Rome, where, we are told, he first maintained elaborate work than he began to prepare a summary to be the Pope's sovereign authority in cases of divorce ; but sent along with it. Of this summary, or Opus Minus, part this opinion he is understood to have afterwards retracted. has come down and is published in Brewer's Op. Ined. He died in London in 1346. His chief work was published (313-389), from what appears to be the only MS. The in 1510, with the title Doctoris resoluti Joannis Bacconis work was intended to contain an abstract of the Opus Anglici Carmelitæ radiantissimi opus super quattuor senMajus, an account of the principal vices of theology, and tentiarum libris, 4 vols. folio; it has passed through several treatises on speculative and practical alchemy. At the editions. The little that is known of this schoolman, who same time, or immediately after, Bacon began a third work in his own day and order had a reputation rivalling that as a preamble to the other two, giving their general scope of Thomas Aquinas, may be seen in Brucker, Hist. Crit., and aim, but supplementing them in many points. The iii. 865; Stöckl, Phil
. d. Mittel. ii. 1044-5; Hauréau, Phil. part of this work, generally called Opus Tertium, is printed Scol., ii. 476; Prantl, Ges. d. Logik, iii. 318. by Brewer (pp. 1-310), who considers it to be a complete BACSANYI, Janos, a Hungarian poet, was born at treatise. Charles, however, has given good grounds for Tapoleza, May 11, 1763, and died at Linz, May 12, 1845. supposing that it is merely a preface, and that the work In 1785 he published his first work, a patriotic poem, The went on to discuss grammar, logic (which Bacon thought Valor of the Mugyars. In the same year he obtained a of little service, as reasoning was innate), mathematics, situation as clerk in the treasury at Kaschau, and there, in general physics, metaphysics, and moral philosophy. He conjunction with two other Hungarian patriots, edited the founds his argument mainly on passages in the Communia Magyar Museum, which was suppressed by the Government Naturalium, which indeed prove distinctly that it was sent in 1792. In the following year he was deprived of his to Clement, and cannot, therefore, form part of the Com- clerkship; and in 1794, having taken part in the conpendium, as Brewer seems to think. It must be confessed, spiracy of Bishop Martinovich, he was thrown into the however, that nothing can well be more confusing than the state prison of the Spielberg, near Brünn, where he rereferences in Bacon's works, and it seems well-nigh hope- mained for two years. After his release he took a conless to attempt a complete arrangement of them until the siderable share in the Magyar Minerva, a literary review, texts have been collated and carefully printed.
and then proceeded to Vienna, where he obtained a post All these large works Bacon appears to have looked on in the bank, and married. In 1809 he translated NapoAs preliminaries, introductions, leading to a great work leon's proclamation to the Magyars, and, in consequence which should embrace the principles of all the sciences. of this anti-Austrian act, had to take refuge in Paris. This great work, which is perhaps the frequently referred After the fall of Napoleon he was given up to the Austo Liber Sex Scientiarum, he began, and a few fragments trians, who allowed him to reside at Linz, on condition of still indicate its outline. First appears to have come the never leaving that town. He published a collection of treatise now called Compendium Studii Philosophiæ (Brewer, poems at Pesth, 1827, (second edition, Buda, 1835), and pp. 393–519), containing an account of the causes of error, also edited the poetical works of Anyos and Faludi. and then entering at length upon grammar. After that, BACTRIA, or BACTRIANA, an ancient country of Central apparently, logic was to be treated; then, possibly, mathe Asia, lying to the south of the River Oxus, and reaching to matics and physics; then speculative alchemy and experi- the western part of the Paropamisan range, or Hindu Kush. mental science. It is
, however, very difficult, in the present It was sometimes regarded as including the district of state of our knowledge of the MÁS., to hazard even con- Margiana, or Merv, which was more frequently considered jectures as to the contents and nature of this last and most as distinct. The character of the country is very various, comprehensive work.
and has been well described by Curtius, whose account is Bacon's fame in popular estimation has always rested confirmed by the few modern travellers who have passed on his mechanical discoveries. Careful research has through it. Some portions are remarkable for the beauty shown that very little in this department can with accuracy of their scenery, or the fertility of the soil, evidenced by be ascribed to him. He certainly describes a method of a rich and varied vegetation, while other parts are stretches constructing a telescope, but not so as to lead one to con- of barren and drifting sands. In early history Bactria is clude that he was in possession of that instrument. Gun- connected with some of the most important movements of powder, the invention of which has been claimed for him the Indo-European races, and has no small claims to be on the ground of a passage in his works, which fairly in regarded as the cradle of our present civilization. Accordterpreted at once disposes of any such claim, was already ing to Persian tradition, it became the seat of the Iranian known to the Arabs. Burning-glasses were in common wanderers, who established the religion of Zoroaster, and use, and spectacles it does not appear he made, although expelled the Vedic inhabitants of the country. In the 7th he was probably acquainted with the principle of their con- century B.C. it passed under the dominion of the Medes, struction. His wonderful predictions (in the De Secretis) and not long after formed part of the conquests of Cyrus. must be taken cum grano salis, and it is not to be for- In the reign of Darius it ranked as the twelfth satrapy of the empire, and furnished valuable contingents to the stations on the railway between Madrid and Lisbon The imperial army; these are described at a later date by height is crowned by the ruins of a Moorish castle. A strong Herodotus as wearing the Median head-dress, and making wall and bastions, with a broad moat and outworks, and use of their native bows and short spears. Like the rest forts on the surrounding heights, make the city a place of of Western Asia, Bactria was subjugated by Alexander, and great strength. The river is crossed by a magnificent formed part of the empire of the Seleucids; but in the 3d granite bridge, originally built in 1460, repaired in 1597, century B.c. it was raised to the rank of an independent and rebuilt in 1833. The city is well built, and contains kingdom by the successful revolt of Diodotus, the Greek an arsenal, a cathedral, built like a fortress and bombproof, satrap. There thus arose a remarkable dypasty—if dy- several churches, hospitals, and schools. Its monasteries nasty it can be called—of Græco-Bactrian kings, who are all secularized, one being occupied as infantry barracks; have been the object of much modern investigation, but and some of its nunneries are closed. Badajos was finally are not as yet arranged in any satisfactory order. The taken from the Moors in 1235 by Alphonso IX., and from names of seven or eight of them are known from the its importance as a frontier_garrison has since been the Greek and Roman historians, and upwards of forty are scene of numerous sieges. The last and most severe was preserved on their coins. The great problem to be solved in 1812, when it was stormed by the British troops under by numismatists is how to dispose of so many claimants in Wellington and carried with dreadful loss. The town was the comparatively narrow space of time at their disposal. delivered up to a two days' pillage. It had been surrenIt is highly probable that many of them held contempo- dered the previous year to Soult by the treachery of Imaz, raneous sway in different parts of the Bactrian region, the commander of the garrison. The trade and manasometimes with a distinct preponderance on the part of factures of Badajos are considerable, and much contraone, and sometimes with practical equilibrium of power; band traffic is carried on with Portugal. Badajos is the but their geographical distribution can only be conjectured birthplace of the painter Luis de Morales and of Manuel from what are understood to be mint-marks on their coins. Godoy. Pop. 22,895. The period of the final disintegration of the Græco-Bac- BADAKHSHAN, a country of Central Asia, situated in trian power is not definitely ascertained; but as early as the upper valley of the Kokcha river, one of the principal the time of Eucratides (160 B.C.) there appears on the head streams of the Oxus. The name has been variously coinage the so-called Bactrian Pali, a language cognate speit Badascian, Balacian, Balakhshan, Balashan, Balaxien, with Sanskrit but written in characters of seemingly Phoe- and Balaxia. Including Wakhan, it lies between 35° 50' nician origin. Besides these monetary legends, several and 38° N. lat., and between 69° 30' and 74° 20'E. long. Bactrian inscriptions have been recently discovered, among The chief ascertained positions are as follows: Faizábád, the most important of which are the “Taxila” copperplate, 37° 2' N., 70° 36' E.; Ishkashm, 36° 45' N., 71° 38' E.; which has furnished the key to the Bactrian numeral system, Punja, 37° 5' N., 72° 39' E.; and Karkat Yassim lake, the Peshawur vase, the Manikyala cylinder, the Bimaran 37° 14' N., 74° 18' E. Its extent from east to west is vase, and the Wardak urn, but none of them are of very about 200 miles, and from north to south about 150 miles. much historical value. Bactria seems to have passed On the north it is bounded by Kulab and Darwaz; on the successively under the power of various Saca and Parthian east by the lofty table-land of Pamir; on the south by the and so-called Indo-Scythian rulers, and during the first six Hindu Kush range; and on the west by Kunduz. "The or seven centuries of the Christian era it became one of Pamir land is the principal watershed of Asia, and the most important centres of Buddhistic monasticism. Badakhshan forms part of the western water slope consti(See BALKH.) Its modern history is of but little import- tuting the basin of the Oxus. The country is for the ance, as it has never formed an independent kingdom of most part mountainous, but there are numerous plains and any power or stability.
fertile valleys. The general slope of the country is great, See Bayer, Hist. Reg. Græco-Bactr., Petrop.: 1738 ; Köhler, level of the sea, while
Lake Victoria, close to the principal
since Kunduz is probably not more than 500 feet above the Méd. grecques des Rois de la B., St. Pet., 1822–3; Tychsen, Comm. Recen. Götting., v. vi. ; Tod, in Roy. Asiat. Soc. Trans., watershed, is estimated at 15,600 feet. 1824; Schlegel, in Journ. Asiat., 1828 ; Prinsep, in J. of Asiat. Badakhshan comprises 16 districts. The principal district Soc. Bengal, 1833-38; Raoul-Rochette, in Jour. des Savants, called Faizábád is under the rule of the Mír Mahmúd 1834–39 and 1844; Jacquet, in J. Asiat., 1836; Masson, in J. Shah ; the others are dependencies ruled by relatives of the of Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 1836 ; K. O. Müller, in Göttingen Anzei. Mír, or by hereditary feudatories. Each ruler is inde gen, 1835 and 1838; Mionnet, in Supplément viii, to his Déscrip- pendent, but is bound to aid the Mír of Faizábád in time of tion, dc., 1837; Lassen, Zur Gesch. der Griech. u. Indoskyth. need. The Mír himself pays tribute to the Amir of Cabul. Kön., Bonn, 1838 ; Grotefend, Die Münzen der Kön. v. Bactr., The other districts besides Faizábád are Daraim, ShahrHanover, 1839; Wilson, Ariana Antiqua, 1841;, Cunningham, 1-buzurq, Gumbuz, Farakhar, Kishm, Rustak, Rushán, yol. ii., 1852; Babu Rajendra Lal, in J. Asiat
. Soc. of Bengal, Shighnán, Ishkáshm, Wakhán, Zebak, Minján, Ragh, Daung 1861; E. Thomas, “ Bactrian Coins,” in J. Roy. Asiał. Soc. Gr. and Asiábá. Each district has its sub-divisions. "In FaizáBrit. and I., 1873; Dowson, “B. Pali Inscr.,' ibidem.
bád there are several fertile tracts; amongst them are the
hilly regions of Yaftal and Shewá, which are thickly popuBACUP, a town of England, in Lancashire, 20 miles N. lated, the former by Tajiks, and the latter by Turks of the from Manchester. It is situated in a beautiful valley on Jakha Moghul tribe; and the plateaus of Argu and Shewa, the River Speddon, and is a station on the East Lancashire of which the former is somewhat higher than the plain of railway. It is chiefly important for its factories, foundries, Faizábád, about 15 miles in length by about 8 in breadth, and mills, as well as for the coal-mines in the neighbor- and well cultivated, while the latter is still higher, and hood. Since 1841, when the population of the chapelry forms the best and largest pasture ground in Badakhshan, was only 1526, Bacup has rapidly increased, and its sanitary A lake named Sir-i-kol, about twenty miles in circumference, condition has been greatly improved by the exertions of a is situated on the Shewá plateau. În and around Faizabád local board. The river has been deepened for a mile above there are numerous excellent fruit and flower gardens; the the town, and a water supply has been secured by means principal manufactures are cast-iron pots, boots and shoes, of a reservoir at Higher Stacks. There are two Episcopal | and a material woven from silk and cotton, called ilacha. churches and several dissenting places of Worship, a The district of Jirm, also subject to Mahmúd Shah, commechanics’ institute and library, and various other institu- prises numerous rich valleys, as well as the famous mineral tions. A new market-hall was built in 1867. Population region called Yamgan, or "all mines.” The mines yie! of local board district in 1871, 17,199.
rubies, lapis lazuli
, lead, alum, sal-ammoniac, sulphur, BADAJOS, a province of Spain, forming, by the divis- copper, &c. The annual yield of lapis lazuli averages ion of 1833, the southern half of the old province of about £1500, which is sold at the rate of seven shillings Estremadura, or what is generally called Lower Estrema- per pound;
it is exported to Russia, Kashmir, and China. dura. It is bounded on the N. by Caceres, E. by Ciudad The Dasht-Baha-rak' is an extensive plain in this district
, Real, S. and S.E. by Cordova, Seville, and Huelva, and on which was formerly situated a large city, once the W. by Portugal, embracing an area of 8687 square miles. capital of Badakhshan. There are several villages on il, as See ÉSTREMADURA.
also the summer residence of the Mír. The caravan route Badajos, the capital of the above province, is a fortified from India to Faizábád passes over this plain. The districts city, and the see of a bishop. It is situated about 5 miles of Rustak, Ragh, Kishm, Daraim, and Shahr-i-buzurq are from the Portuguese frontier, on a slight elevation near the next in importance as regards fertility and popula:ion. left bank of the Guadiana, and is one of the principal | They abound in fertile hills and plains. The principal
cultivated products are wheat, rice, Cicer arietinum, Phase- | and Wakhân,” in the Proceedings of the Roy. Geog. Soc., vol. olu Mungo, cotton, linseed, poppy, sesame, apples, grapes, xvii. p. 108. mulberries (which form the principal article of food in BADALOCCHIO, SISTO, surnamed Rosa, a painter and these regions), pears, apricots, walnuts
, melons, gourds, engraver, was born at Parma in 1581, and died in 1641 or turnips, radishes, carrots, spinach, leeks, as also numerous 1647. He was of the school of Annibale Carracci, by garden flowers and timber trees. The districts of Minjan whom he was highly esteemed for design. His principal and Rushan are more mountainous, have a cooler climate, engravings are the series known as The Bible of Raffaelle, and are more sparsely populated than the foregoing. Their which were executed by him in conjunction with Lanfranc, inhabitants are also distinct, differing in physical features, another pupil of Carracci's. The best of his paintings, creed, language, and habits. The celebrated ruby mines which are few in number, are at Parma. are in Ishkashm; they have not been worked for more BADEN, THE GRAND DUCHY OF, is situated in the 8. than 30 years, except temporarily in 1866. It is, how- W. of Germany, between 47° 32' and 49° 52' N. lat., and ever, suspected that they are worked surreptitiously by the between 7° 27' and 9° 50' E. long. It is bounded on the people. They yield the well-known Balas (i.e., Badakh. N. by Bavaria and Hesse-Darmstadt; W. by Rhenish Bashan) ruby.
varia, Alsace, and Lorraine; S. by Switzerland; and E. The principal domesticated animal is the yak. There are by Würtemberg and part of Bavaria. At the commencealso large flocks of sheep, cows, goats, ponies, numerous ment of the present century Baden was only a margraviate, fine dogs, and Bactrian camels. The more important wild with an area little exceeding 1300 square miles, and a popanimals are a large wild sheep. (Ovis poli), fúxes, wolves, ulation of 210,000. Since then it has from time to time jackals, bears, boars, deer, and lions; amongst birds, there I acquired additional territory, so that its area now amounts are partridges, pheasants, ravens, jays, sparrows, larks, a famous breed of hawks, &c.
Scale of Miles Badakhshan proper is peopled by Tajiks, Turks, and Arabs, who speak the Persian and Turki languages, and profess the orthodox doctrines of the Mahometan law adopted by the Sunnite sect; while the mountainous
SE N districts are inhabited by Tajiks, professing the Shia creed, and speaking distinct dialects in different districts.
Badakhshan was visited by Hwen Thsang in 630 and 644. The Arabian geographers of the 10th century sperk of its mines of ruby and azure, and give notices
(to Bavaria SPIA.S of the flourishing commerce and large towns of Waksh and Khotl, regions which appear either to have in part
ON corresponded with or to have lain close to Badakhshan. In 1272-73 Marco Polo and his companions stayed for a time in Badakhshan. During this and the following centuries the country was governed by kings who
Rastatt claimed to be descendants of Alexander the Great.
STUTTCART The last of these kings was Shah Mahomet, who died in the middle of the 15th century, leaving only his STRASBURC
WÜRTTE R married daughters to represent the royal line. Early in the middle of the 16th century the Uzbeks obtained possession of Badakhshan, but were soon expelled, and then the country was generally governed by descendants of the old royal dynasty by the female line. About the middle of the 18th century the present dynasty of Mirs established its footing in place of the
VILLANCENY old one, which had become extinct. In 1765 the country was invaded and ravaged by the ruler of Cabul. Dur
KUSTLINGER ing the first three decades of the present century it was
eldberg overrun and depopulated by Kokan Beg and his son Murad Beg, chiefs of the Kataghan Uzbeks of Kundus. SACI The country was still suffering from these disasters when
SLÖRRACH Wood visited it in 1837. When Murad Beg died, the
Τ 1 ε ι Α Ν D power passed into the hands of another Uzbek, Mahomet Amir Khan. In 1859 the Kataghan Uzbeks
Sketch-Map of the Grand Duchy of Baden. were expelled; and Mír Jahander Shah, the representative of the modern royal line, was reinstated at Faizábád | to upwards of 5800 square miles, and its population to under the supremacy of the Afghans. In 1867 he was ex- nearly a million and a half. pelled by the Afghans and replaced by the present ruler, It consists of a considerable portion of the eastern half Mír Mahomet Shah, and other representatives of the same of the fertile valley of the Rhine, and of the mountains family. According to the latest accounts the country was which form its boundary. The mountainous part is by far reviving from its past misfortunes, and the towns were again the most extensive, forming, indeed, nearly 80 per cent. of rising. Badakhshan owes part of its prosperity to the bane- the whole area. From the Lake of Constance in the south ful traffic in slaves. A strong man is considered a fair ex- to the River Neckar is a portion of the so-called Black change for a large dog or horse, and a fine girl for about Forest or Schwarzwald, which is divided by the valley of four horses. The district is of some political interest in con- the Kinzig into two districts of different elevation. To the nection with the frontier line of Afghanistan, which has south of the Kinzig the mean height is 3100 feet, and the recently been the subject of discussion between the Russian loftiest summit, the Feldberg, reaches about 4780 feet; and British Governments.
while to the north the mean height is only 2100 feet, and In 1867 a report on Badakhshan was drawn up by the Pun- the Belchen, the culminating point of the whole, does not dit Mun-phool after a sojourn of two or three years in the coun. exceed 4480. To the north of the Neckar is the Odenwald try. For further information, see the Book of Ser Marco Polo, range, with a mean of 1440 feet, and, in the Katzenbuckel, vol. i. 1871, edited by Col. Yule; A Journey to the Source of the an extreme of 1980. Lying between the Rhine and the Riter Oxue, by Capt. J. Wood, edition of 1872; “Report on the Dreisam is the Kaiserstuhl, an independent volcanic group, Mirza's Exploration from Cabul to Kashgar," by Major Mont: nearly 10 miles in length and 5 in breadth, the highest gomerie, in the Journal of Roy: Geo. Soc.,”..01sli, P: 132; point of which is 1760 feet. “A Havildar's journey through Chitral to Faizabád in 1870," by Major Montgomerie, in journal last mentioned, vol. xlii.
The greater part of Baden belongs to the basin of the " Papers connected with the Upper Oxus Regions,” by Col. Rhine, which receives upwards of twenty tributaries from Yule, in the same volume, p. 438; "Monograph on the Osus," the highlands of the duchy alone; a portion of the terriby Maj.-Gen. Sir H. C. Rawlinson, in the same volume, p. 482; tory is also watered by the Main and the Neckar. A part, add a paper by the writer last mentioned, “On Badakhshan | however, of the eastern slope of the Black Forest belongs
to the basin of the Danube, which there takes its rise in a but the bulk of its trade consists in the transit of goods. number of mountain streams. Among the numerous lakes The country is well furnished with roads and railways, the which belong to the duchy are the Mummel, Wilder, Non- greater proportion of the latter being in the hands of the nenmattweiher, Titti, Eichener, Schluch, &c., but none of state. A line runs the whole length of the land, for the them are of any size. The Lake of Constance, or Boden most part parallel with the Rhine, while branches cross See, belongs partly to Bavaria and Switzerland."
obliquely from east to west. From 1819 to 1832 Baden was divided into six circles, The educational institutions of Baden are numerous and which were reduced in the latter year to the four follow- flourishing, and public instruction is largely subsidized by ing :-The Lake Circle or Constance, the Upper Rhine or the Government. There are two universities, the Protestant Freiburg, the Middle Rhine or Carlsruhe, and the Lower one at Heidelberg, founded in 1386, and the Catholic one Rhine or Manheim. This division, though still employed, at Freiburg, founded in 1457. The library at Heidelberg has been legally supplanted by one into the eleven circles numbers 150,000 volumes, and that at Freiburg 100,000, of Constance, Villingen, Waldshut, Freiburg, Lörrach, while there is another of almost equal size at Carlsruhe. Ofenburg, Baden, Carlsruhe, Manheim, Heidelberg, and There are also lyceums at Carlsruhe, Constance, Freiburg, Mosbach. The capital of the duchy is Carlsruhe, which Heidelberg, Manheim, Rastadt, and Wertheim; several in 1871 had a population of 36,582; the other principal gymnasiums; normal schools at Carlsruhe, Ettlingen, and towns are Manheim (39,614), Freiburg (24,599), Heidel- Meersburg, besides upwards of 2000 common schools estabberg (19,988), Pforzheim (19,801), Rastadt (11,559), Baden lished throughout the country. There is an institution in (10,083), Constance (10,052), Bruchsal (9786), and Lahr Pforzheim for the deaf and dumb, and one in Freiburg for (6710)." The population is most thickly clustered in the the blind. The Polytechnic school at Carlsruhe is among north and in the neighborhood of the Swiss town of Basel. the most efficient institutions of the kind in Germany. The
The mineral wealth of Baden is not very great; but the preparatory course extends over three years, and includes mines of Oberwert, Kandern, &c., produce excellent iron; French, German, English, special history, mathematics, there are two zinc mines and one of lead; coal is worked drawing, modelling, chemistry: mineralogy and geology, at Diesburg, Zunsweier, Baden, &c.; and silver, copper, mechanics, &c. The special courses are engineering, gold, cobalt, alum, vitriol, and sulphur are also obtained in architecture, forestry, chemistry, mechanics, commerce, small quantities. Gold washing, at one time extensively and post-office service, and extend over from one to four carried on along the Rhine, is now little practised. Peat years. The ducal family of Baden belong to the Prois found in abundance, as well as gypsum, china-clay, and testant section of the Church, but the majority of the potters' earth. The duchy was formerly dependent on population are Roman Catholics. The returns of the France for its salt supply, but extensive salt works have census of 1871 are as follows:-Catholics, 942,560; Profor a number of years been maintained by the Government testants, 491,008; other sects, 2265; and Jews, 25,703. at Dürrheim and Rappenau. In 1874 the amount pro- The district where the Roman Catholic preponderance was duced was of the value of £54,880. The mineral springs greatest was Constance, while the Protestants were slightly of Baden are very numerous, and have acquired great more numerous in the district of Manheim. celebrity,-those of Baden-Baden, Badenweiler, Antogast, The government of Baden is an hereditary monarchy, Griesbach, Friersbach, and Petersthal, being the most fre- with the executive power vested in the grand duke, and quented.
the legislative authority in a Parliament consisting of two The inhabitants of Baden are of various origin,—those Chambers. The upper Chamber is composed of all the to the N. of the Murg being descended from the Alemanni, princes of the reigning line who are of age, the chiefs and those to the s. from the Franks, while the Swabian of ten noble families, the possessors of hereditary landed plateau derives its name and its population from another estates worth £25,000, the Roman Catholic archbishop race. This distinction is still marked in the manners, the of Freiburg, the president of the Protestant Church, a language, and the dress of the different districts. The ma- deputy from each of the universities, and eight nominees jority of the people are engaged in agricultural and pastor- of the duke. The lower Chamber consists of 63 repre al pursuits, for which much of the country is well adapted. sentatives, of whom 22 are elected by the Burgesses of cerIn the valleys the soil is particularly fertile, yielding tain towns, and 41 by the inhabitants of the bailiwicks. luxuriant crops of wheat, maize, barley, spelt, beans, pota- The parliamentary candidate must possess tax-paying proptoes, flax, hemp, hops, beet-root, and tobacco; and even in erty of the value of 10,000 forins (£833), or derive a salary the more mountainons parts rye, wheat, and oats are exten- of at least £125 from a public office. Every citizen, if sively cultivated. There is a considerable extent of pasture neither criminal nor pauper, has the right of voting, but land, and the rearing of cattle, sheep, pigs, and goats is only in the choice of deputy-electors, by whom the real largely attended to. The culture of the vine has recently election of the representatives is decided. The members of been increasing, and the wines, which are characterized by the lower House are elected for eight years, and meetings a mildness of flavor, are in good demand. The gardens of Parliament must take place every two years. and orchards supply abundance of fruits, especially almonds The budgets are granted by Parliament for a term of and walnuts; and the keeping of bees is common through- two years. In 1875 the ordinary expenses were rated at out the country. A greater proportion of Baden than of £1,572,959, and the ordinary receipts at £1,557,108. any other of the South German states is occupied by forests. The total public debt on the 1st of January, 1874, was In these the predominant species are the fir and pine, but £12,985,067. many others, such as the chestnut, are well represented. Since the organization of 1864 courts are held at ConA third, at least, of the annual supply of timber is ex- stance, Freiburg, Offenburg, Carlsruhe, and Manheim, the ported, the chief consumer being Holland, though of late supreme court being in the city last named. Manheim is years Paris has derived a considerable supply from this also the seat of the central commission for the navigation
of the Rhine. The manufactures of Baden were formerly very insig- The ducal family of Baden traces its descent from the nificant, but have greatly increased since its accession to counts of Zähringen, who flourished in the 11th century, the Zollverein in 1835. They are, however, chiefly con- and derived their title from what is now a little town to fined to iron and hardware goods, and the spinning and the north of Freiburg. Hermann I., the second son of weaving of cotton. The latter industry is principally Count Berthold I., took the title of Margrave of Hochcarried on at Ettlingen, Offenburg, St. Blaise, Zell, Schopf- berg in Breisgau, and was succeeded in 1074 by his son heim; Manheim has an extensive manufacture of mirrors, Hermann II., who was the first to style himself margrave and Carlsruhe of machines; while Pforzheim is famous for of Baden. On the death of the Margrave Christopher its production of jewelry and goldsmiths' work. Beet-root in 1527, his estates were divided among his three sons, sugar is manufactured at Waghäusel more largely than but one of them having died soon after, the two survivors anywhere else in Germany. Paper, leather, and tobacco became the sole inheritors, and founded the two lines of are also important objects of industry. The inhabitants Baden-Baden and Baden-Durlach. The former of these, of the Black Forest have long been celebrated for their which produced one of the most famous generals of the dexterity in the manufacture of wooden ornaments and 17th century, became extinct by the death of Augustus toys, watches, clocks, musical boxes, organs, &c. Of clocks George_ in 1771, and its possessions were united with alone about 600,000 are made every year.
Baden-Durlach under Charles Frederick. By the treaty of The exports of Baden, which coincide largely with the Lunéville in 1801, Baden acquired a considerable addition industries just mentioned, are of considerable importance, of territory; in 1803 the margrave received the title of