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through some of the principal countries of Europe, in themselves, and expressing the justice of their punishment. order to examine their systems of education, and on his The usual respect of the young to the old was not paid to return published a very valuable report. In 1843, on bachelors (Plut., Lyc., 15). At Athens there was no defithe death of Professor Hassler, he was appointed by nite legislation on this matter; but certain minor laws are Government to the office of superintendent of the coast evidently dictated by a spirit akin to the Spartan doctrine survey. He succeeded in impressing Congress with a (see Schömann, Gr. Alterth., i. 548). At Rome, though sense of the great value of this work, and by means of the there appear traces of some earlier legislation in the matliberal aid it granted, he carried out a singularly compre- ter, the first clearly known law is that called the Lex Julia, hensive plan with great ability and most satisfactory results. passed about 18 B.C. It does not appear to have ever come By a skilful division of labor, and by the erection of nu- into full operation;

and in 9 A.D. it was incorporated with merous observing stations, the mapping out of the whole the Lex Papia et Poppæa, the two laws being frequently coast proceeded simultaneously under the eye of the gen- cited as one, Lex Julia et Papia Poppæa. This law, while eral director. „Nor were the observations confined to mere restricting marriages between the several classes of the peodescription of the coast-line; the several stations were well ple, laid heavy penalties on unmarried persons, gave cersupplied with instruments, and a vast mass of magnetic tain privileges to those citizens who had several children, and meteorological observations was collected, such as must and finally imposed lighter penalties on married persons infallibly prove of infinite service in the future progress of who were childless. In Britain there has been no direct physical science. The annual reports issued by the super- legislation bearing on bachelors; but, occasionally, taxes intendent were admirable specimens of such summaries, have been made to bear more heavily on them than on and secured for him a high reputation among European others. Instances of this are the Act (6 and 7 Will. III.) savants. Professor Bache contributed numerous papers passed in 1695; the tax on servants, 1785; and the income to scientific journals and transactions, and labored earn- tax, 1798. estly to raise the position of physical science in America. BACHIAN, one of the East Indian islands belonging to For some months before his death, which took place at the group of the northern Moluccas, situated immediately Newport, 17th February, 1867, he was afflicted with soft- south of the equator, and lying with its subordinate islands, ening of the brain, caused, perhaps, by intense and long- Mandioli and Kasiruta, between 1270 and 127o and 50' E. continued mental exertion.

long. It is of an irregular form, consisting of two distinct BACHELOR, a word of various meaning, and of ex- mountainous parts, united by a low isthmus, which a slight ceedingly obscure origin. In modern times the most subsidence would submerge. The area is estimated at about common significations of it are—(1), an unmarried person; 600 geographical square miles. Sandstone, coralline lime(2), one who has taken the lowest degree in any of the stone, and pebbly conglomerate are the prevailing rocks. faculties at a university. At various times, however, it Of volcanic formations no traces were discovered by Mr. has signified either a young man in general, from which Wallace, but other travellers speak of hot springs that seem the first of the modern meanings was easily developed ; or to point to volcanic activity. The sulphur spring at Taua knight who was unable to lead a body of retainers into benkit has a temperature of 125° Fahr.; and a more rethe field, i.e., to use the technical phrase, was not able markable example of the same phenomenon exists at Sayo lever bannière; or, finally, an ecclesiastic at the lowest wang on the east coast. The highest mountain in the southstage of his course of training. It has also been pointed ern half of the island is Gunong Sabella, which is regardout that bacheleria, which meant the body of aspirants to ed by the natives as the seat of evil spirits. It was par knighthood, came to be used as synonymous with gentry. tially ascended by Bernstein in 1861. A large portion of

Etymology gives little help in arranging these meanings the surface is richly wooded, and sago, cocoa-nuts, and so as to discover the unity underlying them. In medieval cloves are abundantly produced, while, in spite of the ex. Latin the word baccalaria (connected by Ducange with termination of nutmeg-trees by the Dutch, at least one exvasseleria, by Stubbs with bacca, i.e., vacca, a cow), which, tensive grove remains. Bachian is remarkable as the most according to Diez, is peculiar to the south of France and eastern point on the globe inhabited by any of the Quadthe north of Spain, signified a certain portion of land, rumana. The interior of the island is uninhabited, and the size and tenure of which imposed on the possessor none of the dwellers on the coast are indigenous. They certain feudal duties. The possessor was called baccalarius, consist of the Sirani or Christian descendants of the Porand the name readily acquired the signification of oné tuguese, of Malays, with a Papuan element, Galela men who, from poverty or other cause, as youth, was not able from the north of Jilolo, and a colony from Tomore, in the to take rank as a knight. As a third stage in the use of eastern peninsula of Celebes. The Sirani preserve various the word, Diez marks out the application of it to denote marks of their Portuguese origin, wear a semi-European the lowest degree in a university. But though these dress, and celebrate Sunday with dancing and music. The transitions from the primitive meaning may perhaps ap- government of the island is vested in a sultan, under the pear natural, there is no historic evidence of their having protection of the Dutch, to whom it is becoming of considertaken place. The same applies to the five meanings given able importance from the discovery of coal and other minin Ducange.

erals. The chief town or village, called Amassing by the We look with more prospect of success to the old French natives, but often spoken of as Bachian, is situated on the words bacelle, bacelote, bacheletle, bachelerie, bachelage, which isthmus. have all the meaning of youth, apprenticeship. They may BACKGAMMON, a game played with dice, said to have possibly be connected with the Celtic or Welsh words, been invented about the 10th century (Strutt). The etybach, little, bachgen, a boy. (See Wedgwood, s.v., who is mology of the word backgammon is disputed'; it is probof opinion that the baccalarius of the north of Spain is not ably Saxon,-Bæc, back; gamen, game, i.e., a game in in any way connected with our word bachelor.) It is very which the players are liable to be sent back. Other deriprobable that this is truly the root of the word. It has, vations are, Dan. bakke, tray, gammen, game (Wedgwood); however, been frequently connected with baculus, a stick, and Welsh, bach, little, cammaun, battle (Henry). from which is supposed to have come bacularius, as the Backgammon is played by two persons, having between word used often to be spelled. (See Promptorium Par. them a backgammon board. (See diagram.) The board is vulorum, s.v.) Whether the relation in this case is that of divided into tables, each table being marked with six points, shooting forth or budding (cf. the Portuguese bacharel, a colored alternately white and black. The inner and outer twig of vine, and Barbazan's derivation from baccalia), or tables are separated from each other by a projecting bar. the more obvious one suggested by the functions of the The board is furnished with fifteen white and fifteen bacularius, who appears to have acted as the monitor or black men, disposed at the commencement of a game in the præpostor at schools (see H. T. Riley, Chronica Monasterii manner shown in cut. The arrangement of the men may St. Albani), is very doubtful.

be reversed, as it would be if the diagram were turned upBachelors, or unmarried persons, have in many countries side down, and the white men put where the black now been subjected to penal laws. The best-known examples stand, and vice versa, there being no rule as to whether the of such legislation are those of Sparta and Rome. At play shall be from right to left, or from left to right. It is Sparta, citizens who remained unmarried after a certain usual to make the inner table (see diagram) the one nearest age were subjected to a species of arcuía. They were not to the light (Académie des jeux; regles du jeu de toute-table). allowed to witness the gymnastic exercises the maidens; Two dice boxes are required, one for each player, and a and during winter they were compelled to march naked pair of dice, which are used by both players. "The dice are round the market-place, singing a song composed against I marked with numbers on each face from one to six, number one being called ace; two, deuce; three, trois (pro- a single man on an unoccupied point, it is called leaving a Donnced trey); four, quatre (katre); five, cinque ; and six, blot. Thus, if the first throw is six, cinque, and white carries siz (size).

a man from black's inner table as far as he will go, white The board being arranged, each player throws one die; leaves a blot on the ace point of his opponent's home the one who throws the higher number has the right of table. playing first; and he may either adopt the throw originally When a blot is left the man may be taken up, or the made by the two players, each throwing one die; or he blot may be hit

, if, while it remains, the adversary throws a may throw again, using both dice.

number which will enable him to place a man on that point. Each player moves his own men from point to point, the For example, if a blot is left on black's ace point, as in the moves being determined by throws of the dice made by the case previously supposed, and black throws a five, or players alternately. A player may move any of his men numbers that make up five, he can hit the blot from his a number of points corresponding to the numbers thrown six point; or similarly, if he throws seven, or numbers that by him, provided the board is not blocked by two or more make up seven, he can hit the blot from the three men of his adversary's men occupying the point to which he posted in his outer table. The man hit is placed on the

bar, and has to enter black's inner table again at white's BLACK.

next throw, Black's Home or Inner Table. Black's Outer Table. It will be observed that black in taking up white leaves

a blot himself, which subjects him to be taken up if white enters with an ace. If this should occur, black's man is placed on the bar, and has at his next throw to enter white's inner table, whence he has to start his journey home. Suppose white to have a blot as before on black's ace point, and black to throw sixes, black could then move two men from white's outer table to his own bar point (so called because it is close to the bar), and thence again to his own ace point, when he would hit white without leaving a blot.

The point in which a man is entered must not be blocked by two or more men belonging to the adversary. Thus, to carry on the illustration, if white now throws aces, or sixes, or six, ace, he cannot enter at all. He is not allowed to move any man while he has one to enter; consequently his throw is null and void, and black throws again. It sometimes happens that one player has a man up, and that his adversary occupies all the points on his own home table with two or more men (called having his table made up). In this case, the player with a map up cannot enter; and as

it is useless for him to throw, his adversary continues throwWhite's Home or Inner Table. White's Outer Table.

ing until he is obliged to open a point on his inner table. WHITE.

Two blots may be taken up at once if the adversary Backgammon Board.

throws numbers that will hit them both. It is possible with

doublets to take up four blots at once, but this could scarcely wishes to move. Thus, suppose white throws cinque, six, happen in a game between players of any proficiency. he may move one of his men from the left-hand corner The game proceeds by moving the men round towards of the black's inner table to the left-hand corner of black's home, or by hitting blots and sending them back, until one outer table for six; he may, again, move the same man of the players gets all his men into his inner table or home. five points further on, viz., to the right-hand point of the As soon as this stage is reached, the player who has same table for five, when his move is completed; or he accomplished it begins to take his men off the board or to may leave the man first moved six, and move any other bear them. Thus, suppose he has several men on every point man five points, where the board is open. But white can- of his table, and throws six, quatre; he bears one man from not move a man for five from the ace point in black's his six point, and one from his quatre point. If his six inner table, because the six point in that table (i. e., the point is unoccupied, he can bear a six from his cinque fifth point from where white moves) is blocked by the point, or from the highest point which is occupied, and black men. Any part of the throw which cannot be so on with smaller numbers, provided the numbers thrown moved is of no effect; but it is compulsory for a player to are higher than the points occupied; if lower, the throw move the whole throw if he can. Thus, if the men were must be moved. A player has the option of moving a man differently placed, and white could move a six, and having when he can, instead of bearing it. Thus, in the case done so conld not move a five, his move is completed. If, originally given the six must be borne, because a six however, by moving the five first, he can afterwards move cannot be moved; but the quatre may be moved if prea six, he may be required to make the move in that manner. ferred, by moving a man from the six point to the deuce All white's moves must be in the direction indicated, viz., point, or from cinque point to the ace point. Doublets from black's inner table to black's outer, and from this to entitle to bear or move four men in accordance with the white's outer table, and so on to white's inner table; and all previous rules. The adversary similarly bears his men as black's moves must be in the contrary direction. Of course, soon as he gets them all home. If, after a player has comwhere men are originally placed part of the way home, menced bearing his men, he should be hit on a blot, he they only have to traverse the remainder of the distance. must enter on his adversary's inner table, and must bring

Á player in moving must not skip a point which is the man taken up into his own inner table before he can blocked by his adversary's men. Thus, suppose white's bear any more. first throw is fives, he cannot move a man from the ace Whoever first bears all his men wins the game:-a single point of black's inner table to the cinque point of black's game or hit if his adversary has borne any of his men; a outer, although that is free; because in moving the first double game or gammon if the adversary has not borne a cinque he comes to a point which is occupied by black. man; and a triple game or backgammon, if, at the time the

When two similar numbers are thrown (called doublets), winner bears bis last man, his adversary, not having borne the player has a double move. Thus, if he throws aces a man, has one in the winner's inner table. he has to move four aces instead of two, and so on for the When a series of games is played, the winner of a hit has other numbers.

the first throw in the succeeding game; but if a gammon is When a player moves his men so as to occupy a point won, the players each throw a single die to determine the with two men, it is called making a point. Thus, if ace, first move of the next game. trois are thrown and white moves one man from the three In order to play backgammon well, it is necessary to in his outer table to the cinque point in his inner table, for know all the chances on two dice, and to apply them in trois, and then moves a man from the six point to the cinque various ways. The number of different throws that can be point of his inner table, for ace, he makes a point there. made is thirty-six. (See HAZARD.) By taking all the comIf a player leaves only a single man on a point, or places binations of these throws which include given numbers, it


2 “ 1,





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7 “ 5,

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is easily discovered where blots may be left with the least sary's ace point, and the quatre or cinque from the five men id probability

of being hit. For example, to find the chance of your adversary's outer table. If playing for a gammon, play being hit where a blot can only be taken up by an ace; the the ace on the cinque point in your inner table. adversary may throw two aces, or ace in combination with

Ace six: make your bar point. any other number up to six, and he may throw each of these

Deuces: move two on the quatre point in your inner table, in two different ways, so that there are in all eleven ways in and two on the trois point in your opponent's inner table. If which an ace may be thrown. This deducted from thirty-six inner table, and two from the five men in your adversary's outer

playing for a gammon, move two on the quatre point in your (the total number of throws), leaves twenty-five; so that it is table. 25 to 11 against being hit on an ace. It is very important Deuce trois and deuce cinque: move two men from the five to bear in mind the chance of being hit on any number. placed in your adversary's outer table. The following table gives the odds against being hit on any Deuce quatre: make the quatre point in your own table. puinber within the reach of one or two dice.

Deuce six: move a man from the five in your adversary's It is 25 to 11, or about 9 to 4, against being hit on 1

outer table, and place him on the cinque point in your own table " 24 “ 12,

Threes: play two on the cinque point in your inner table, and 22 “ 14, or about 3 “ 2,

three on the quatre point of your adversary's inner table. For 21 “ 15, 5,

a gammon, play two on your cinque point and two on your trois 21 “ 15,

point in your inner table.
19 “ 17,
91“ 81,

Trois quatre: move two men from the five in your opponents

outer table.

5 1,
5“ 1,

Trois cinque: make the trois point in your own table.
6“ 1,

Trois six : bring a man from your adversary's ace point as far

as he will go.
11 “ 1,

17 “1,

Fours: move two on the cinque point in your adversary's inner
35 “ 1,

table, and two from the five in his outer table. For a gammon

move two men from the five in your opponent's outer table to the The table shows that if a blot must be left within the cinque point in your own table. reach of one die (i.e., on any number from 1 to 6), the Quatre cinque and quatre six: carry a man from your advernearer it is left to the adversary's man, the less probability sary's ace point as far as he will go. there is of its being hit. Also, that it is long odds against Fives: move two men from the five in your adversary's outer being hit on a blot which is only to be reached with double table to the trois point in your inner table. dice, and that, in that case (i.e., on any number from 7 to

Cinque six: move a man from your adversary's ace point as 12), the further off the blot is, the less chance there is of far as he will go. its being hit.

Sixes (the second best throw): move two on your adversary's The table assumes that the board is open for every pos

bar point and two on your own bar point.

Subsequent moves depend on the intervening throws; consesible throw. If part of the throw is blocked by an inter- quently the problem becomes too complicated for analysis. Some vening point being held by adverse men, the chance of general rules, however, may be given. being hit may be less. Thus, a blot may be hit on an eight In carrying the men home carry the most distant man to your with deuces; fours; cinque, trois (twice); or six, deuce adversary's bar point, next to the six point in your outer table, (twice). If the fourth point is blocked, the blot cannot be and then to the six point in your inner table. By following this hit with deuces or fours, and consequently the chance of its rule as nearly as the throws admit, you will carry the men to being hit is reduced from 30 to 6 to 32 to 4, or from 5 to 1 your inner table in the fewest number of throws. When all are to 8 to 1.

home but two, it is often advisable to lose a point, if by so doing Two principles, then, have to be considered in moving you put it in the power of a high throw to save a gammon.

If, in endeavoring to gain your own or your adversary's the men:-(1.) To make points where there is the best cinque point, you have to leave a blot and are hit, and your chance of obstructing the opponent; (2.) When obliged to adversary is forwarder in the game than you, you must put anleave blots, to choose the position in which they are least other man on your cinque or bar point, or into your adversary's likely to be hit, i.e., either as near as possible to an adverse table. If this man is not hit, you may then make a point, and man, or as far as possible from any adverse men; or where so get as good a game as your opponent. If it is hit, you must the intervening points are blocked by the player's own men. play a back game (i.e., allow him to take up as many men as he

At the beginning of the game it is advisable, if possible, likes); and then in entering the men taken up, endeavor to secure to secure the cinque point in your own inner table, or the your adversary's ace and trois points, or ace and deuce points, cinque point in your adversary's inner table, or both. If and keep three men upon his ace point, so that if you hit him you succeed in this, you should then play a bold

game in from there you still keep the ace point protected. hopes of winning a gammon. The next best point to gain have to bring all your men home to the six point in your inner

To find which is the forwardest, reckon how many points you is your own bar point; and the next to that the quatre table. Add to this six for every man on the six point in your point in your own inner table.

tables, five for every man on your cinque point, and so on; and If you are fortunate enough to secure all these points, then make the same calculation for your adversary's men. and your adversary's inner table is less favorably made Avoid carrying many men upon the trois or deuce point in up, it is then to your interest to open your bar point (in your own tables, as these men are out of play, and the board is expectation of compelling your adversary to run out of your

left open

for your adversary. inner table with a six), and also to keep any men you may

Whenever you have taken up two of your adversary's men, and have in the outer tables spread (i.e., not to crowd a number have two or more points made in your inner table, spread your of men on one point). In this case you have a good chance other men to take the best chance of making another point in of hitting the man your adversary brings out, and also of your tables, and of hitting the man your adversary enters. As

soon as he enters, compare his game with yours, and, if equal or hitting the man he has left on your ace point.

If you succeed in taking both these men, and your ad- better, take up his man, except when playing for a hit only, and versary has a blot in his inner table, it will be to your in- your playing

the throw gives you a better chance for the bit.

Always take up a man if the blot you leave in making the terest not to make up your own table, but to leave a blot move can only be hit with double dice, except when playing for there on purpose, in hopes of his entering on it. You will a bit only, and you already have

two of your opponent's men then have a probability of hitting a third man, which, if in your tables, and your game is forwardest; because your havaccomplished, will give you considerable odds (according ing three of his men in your tables gives him a better chance to Hoyle, 4 to 1) in favor of winning a gammon; whereas of hitting you without leaving a blot than if he has only two. if you have only two of his men up, the odds are against

In entering a man which it is to your adversary's advantage

to hit, leave the blot upon the lowest point you can, e.g., ace your gammoning him.

point in preference to deuce point, and so on; because this The best move for every possible throw at the commencement crowds his game by taking out of it the men played on the low of a game is as follows:- If you throw aces (the best of all point. throws), move two on your bar point and two on your cinque When your adversary is bearing his men, and you bare two point. This throw is often given to inferior players by way of men in his table, say on his ace point, and several men in the odds.

outer table, it is to your advantage to leave one man on the ace Ace deuce: move the ace from your adversary's ace point (if point, because it prevents his bearing his men to the greatest playing for a hit only), and the deuce from the five men placed advantage, and gives you the chance of his leaving a blot. But in your adversary's outer table. If playing for a gammon, move if, on calculation, you find that you can probably save the the ace from the six to the cinque point in your inner table. gammon by bringing both your men out of his table, do not Ace trois: make the cinque point in your inner table.

wait for a blot. To make this calculation, you must ascertain Ace quatre and ace cinque: move the ace from your adver- | in how many tbrows you can bring all your men howe (a throw averaging eight points), and in how many throws he can bear he probably received much of his instruction at home. all bis men, on the assumption that be will bear on the average Yet, Rawley tells us, “his first and childish years were not two men at each throw.

without some mark of eminency; at which time he was The laws of backgainmon (as given by Hoyle) are as endued with that pregnancy and towardness of wit, as they follows:

were presages of that deep and universal apprehension

which was manifest in him afterwards, and caused him to 1. When a man is taken from any point, it must be played; be taken notice of by several persons of worth and place, when two men are taken from it, they also must be played. . 2: and especially by the queen, who, as I have been inA man is not supposed to be played till it is placed upon a point formed, delighted much to confer with him and to prove there is no penalty inflicted, because by his playing with a lesser him with questions; unto whom he delivered himself with number than he is entitled to, he plays to a disadvantage for that gravity and maturity above his years that her majesty want of the deficient man to make up his tables. 4. If he bear would often term him, The young lord keeper.".

In April

, any number of men before he has entered a man taken up, and 1573, he was entered at Trinity College, Cambridge, where whieb of course he was obliged to enter, such men so borne must for three years he resided with his brother Anthony. Our be entered again in the adversary's tables as well as the man information with regard to these important years is singutaken up. 5. If he have mistaken his throw and played it, and larly scanty. We know only that Bacon at Cambridge, his adversary have thrown, it is not in the choice of either of like Descartes at La Flèche, applied himself diligently to the players to alter it, unless they both agree so to do.

the several sciences as then taught, and came to the conclu. Russian Backgammon or Tric-Trac is played with the sion that the methods employed and the results attained same implements as backgammon. The men are not placed were alike worthless and erroneous. Although he preon the board, but both black and white are entered in the served a reverence for Aristotle (of whom, however, he same table by throws of the dice, and both players move seems to have known but little), he learned to despise the in the same direction round to the opposite table. A player Aristotelian philosophy. It yielded no fruit, was serviceis not obliged to enter all his men before he moves any; able only for disputation, and the end it proposed to itself and he can take up blots on entering, although he has was a mistaken one. Philosophy must be taught its true some of his men, which have never been entered, off the business, and to attain its new aim a new method must be board. But, while a player has a man up, he must enter devised. With the first germs of this great conception in it before entering any more, or moving any of those already his mind, Bacon left the university in 1576. entered. If he cannot enter the man that is up, he loses In the same year he and his brother Anthony were enthe benefit of the throw.

tered de societate magistrorum at Gray's Inn, and a few A player who throws doublets must move not only the months later he was sent abroad with Sir Amyas Paulet, number thrown, but also doublets of the number corre- the English ambassador at Paris. He spent some time in sponding to the opposite side of the dice; thus, if he throws that city, and travelled through several of the French provsixes, he must first enter or move the sixes, as the case inces. The disturbed state of government and society in may be, and then aces, and he also has another throw. If France at that time must have afforded him much valuable he throws doublets a second time, he moves according to political instruction; and it has been commonly supposed the rule already given, and throws again, and so on. The that certain Notes on the State of Christendom, usually printed privilege is sometimes restricted by not allowing this ad- in his works, contain the results of his observations. But vantage to the first doublets thrown by each player. It is Mr. Spedding has shown that there is no reason for ascribsometimes extended by allowing the thrower of deuce, ace, ing these “Notes” to him, and that they may be attributed to choose any doublets he likes on the opposite sides of the with more probability to one of his brother Anthony's cordice, and to throw again. The restriction with regard to respondents. the first doublets thrown does not apply to deuce, ace, nor The sudden death of his father in February, 1579, necesdoes throwing it remove the restriction with regard to first sitated Bacon's return to England, and exercised a very doublets.

serious influence on his fortunes. A considerable sum oi A player must first be able to complete the doublets money had been laid up by Sir Nicholas in order to purthrown. If he cannot move the whole throw, he cannot chase an estate for his youngest son, the only one othertake the corresponding doublets; and he is not allowed wise unprovided for. Owing to his sudden death, this inanother throw if he cannot move all the points to which tention was not carried out, and but a fifth part of the money he is entitled. In other respects the game is similar to descended to Francis, who thus began his career in comordinary backgammon. The chief object in the game is parative poverty. It was one of the gravest misfortunes of for the player who has his men in advance to secure as his life: he started with insufficient means, acquired a habit many successive points as possible, so that his adversary of borrowing, and was never afterwards out of debt. As it may be unable to pass or hit the forward men. (H. J.) had become absolutely necessary that he should adopt some

BACKHUYSEN, LUDOLF, an eminent painter of the profession by which an adequate income would be yielded, Dutch school, was born at Embden, in Hanover, in 1631, he selected that of law, and took up his residence at Gray's and died in 1709. He was brought up as a merchant at Inn in 1579. Amsterdam, but early discovered so strong a genius for Nothing throws so clear a light on the career of any painting that he relinquished business and devoted him- great man as a knowledge of his character and aims when self to art. He studied first under Everdingen and then he made the first step into the world. We learn from this under Dubbels, two eminent masters of the time, and soon how he himself desired to shape his course, and at every became celebrated for his sea pieces. He was an ardent point can see how far his actions correspond to the end he student of nature, and frequently exposed himself on the had placed before him. We have, fortunately, information sea in an open boat in order to study the effects of tem- from Bacon himself on these points. In the fragment pests. His compositions, which are very numerous, are De Interpretatione Nature Procemium (written probably nearly all variations of one subject, and in a style pecu- about 1603) he analyzes his own mental character, and liarly' his own, marked by intense realism or faithful imi- lays before us the objects he had in view when he entered tation of nature. In his later years Backhuysen employed on public life. If his opening sentence, Ego cum me ad his time in etching and caligraphy. Several of his best utilitates humanas natum existimarem, seems at first sight pieces are in the gallery of the Louvre.

a little arrogant, it must be remembered that it is the BACON, FRANCIS, BARON VERULAM, VISCOUNT ST. arrogance of the ueyahóyruxos, who thinks himself wo ALBAN, was born at York House in the Strand, London, of great things, and is worthy; it is a great self-esteem, on the 22d January, 1561. He was the youngest son of Sir based upon a consciousness of great powers. This grand Nicholas Bacon, the celebrated lawyer and statesman, who and comprehensive aim, the production of good to the hufor twenty years of Elizabeth's reign held the seals as lord man race through the discovery of truth, was combined in keeper. His mother, the second wife of Sir Nicholas, was him with the more practical desire to be of service to his a daughter of Sir Anthony Cooke, formerly tutor to Ed- country, service for which he felt himself by birth and ward VI. She was a woman of considerable culture, well education eminently fitted. He purposed, therefore, to skilled in the classical studies of the period, and a warm obtain, if possible, some honorable post in the state which adherent of the Reformed or Puritan Church. One of her would give him the means of realizing, so far as in hima sisters was married to the famous Lord Treasurer Burgh- lay, these two great projects, and would at the same time ley. Very little is known of Bacon's early life and educa- enable him to do somewhat for the church, the third of the tion. His health being then, as always, extremely delicate, objects whose good he had at heart. The constant striving after these three ends is the key to Bacon's life. His quali- fortunes, and has been much misunderstood, it is necessary fications for accomplishing the task he thus set before him to state, as briefly as possible, the whole facts of the case. were not small. His intellect was far-seeing and acute, The House having been duly informed of the state necesquick and yet cautious, meditative, methodical, and free sities, assented to a double subsidy, and appointed a from prejudice. If we add to this account what Bacon committee to draw up the requisite articles. Before this himself does not tell us—that he seems to have been of an was completed, a message arrived from the House of Lords unusually sweet temper and amiable disposition—we shall requesting a conference, which was granted. The committee have a fairly complete picture of his mental character at of the Commons were then informed that the crisis de the critical period of his entry into the world.

manded a triple subsidy to be collected in a shorter time In 1580 he appears to have taken the first step in his than usual, that the Lords could not assent to less than this, projected career by applying, through his uncle, Burghley, and that they desired to confer on the matter. This

or some post at court. His suit, though well received by proposal of the Lords to discuss supply infringed upon the the queen and the lord treasurer, was unsuccessful; the par- privileges of the Commons; accordingly, when the report ticulars of it are totally unknown. For two years after this of committee was read to the lower House, Bacon stood up disa ppointinent he worked quietly at Gray's Inn, and in and spoke against the proposed conference, pointing out 1582 was admitted an outer barrister. In 1584 he took his at the same time that a communication from the Lords seat in Parliament for Melcombe in Dorsetshire, but the might be received, but that the actual deliberation on it notes for the session do not disclose what part he took or must be taken by themselves alone. His motion, after what reputation he gained. About the same time he made some delay, was carried, and the conference was rejected. another application to Burghley, apparently with a view to The Lords upon this lowered their demands, and desired expediting his progress at the bar. His uncle, who appears merely to make a communication, which, being legitimate, to have " taken his zeal for ambition," wrote him a severe was at once assented to. The House had then before them letter, taking him to task for arrogance and pride, qualities the proposal for a triple subsidy, to be collected in three, or, which Bacon vehemently disclaimed. It is uncertain what as the motion ultimately was shaped, in four years, instead success attended this suit; but as his advancenient at the of in six, as the ordinary custom would have been. Bacon, bar was usually rapid, his uncle's influence may not im- who approved of the increased subsidy, was opposed to the probably have been exerted in his behalf. Some years short period in which it was proposed to be raised. He sug. later, in 1589, he received the first substantial piece of gested that it would be difficult or impossible for the people to patronage from his powerful kinsman, the reversion of the meet such heavy demands, that discontent and trouble would clerkship of the Star Chamber being granted to him. The arise, and that the better method of procedure was to raise office was valuable, worth about £1600 a year; but it did money by levy or imposition. His motion appears to have not become vacant' for nearly twenty years, and was thus, received no support, and the four years' subsidy was passed as Bacon used to say,“ like another man's ground buttail- unanimously. Bacon, as it turned out, had been mistaken ing upon his house, which might mend his prospect, but in thinking that the country would be unable to meet the did not fill his barn.” A considerable period of his life increased taxation, and his conduct, though prompted by a had thus slipped away, and his affairs had not prospered. pure desire to be of service to the queen, gave deep, and He had written on the condition of parties in the church; well-nigh ineradicable offence. He was accused of seeking he had set down his thoughts on philosophical reform in the popularity, and was for a time excluded from the court. His lost tract, Temporis Partus Maximus; but he had failed in letter to Burghley," who had told him of the queen's disobtaining the position which he looked upon as an indis- pleasure with his speech, offers no apology for what he had pensable condition of success. A long and eloquent letter said, but expresses regret that his motives should have been to Burghley,' written under these circumstances, gives a misunderstood, and that any offence should have been taken, vivid picture of his mental state, throws additional light He soon felt that the queen's anger was not to be appeased upon his character and aims, and at the same time gives by such a justification. The attorney-generalship had a slight hint as to the cause of his uncle's slackness in fallen vacant, and Bacon became a candidate for the office, promoting him.

his most formidable rival being his life-long antagonist, Some time before this, perhaps as early as 1588, Bacon Coke, who was then solicitor. Essex warmly espoused appears to have become acquainted with Essex, the impetu- Bacon's cause, and earnestly pressed his claims upon the pus and headstrong favorite of Elizabeth's later years. At queen; but his impetuous, pettish pleading tended rather the close of 1591 he was acting as the earl's confidential to retard than advance the cause. Burghley, on the other adviser, and in the following year Anthony Bacon, return- hand, in no way promoted his nephew's interest; he would ing from the Continent, was also introduced to the young no-recommend him for the solicitorship, but not for the bleman, and the two brothers exerted themselves diligently attorney-generalship; and it is not improbable that Şir in his service. In Feb., 1593, Parliament was called, and Robert Cecil secretly used his influence against his cousin. Bacon took his seat as member for Middlesex. The special The queen delayed the appointment, and Bacon's fortunes, occasion for which the House had been summoned was the as they then stood, could ill brook delay. He was harassed discovery of one of the numerous Popish plots that distracted with debt, and at times so disheartened that he contemElizabeth's reign. The conspiracy seemed to be formidable, plated retirement from public life and devotion to abstract and Government felt the necessity for increased supplies. studies. In March, 1594, it was at last understood that As Bacon's conduct in this emergency seriously affected his Coke was to be attorney-general. Esses, though bitterly

1." I wax now somewhat ancient; one-and-thirty years is a great mortified, at once threw all his energies into the endeavor deal of sand in the hour-glass. ... I ever bare a mind (in some mid- to procure for Bacon the solicitorship; but in this case dle place that I could discharge) to serve her majesty ; not as a man also, his method of dealing, which was wholly opposed to business (for the contemplative planet carrieth me away wholly); but Bacon's advice, seemed to irritate, instead of conciliating as a man born under an excellent sovereign, that deserveth the dedi- the queen. The old offence was not yet forgiven, and cation of all men's abilities. ... Again, the meanness of my estate after a tedious delay, the office was given, in Oct., 1595, doth somewhat move me; for though I cannot accuse myself that I am either prodigal or slothful, yet my health is not to spend, vor my

to Sergeant Fleming. Burghley and Puckering seem to course to get. Lastly, I confess that I have as vast contemplative have assisted Bacon honestly, if not over-warmly, in this ends as I have moderate civil ends: for I have taken all knowledge second application; but the conduct of Cecil had roused to be my province; and if I could purge it of two sorts of rovers: suspicions which were not perhaps without foundation. posities, the other with blind experiments and auricular traditions Essex, to compensate in some degree for Bacon's disappointand impostures, bath committed so many spoils, I hope I should bring ment, insisted upon presenting him with a piece of land, ventions and discoveries—the best state of that province. This worth about £1800, and situated probably near Twickenwhether it be curiosity, or vain-glory, or nature, or (if one take it ham Park. Nor did his kindness cease there; before favorably) philanthropia, is so fixed in my mind as it cannot be re- sailing on the expedition to Cadiz, in the beginning of moved. And I do easily see, that place of any reasonable command- 1596, he addressed letters to Buckhurst, Fortescue, and

And if your lordship shall find now, or at any time, that I do Egerton, earnestly requesting them to use their influence seek or affect any place whereunto any that is nearer to your lord- towards procuring for Bacon the vacant office of master of ship shall be convenient, say then that I am a most dishonest man. And if your lordship will not carry me on, ... this I will do, I will

the rolls. Before anything came of this application, the sell the inheritance that I have, and purchase some lease of quick 2 Spedding, Letters and Life, i. 234-35, cf. I. 362. This letter, with revenue, or some office of gain that shall be executed by deputy, and those to Puckering or Essex and the queen, i. 240-4h, should be com. so give over all care of service, and become some sorry bookmaker, pared with what is said of them by Macaulay in bis Essay on Bacon or a true pioneer in that mine of truth."-(Spedding, Letters and Life, and by Campbell, Lives, ii. 287.. 1. 108-9.)

3 See Leliers and Life, i. 289, ii. 34.

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