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home government of the Spanish colonies. His principal others so frequently fostered at that time, and which always work is his Travels in South America from 1781 to 1801; resulted in failure and renewed oppression. His treatise published in French from the author's MS., by C. A. Degli Ultimi Casi di Romagna (Of the Jast Events in the Walckenaer, with atlas and plates, 4 vols. Svo, Paris, Romagna), published in 1846, before the death of Pope 1809. It contains a valuable account of the discovery, Gregory XVI., was at once a satire on the Papal Governconquest, and civil and natural history of Paraguay and ment, a denunciation of the republican attempts at insurRio de la Plata ; and embodies his former contributions to rection, and an exhortation to the Italian princes to adopt the zoology of these countries, which had appeared in a a national policy. M. d'Azeglio returned to Rome in 1846, French translation at Paris in 1801. The work is enriched after the death of Pope Gregory, in June, and, it is thought, with the notes of Walckenaer and Cuvier, and a notice of had considerable influence in persuading the new Pope the author by the former. An English translation of part (Pius IX.) to conduct his government in accordance with of Azara's work on the Natural History of Paraguay ap- liberal principles. He supported measures relating to the peared at Edinburgh in 1838.

freedom of the press, the reform of the Papacy, and the AZARA, Don JOSE NICHOLAS D’, the elder brother of emancipation of the Jews. In 1848 he accompanied the the naturalist, born in 1731, was appointed in 1765 Spanish Papal army of observation sent from Rome to watch the agent and procurator-general, and in 1785, ambassador at insurgent forces in Lombardy and Venetia, which had Rome. During his long residence there he distinguished temporarily discomfited the Austrians, and were being himself as a collector of Italian antiquities and as a patron supported by Charles Albert, king of Sardinia. General of art. He was also an able and active diplomatist

, took Durando, who had the command of the Papal army, a leading share in the difficult and hazardous task of the actively assisted the rebels, in defiance, it is said, of bis expulsion of the Jesuits from Spain, and was instrumental instructions; and Azeglio was severely wounded in the leg in securing the election of Pius VI. He withdrew to at the battle of Vicenza, where he commanded a legion. Florence when the French took possession of Rome in In the same year (1848), he published a work on the Aus1798. He was afterwards Spanish ambassador at Paris; trian Assassinations in Lombardy; and on the opening of was three times deprived of, and restored to his office; and the first Sardinian parliament he was chosen a member of was finally preparing to return to his antiquarian studies the chamber of deputies. After the crushing defeat of the in Italy when he was seized with a fatal illness, and died Sardinians at Novara, March 23, 1849,--a defeat, which at Paris in January, 1804.

brought the second of the two brief wars with Austria to AZEGLIO, MASSIMO TAPARELLI, MARQUIS D', an emi- a disastrous close, —D'Azeglio was made president of the Dent Italian author and statesman, was born in October, cabinet by Victor Emmanuel, in whose favor his father, 1798, at Turin. He was descended from an ancient and Charles Albert, had just resigned. In this position the noble family of Piedmont, and was the son of a military marquis used his high powers with great advantage to the officer, who, when the subject of this notice was in his progress and consolidation of the Sardinian kingdom. fifteenth year, was appointed ambassador to Rome. The His occupation of the office lasted from the 11th of May, boy went with him, and, being thus introduced to the mag- 1849, to the 20th of October, 1852, when he was replaced Dificent works of art for which the Eternal City is famous, by Count Cavour. At the termination of the war of 1859, contracted a love for painting, as well as for music. He when a large portion of the States of the Church shook of desired to become a painter, and, although his studies were the dominion of the Pope, and declared for annexation to for a time interrupted by his receiving a commission in a the kingdom of Northern Italy, Azeglio was appointed Piedmontese cavalry, regiment, and by a subsequent ill. general and commissioner-extraordinary, purely military, ness, brought on by the severity of his scientific investiga- for the Roman States—a temporary office, which he adtions and resulting in his quitting the service, he eventually ministered in a conciliatory and sagacious spirit. He died returned to Rome, and, with some difficulty, obtained his on the 11th of January, 1866, leaving a reputation for father's permission to devote himself to art. He remained probity and wisdom, which his countrymen will not forget at the Papal capital eight years, and acquired great skill to cherish. His writings, chiefly of a polemical character, and some fame as a landscape-painter. At the close of were numerous. In addition to those already mentioned, that period events directed his mind into other channels. the most noteworthy was a work on The Court of Rome His father died in 1830, and the younger Azeglio then and the Gospels, of which an English translation, with a removed to Milan, where he became acquainted with preface by Dr. Layard, appeared in 1859. A volume of Alessandro Manzoni, the poet and novelist, whose daughter personal recollections was issued, in 1867, after M. d'Azehe married. In this way his thoughts were turned glio's death. towards literature and politics. At that time, Italy was AZERBIJAN (so called, according to Sir William Ouseprofoundly agitated by the views of the national and ley, from a fire-temple; azer, fire, and baijan, a keeper), a liberal party. The country was divided into several dis- province of Persia, corresponding to the ancient Atropatene tinct states, of which the greater number, even of those It is separated from a division of the Russian Empire on that were nominally independent, were under the influence the N. by the River Araxes, and from Irak on the S. by of Austria. Lombardy and Venetia formed parts of the the Kizil-Uzen, or Golden Stream, while it has the Caspian Austrian dominions. The petty monarchies of the north Sea and Ghilan on the E., and Asiatic Turkey on the W. were little better than vassals to the house of Haps- Its area is estimated at 25,280 square miles. The country burg; the Papacy, in the centre, was opposed to all is superior in fertility to the southern provinces of Persia. national aspirations; and the kingdom of the Two It differs entirely from the provinces of Fars and Irak, as Sicilies, in the south, was a despotism, which for cruelty it consists of a regular succession of undulating eminences, and mental darkness could not have been exceeded in partially cultivated, and opening into extensive plains such Asia itself. The French revolution of July, 1830, gave as Anjan, Tabreez, and Urumiyah or Van. Near the cenadditional force to the movements of the Italian liberal tre of the province the mountains of Sahend or Serhund party, and the young men of the day threw themselves rise in an accumulated mass to the height of 9000 feet above with fervor into the crusade against old abuses and foreign the sea. The highest point, Mount Sevellan, towards its domination. Mazzini was just beginning his career as an eastern frontier, attains a height of about 12,000 feet accordagitator, and the whole air was surcharged with revolu- ing to some authorities, but according to Khanikoff, it is tionary enthusiasm. This was especially the case in the 15,400; and the Talish Mountains, which run from N. to north of Italy, where Massimo d'Azeglio was now settled. S. parallel to, and at no great distance from, the Caspian, Art was abandoned by him for literature, and literature have an altitude of 7000 feet. Except the boundary rivers was practised with a view to stimulating the sense of already mentioned, there are none of any great extent; but national independence and unity. In 1833, M. d'Azeglio these both receive a number of tributaries from the provpublished a novel called Ettore Fieramosca, which was ince, and several streams of considerable volume, such as followed in 1841 by another, entitled Niccolo di Lapi. the Jughutu, the Agi, and the Shar, belong to the basin of Both had a political tendency, and, between the two dates the Lake Urumiyah. This lake is about 300 miles in cirat which they appeared, M. d'Azeglio visited various parts cumference, and 4200 feet above the sea. Its waters are of Italy, diffusing those liberal principles which he saw more intensely salt than the sea, and it is “supposed to contain were the only hope of the future. His views, however, no living creature except a kind of polype;" but it is the were very different from those of the republican party. He resort of great flocks of the flamingo. The country to the was a constitutional monarchist, and strongly opposed to N. and W., namely, the districts of Urumiyah and Selmart, the insurrections and secret conspiracies which Mazzini and I is the most picturesque and prosperous part of Azerbijan;

Vrt, I::.-110

yet even here the traveller from the more civilized regions from Gházípur to Lucknow. The soil is fertile and very of Europe laments the want of enterprise among the inhab- highly cultivated, bearing magnificent crops of rice, sugar itants. Azerbijan is on the whole, however, reckoned one cane, and indigo. The principal industries of the district of the most productive provinces of Persia, and the vil- are cotton and silk manufactures, the total value of which lages have a more pleasing appearance than those of Irak. in 1872 amounted to £109,081. The settlement of the land The orchards and gardens, in which they are for the most revenue in 702 estates or mahals is fixed and permanent; part embosomed, yield delicious fruits of almost every de- in the remaining 3284 estates a settlement was made by scription, which are dried in large quantities. Provisions Mr. Thomason in 1836 for thirty years, and is now (1873) are cheap and abundant, and wine is made in considerable undergoing revision. The total revenue of the district from quantities. There is throughout the district a lack of for-all sources amounted in 1870–71 to £187,464; the expendiests and of timber trees. Lead, copper, saltpetre, sulphur, ture in the same year being £172,550. Six towns are reand coal are found within the confines of Azerbijan; also turned by the census of 1872 as containing a population of a kind of beautiful transparent marble or jasper, which upwards of 5000 inhabitants-viz., Azimgarh (the capital takes the highest polish, and is used in the buildings of of the district), population 15,893; Máu-Náth Bhanjan, Tabreez, Shiraz, and Ispahan, under the name of Tabreez 13,765; Mubárakpur, 12,068; Sikandarpur, 5239; Dubarí, or Belghami marble. There are exports of silk and cot- | 5014; and Pur, 5213. The municipalities are as follows:ton, textile fabrics, leather, hides, and lambskins, dry- Azímgarh city; the municipal income, which is derived from fruits, sugar, drugs, tobacco, and wax, &c., the total value octroi, amounted in 1872 to £1233, 23., the average incidence in 1870, à year of great trade depression, being £422,632. of taxation being is. 6 d. per head of the population. In the same year the imports amounted to £1,094,717. Máu-Náth Bhanjan, municipal income £125, 8s.; MobárakThe chief towns are Tabreez, Urumiyah (the supposed pur, £112, 16s.; and Sikandarpur, £48. The cost of the birthplace of Zoroaster), Ardebil, Khoee. Maragha, Dil municipal police of these three towns is levied by means man, Abbasabad, Mehrand, Siral, and Souj-Bolak. The of a direct cess on house occupiers. The total number of climate is healthful—in summer and autumn hot, but cold schools in Azímgarh district in 1871-72 was 286, attended in winter. The cold is severely felt by the lower orders, by 4271 Hindu and 3813 Mahometan pupils. The force owing to the want of fuel, for which there is no substitute becessary for the protection of person and property in except dried cow-dung, mixed with straw. The spring is 1871-72 consisted of 673 regular police, equal to 1 man to temperate and delightful in the plains, but on the moun- every 3.70 square miles of area, or 1 to every 2275 inhabtains snow lies eight months in the year; and hail-storms itants; besides a village watch or rural police force consistare so violent as frequently to destroy the cattle in the fields. ing of 2538 men, equal to 1 watchman to every 0-98 square The best soiis yield from fifty to sixty fold when abun- miles, or 1 to every 603 inhabitants. dantly irrigated; and supplies of water for this purpose are AZIMGARH CITY, the principal place in the district of drawn from the many small rivers by which the province the same name, is situated on the river Tons, in 26° 0' N. is intersected. Oxen are generally used to draw the plough. lat., and 83° 14' E. long. The city is said to have been The population is of a very varied character, comprising founded about 1620 by a powerful landholder named Azím Kurds, Armenians, Syrians, Tatars, Persians proper, and Khán, who owned large estates in this part of the country. other tribes or nationalities, and is roughly estimated at For municipal income and population, see above. 2,000,000. The Persian army is largely composed of na- AZO, a distinguished professor of civil law in the tives of Azerbijan, who make excellent soldiers; they are university of Bologna, and a native of that city. He was subject to compulsory enlistment. The province is under the pupil of Joannes Bassianus, who taught at Bologna the government of the heir-apparent to the Persian throne. towards the end of the 12th century, and who was the (Kinneir's Geographical Memoir of the Persian Empire, 1813; author of the famous Arbor Actionum. Azo, whose name Fraser's Travels and Adventures in the Persian Provinces on is sometimes written Azzo and Azzolenus, and who is the Caspian Sea ; Rawlinson's “Tabriz to Takhti Sulei- sometimes described as Azo Soldanus, from the surname man,” in Jour. of Roy. Geog. Soc., 1840; Chesney's Ex- of his father, occupied a very important position amongst phrates and Tigris Expedition, 1850; Abbott's “Memoran- the gloss-writers, and his Readings (Lectura) on the Codes dum” in Proc. of Roy. Geog. Soc., 1864.)

which were collected by his pupil, Alexander de Sancto AZIMGARH, a district and city in the Benares division Ægidio, are considered by Savigny, a most competent judge, of British India, and under the jurisdiction of the Lieuten- to be the most valuable of the works of that school which ant-Governor of the North-Western Provinces, lies between have come down to us. 25° 38' 3'' and 26° 24' 45'' N. lat., and 82° 44' 15'' and AZOFF, or Asov (in Turkish, Asak), a town on the left 84° 10' 45'' E. long. It is bounded on the N. by the river bank of the southern arm of the Don, about 20 miles from Ghagrá, separating it from Gorakhpur district; on the E. its mouth. Its identification with the ancient Tanais and by Gházípur district and the river Ganges; on the 8. by the mediæval Tana seems erroneous; but it was long a the districts of Jaunpur and Gházípur; and on the W. by place of great importance both as a military and commercial Jaunpur and the Oudh district of Faizábád. Its area in position. Peter the Great obtained possession of it after a 1872 was returned at 2494 square miles, of which 1268 protracted siege in 1696, and did

great deal for the square miles are under cultivation, 344 square miles are ecurity and prosperity of the town. At the peace of 1711, cultivable waste, and the remaining 882 square miles are however, he had to restore it to the Turks; and it was barren and uncultivable. The population of the district not till '1774 that it was finally united to the Russian in 1865 was 1,385,872 souls, of whom 1,184,689 were Hin- empire. Since then it has greatly declined, owing to the dus, and 201,183 Mahometans. The pressure of the popu- silting up of its harbor and the competition of the city of lation on the soil averaged 555 per square mile. The cen- Taganrog. Its population, principally engaged in the fishsus of 1872 discloses a population of 1,531,410, of whom eries, numbers, according to Russian statistics, 16,791. 1,333,805 were Hindus, 197,581 Mahometans, and 24 Chris- AZOFF, THE SEA OF, an inland sea of Southern tians and others; the pressure of the population on the land Europe, communicating with the Black Sea by the Strait being 614 per square mile. The portion of the district of Yenikale, the ancient Bosphorus Cimmerius. To the lying along the banks of the Ghagrá is a low-lying tract, Romans it was known as the Palus Mæotis, from the name varying considerably in width; south of this, however, the of the neighboring people, who called it in their native ground takes a slight rise. The slope of the land is from language Temarenda, or Mother of Waters. Possibly to north-west to south-east, but the general drainage is very in- account for the outward current into the Black Sea, it was adequate. Roughly speaking, the district consists of a long supposed to possess direct communication with the series of parallel ridges, whose summits are depressed into Northern Ocean, and, when it was discovered that there beds or hollows, along which the rivers flow; while between was no visible channel, recourse was had to a "secret the ridges are low-lying rice lands, interspersed with nomer- sluice;" there being, it was thought, but a comparatively ous natural reservoirs. The principal streams are the narrow isthmus to be crossed. In some prehistoric time, Tons, Sarjú, Khúrd, Kunwar, Majhor

, Mangái, Udantí or according to Pallas and Murchison, a connection with the Aurá, and the Bhansái. The chief lines of road traffic are Caspian Sea seems to have existed; but no great change the following :-(1.) From Gorakhpur to Gházípur, running has taken place in regard to the character or relations of north and south; (2.) from Gorakhpur to Azímgarh town, the Sea of Azoff since our earliest records. It lies between in a north-easterly and south-westerly direction, and con- 45° 20' and 47° 18' N. lat., and between 350 and 390 E tinued thence to Jaunpur cantonment; (3.) from Gházípur long., its length from S.W. to N.E. being about 235 miles, to Azimgarh, and thence on to Faizábád in Oudh; (4.) I and its greatest breadth 110. It is for the most part com. paratively shallow; the deepest portion forming as it were a distance of 800 miles from the coast of Portugal. They a prolongation of the bed of the Don, its largest and, are divided into three distinct groups; the south-eastern indeed, its only very important tributary. Near the mouth consisting of Sao-Miguel, or St. Michael's, and Sta. Maria; of that river the depth varies from 3 to 10 feet, and the central and largest, of Fayal, Pico, Sao Jorge, Tereira, the greatest depth does not exceed 44 feet. Fierce and and Graciosa; and the north-western, of Flores and Corvo. continuous winds from the E. prevail during July and It does not appear that the ancient Greeks and Romans August, and in the later part of the year those from the had any knowledge of the Azores, but from the number of N.E. and S.E. are not unusual. Å great variety of Carthaginian coins discovered at Corvo it has been supcurrents are thus produced, and the relative depths of the posed that the islands must have been visited by that addifferent parts of the sea are greatly modified. From venturous people. The Arabian geographers, Edrisi in the December to March the whole surface is generally frozen. 12th century, and Ibn-al-Wardi in the 14th, describe, after The water is for the most part comparatively fresh, but the Canaries, nine other islands in the Western Ocean, differs considerably in this respect according to locality and which are in all probability the Azores. This identification current. Fish are so abundant that the Turks use the is supported by various considerations. The number of name Balük-Denis, or Fish-Sea. To the W., separated islands is the same; the climate under which they are from the main basin by the long, narrow spit of Arabat, placed by the Arabians makes them north of the Canaries; lies the remarkable series of lagunes and marshes known and special mention is made of the hawks or buzzards, as the Sivash, or Putrid Sea. Here the water is intensely which were sufficiently numerous at a later, period to give salt, and at the same time swarms with life. The Sea of rise to the present name (Port. Açor, a hawk). The Arabian Azoff is of great importance to Russian commerce, and a writers represent them as having been populous, and as number of flourishing cities have grown up along its shores. having contained cities of some magnitude; but they state Of these the most important are Taganrog, Berdiansk, that the inhabitants had been greatly reduced by intestine Mariupol, and Yenikale. Unfortunately, there is a lack warfare. The Azores are first found distinctly marked in of safe and commodious harbors and roads.

a map of 1351, the southern group being named the Goat AZORES, THE, or WESTERN ISLANDS, are situated in Islands (Cabreras); the middle group, the Wind or Dove the Atlantic Ocean, and extend in an oblique line from Islands De Ventura sive de Columbis); and the western, N.W. to S.E., between 36° 55' and 39° 55' N. lat., and the Brazil Island (De Brazi)—the word 'Brazil at that time between 250 and 31° 16' W. long. They are generally being employed for any red dyestuff

. In a Catalan map considered as pertaining to Europe, though separated by I of the year 1375 the island of Corvo is found as Corvi

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Marini, and Flores as Li Conigi; while Sað Jorge is already meanwhile been going on prosperously; and in 1466 the designated San Zorze. It has been conjectured that the Azores were presented by Alphonso V. to his aunt, Isabella, discoverers were Genoese, but of this there is not sufficient the duchess of Burgundy: An influx of Flemish settlers evidence. It is plain, however, that the so-called Flemish followed, and the islands' became known for a time as the discovery by Van der Berg is only worthy of the name in Flemish' Islands. From 1580 to 1640 they were subject a very secondary sense. According to the usual account, to Spain like the rest of the Portuguese kingdom, of which he was driven on the islands in 1432, and the news excited they now form a province. At that time the Azores were considerable interest at the court of Lisbon. The navigator, the grand rendezvous for the fleets on their voyage home Gonzalo Velho Cabral—not to be confounded with his from the Indies; and hence they became a theatre of that greater namesake, Pedro Alvarez Cabral—was sent to maritime warfare which was carried on by the English prosecute the discovery. Another version relates that Don under Queen Elizabeth against the Peninsular powers. Henry of Portugal had in his possession a map in which the connection with England has long since been of a the islands were laid down, and that he sent out Cabral more peaceful description; no other country affording such throngh confidence in its accuracy. The inap had been a ready market for Azorean productions. presented to him by his brother, Don Pedro, who had The islands are now divided into three administrative Travelled as far as Babylon. Be this as it may, Cabral districts, which take their names from the chief towns of reached the island, which he named Santa Maria, in 1432, Angra in Terceira, Horta in Fayal, and Ponta-Delgada in and in 1444 took' possession of St. Michael's. The other St. Michael's—the first of the three being also the capital islands were all discovered by 1457. Colonization had l of the islands. The most of the inhabitants are of Portu

guese origin, but there is a mixture not only of Flemish others the Bordeaux pinc, the European poplar, the Afribut Moorish blood. Negroes, Mulattoes, English, Scotch, can palm-tree, the Australian eucalyptus, the chestnut, the and Irish immigrants are present in considerable numbers, tulip-tree, the elm, the oak, and many others, have been especially in San Miguel and Fayal. Education is in a successfully introduced into one or more of the islands. very backward state, the great proportion of the lower The orange, the apricot, the banana, the lemon, the citron, classes being unable to read or writé. Progress, however, the Japanese medlar, and the pomegranate, are the comis being made in this as well as other respects.

mon fruits, and various other varieties are more or less Under the active administration of Pombal, considerable cultivated. At one time much attention was given to the efforts were made for the improvement of the Azores, but growing of the sugar-cane, but it has now for the most part the stupid and bigoted Government which followed rather been abandoned. The culture of woad introduced in the tended to destroy these benefits, and to create a retrograde 16th century also belongs to the past. A kind of fern course. Towards the beginning of the present century, the (Dicksonia culcita), called by the natives cabellinho, and possession of the islands was contested by the claimants common throughout the archipelago, furnishes a silky for the crown of Portugal. The adherents of the constitu- material for the stuffing of mattresses, which forms an tion, who supported against Miguel the rights of Maria da article of export to Brazil and Portugal. Gloria, obtained possession of Terceira in 1829, where they The mammalia of the Azores are limited to the rabbit, succeeded in maintaining themselves, and after various weasel, ferret, rat (brown and black), mouse, and bat, in struggles, Queen Maria's authority was established over all addition to domestic animals. Among the fish caught off the islands. She resided at Angra from 1830 to 1833. the coast may be mentioned the mullet, the tunny, the bonito.

The aspect of all the islands is very similar in general The numbers of birds are so remarkable that in St. Michael's, characteristics, presenting an elevated and undulating out- where a reward is given for the destruction of the blackbird, line, with little or no table-land, and rising into peaks, the bullfinch, the redbreast, the chaffinch, and the canary, of which the lowest (that of Sta. Maria) is 1889 feet, and the sum paid annually represents a death-list of 420,000. the highest (that of Pico) 7613 feet above the level of the The game includes the woodcock, red partridge (introduced sea. Their lines of sea-coast are, with few exceptions, high in the 16th century), quail, and snipe. and precipitous, with bases of accumulated masses of fallen St. Michael's, the largest and most populous

St. rock, in which open bays, or scarcely more enclosed inlets, of the islands, has an area of 224 square miles,

Michael's. form the harbors of the trading towns. The volcanic and 105,404 inhabitants. The east end rises character of the whole archipelago is very obvious, and from a bluff cliff, from 1200 to 1400 feet high, to a lofty has been abundantly confirmed by the numerous earth- inland peak, whence a central range, varying in height quakes and eruptions which have taken place since its dis- from 2000 to 2500 feet, runs to the westward, terminating covery. Hitherto the western group of Flores and Corvo in the Serra da Agoa de Paõ, 3060 feet above the sea. The has been quite exempt, Graciosa has been equally undis- sea-coast gradually declines in approaching the last point, turbed, and Fayal has only suffered from one eruption, in where it is not more than about 100 feet high. The mid1672. The centre of activity has for the most part been dle part of the island is lower, and more undulating; its St. Michael's, while the neighboring island of Santa Maria western extremity being marked by the conspicuous Serra has altogether escaped. În 1444-45 there was a great Gorda, 1574 feet above the sea; its shores on both sides are eruption at St. Michael's, of which, however, the accounts low, broken, and rocky. The aspect of the western portion that have been preserved exaggerate the importance. In of the island is that of a vast truncated cone, irregularly 1522 the town of Villa Franca, at that time the capital of cut off at an elevation of about 800 feet, and falling on the the island, was buried, with all its 6000 inhabitants, during N., S., and W. sides to a perpendicular coast of between a violent convulsion. In 1572 an eruption took place in 300 and 800 feet high. In the higher parts an underthe island of Pico; in 1580 St. George was the scene of growth of shrubs gives the mountains a rich and wooded numerous outbursts; and in 1614 a little town in Terceira appearance. Like all volcanic countries, the face of the was destroyed. In 1630, 1652, 1656, 2755, 1852, &c., St. island is uneven and irregular, being deeply excavated by Michael has been visited with successive eruptions and numerous ravines, and roughened by streams of semiearthquakes, several of them of great violence. On various vitrified and scoriaceous lava, that resist all atmospheric occasions, as in 1638, 1720, 1811, and 1867, subterranean influences and repel vegetation. Heavy rains falling on eruptions have taken place, which have sometimes been the mountains afford a constant supply of water to four accompanied by the appearance of temporary islands. Of lakes at the bottom of extinct craters, and a number of these the most remarkable was thrown up in June, 1811, minor reservoirs, and through them to small streams runabout half a league from the western extremity of St. ning rapidly down on all sides into the sea (Geographical Michael's. It was called Sabrina by the commander of Journal, vol. xv.). the British man-of-war of that name, who witnessed the Hot springs abound in many parts of the island, and phenomenon. Details will be found in a valuable chapter from almost every crevice vapor is seen issuing. But of Hartung's Die Azoren, p. 99, and in the 230 vol. of the the most remarkable phenomena are the Caldeiras or Philosophical Transactions.

boiling fountains, which rise chiefly from a valley called The climate is particularly temperate and equable, the the Furnas, near the western extremity of the island. The extremes of sensible heat and cold being, however, increased water ascends in columns to the height of about 12 feet, by the humidity of the atmosphere. This is so great that after which it dissolves in clouds of vapor. The ground paper-hangings will not adhere to the walls, and the veneer- in the immediate vicinity is entirely covered with native ing of furniture strips off. The range of the thermometer sulphur, like hoar frost. At a small distance is the is from 45° Fahr., the lowest known extreme, or 48°, the Muddy Crater, the vertex of which, 45 feet in diameter, ordinary lowest extreme of January, to 82°, the ordinary, is on a level with the plain. Its contents are in a state or 86°, the highest known extreme of July, near the level of continual and violent ebullition, accompanied with a of the sea. Between these two points (both taken in the sound resembling that of a tempestuous ocean.

Yet they shade) there is from month to month a pretty regular never rise above its level, unless occasionally to throw gradation of increase or decrease, amounting to somewhat to a small distance a spray of the consistence of melted less than four degrees (Geographical Journal, vol. xv.). In lead. The Furnas abounds also in hot springs, some of winter the prevailing winds are from the north-west, west, them of a very high temperature. There is almost always, and south; while in summer the most frequent are the however, a cold spring near to the hot one. These springs north, north-east, and east. The weather is often extremely have for a considerable period been greatly resorted to in stormy, and the winds from the west and south-west render cases of palsy, rheumatism, scrofula, and similar maladies, the navigation of the coasts very dangerous.

and bath-rooms and various conveniences for visitors have The general character of the flora is decidedly European, been erected. no fewer than 400 out of the 478 species generally consid- The plains are fertile, producing wheat, barley, and Inered as indigenous belonging likewise to that continent, dian corn; whilst vines and oranges grow luxuriantly on while only four are found in America, and forty are pecu- the sides of the mountains. The plants are made to spring liar to the archipelago. Vegetation in most of the islands even from the interstices of the volcanic rocks, which are is remarkably rich, especially in grasses, mosses, and ferns, sometimes blasted to receive them. Raised in this manner, heath, juniper, and a variety of shrubs. Of tall-growing these fruits are said to be of superior quality; but the trees there was, till the present century, an almost total expense of such a mode of cultivation necessarily restricts lack; but through the exertions of José de Canto and i it." The western part of the island yields hemp, which might be raised to a considerable extent. The exports burning of bricks. The chief town of St. George St. George, consist of wine, fruit, and provisions, the most important is Velas, and the population 18,000. trade being in oranges. Foreign intercourse was at one The two small islands of Corvo and Flores

Corvo and time confined rigorously to Lisbon ; but the inhabitants seem but imperfectly to belong to the group. Flores. now trade directly with England, America, and other They lie also out of the usual track of navicountries. The exports during 1872 at the port of St. gators; but to those who, missing their course, are led Michael's were of the value of £85,279, and the imports thither, Flores affords good shelter in its numerous bays. amounted to £91,943.

Its poultry is excellent; and the cattle are numerous, but The principal town in the island is Ponta Delgada, which small. It derives its name from the abundance of the contains 15,520 inhabitants. It is built with tolerable regu- flowers that find shelter in its deep ravines. Population larity, the streets being straight and broad. The religious of Corvo, 1000, and of Flores, 10,508. edifices are numerous and elegant. The harbor receives only small vessels; those of larger size must anchor in an

See Hartmann's Edrisi; Voyages des Hollandois, tome i.; open roadstead, which cannot be occupied during the prev- Astley's Collection, vol.

i.; Masson's " Account of St. Miguel,” alence of southerly gales. A breakwater and harbor of in Phil. Trans., 1778 ; Cook's Second Voyage ; Adanson's Voyrefuge have been in process of construction for a number review of this work in the Quarterly for 1814; Boid's Azores ;

age to Senegal ; History of the Azores, London, 1813, and the of years; and a light-house is being built at the north-east London Geographical Journal; A Winter in the Azores, by J. end of the island. The other towns are Villa Franca, and H. Bullar, 1841; Hartung's Die Azoren in Aeusseren ErscheiRibeira Grande, Alagoa, Agoa de Paõ, &c.

nung u. Geognost. Natur, Leipsie, 1860; Morelet's Iles Açores, St. Mary is a small island immediately adja- 1860; Drouet's Elémens de la Faune Açoréenne, 1861; Drouet's St. Mary.

cent to St. Michael's, through the medium of Mollusques Marins des Iles Açores, 1858; Drouet's Lettres Aço. which its trade is conducted, as it has no good harbors of réennes, 1862; Ramos (Dr. A. G.), Noticia do Archipelago dos its own. It has an area of 36 square miles, and produces Açores, &c., 1871; Godman's Nat

. Hist. of the Azores, 1870; wheat in abundance, of which a considerable quantity is Mondes, 1873; “ Allgemeine Charac. des Klimas” in Hydro. exported. Various volcanic rocks are the predominant Mitth. vom Hydr. Bur. der Admir., Berlin, 1873 ; Kerballets formations, but beds of limestone also occur, giving rise to Descr. de l'Archip. des Açores, 1851, translated by Totten, 1874. numerous stalactite grottoes all over the island. Population from 7000 to 8000.

AZOTUS, the name given by Greek and Roman writerg Terceira (so called as being the third in order to Ashdod, or Eshdod, an ancient city of Palestine, now Terceira

of discovery) is smaller than St. Michael's, but represented by a few remains in the little village of Esdud, being placed in a more central position with respect to the in the pashalik of Acre. It was situated a short distance other islands, has been chosen as the seat of government. inland from the Mediterranean, on the usual military route The port of Angra, protected by Mt. Brazil, is also superior between Syria and Egypt, about 18 geographical miles N.E. to any of those in St. Michael's. This island does not of Gaza. “As one of the five chief cities of the Philistines, exhibit nearly the same extensive traces of volcanic action; and the seat of the worship of Dagon, it maintained, down and the summits of its mountains are generally level. It even to the days of the Maccabees, a vigorous, though abounds in grain and cattle; but the wines are inferior, and somewhat intermittent, independence against the power of fruits are raised merely for internal consumption. The the Israelites, by whom it was nominally assigned to the number of inhabitants is estimated at 50,000.

territory of Judah. In spite of its being dismantled by Fayal.

Fayal (so called from the extreme abundance Uzziah, and somewhat later, in 731 B.C., captured by the

of the faya, an indigenous shrub) is the most Assyrians, it was strong enough in the next century to frequented of all the Azores, after St. Michael's, as it has resist the assaults of Psammetichus for twenty-nine years. one of the best harbors in the islands, and lies directly in the Restored by the Roman Gabinius from the ruins in which track of vessels that are crossing the Atlantic in any direc-it had been left by the Jewish wars, it was presented by tion. Its principal town is Villa de Horta, with a popula- Augustus to Salome, the sister of Herod. It became the tion of 7636. The town is defended by two castles and a seat of a bishop early in the Christian era, but seems never wall, both in decay, and serving rather for show than to have attained any importance as a town. strength. The city contains two convents for monks and AZPEITIA, a town of Spain in the province of Gui. three for nuns, with eight churches. The bay is two miles puzcoa, on the left bank of the Urola, 15 miles S.W. of in length and three-quarters of a mile in breadth, and the San Sebastian. The neighboring country is fertile, and depth of water from 6 to 20 fathoms. Though a good road-quarries of marble are wrought in the mountains. During stead, it is not altogether free from danger in S.S.W. and the Carlist movement in 1870–74, Azpeitia was the seat S.E. winds. The women of this island manufacture fine of the Guipuzcoan Diputacion, or court for the management lace from the agave thread, and till recently produced large of the war; and gunpowder, cartridges, and cannon were quantities of open-work stockings. They also execute carv- manufactured in the town. The famous monastery of San ings in snow-white fig-tree pith, and carry ou the finer Ignacio, dedicated to Loyola, about a mile distant, was also kinds of basket-making. A small valley, called Flemengos, appropriated for military purposes. Population stated at still perpetuates the name of the Flemish settlers, who have 2335. left their mark on the physical appearance of the inhabit- AZTECS, the native name of one of the tribes that ants. Population, 26,264.

occupied the table-land of Mexico on the arrival of th Pico.

A considerable quantity of wine used to be Spaniards in America. It has been very frequently em.

exported from Fayal under the name of Fayal ployed as equivalent to the collective national title of wine, which was really the produce of Pico, one of the Nahuatlecas, or Mexicans. The Aztecs came, according to most remarkable of the Azores. This island is composed native tradition, from a country to which they gave the of an immense conical mountain, rising to the height of name of Aztlan, usually supposed to lie towards the N.W., 7613 feet, and bearing every trace of volcanic formation. but the satisfactory localization of it is one of the greatest The soil consists entirely of pulverized lava. All the lower difficulties in Mexican history. The date of the exodus parts of the mountain used to be in the highest state of from Aztlan is equally undetermined, being, fixed by cultivation, and covered with vine and orange plantations. various authorities in the 11th and by others in the 12th But in 1852 the vines were attacked by the Oidium fungus century. One Mexican manuscript gives a date equivalent and completely destroyed, while the orange-trees suffered to 1164 A.D. They gradually increased their influence almost as much from the Coccus Hesperidum. The people among other tribes, until, by union with the Toltecs, who were consequently reduced to want, and forced to emigrate occupied the table-land before them, they extended their in great numbers. The planting of fig-trees and apricots empire to an area of from 18,000 to 20,000 square leagues.

lleviated the evil, and after a time many of the emigrants The researches of Humboldt gave the first clear insight returned. Pico also produces a valuable species of wood into the early periods of their history. See MEXICO. resembling, and equal in quality to, mahogany. Popula- AZUNI, DOMENICO ALBERTO, a distinguished jurist and tion, 24,000.

writer on international law, was born at Sassari, in Sardinia, Graciosa.

Graciosa and St. George are two small islands, in 1749. He studied law at Sassari and Turin, and in 1782

situated between Fayal and Terceira. Graciosa, was made judge of the consulate at Nice. In 1786-88 he as its name imports, is chiefly noted for the extreme beauty published his Dizionario Universale Ragionato della Giurisof its aspect and scenery. The chief town is Sta. Cruz, and prudenza Mercantile. In 1795_appeared his systematic the total population 8000. The only manufacture is the I work on the maritime law of Europe, Sistema Universale

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