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situations, and wheat and other kinds of grain are gener- A more recent report states that the population of Austria ally grown. The northern zone embraces the territory Proper had risen from 20,210,000 in 1869 to 20,970,000 in 1873 lying north of 49° N. lat., comprising Bohemia, Northern - the male population having increased from 9,810,000 to Moravia, Silesia, and Galícia. The winters are here long 20,200,000, and the females from 10,400,000 to 10,770,000. and cold; the vine and maize are no longer cultivated, the The most thickly populated crown-land is Silesia; the most principal crops being wheat, barley, oats, rye, hemp, and thinly, Salzburg. fax. The mean annual temperature ranges from about

The civil population of Austria in 1818 59° in the south to 48° in the north. In some parts of the amounted to 29,769,263, in 1830 it had in- Pupulation. country, however, it is as low as 46° 40' and even 36°: , In creased to 34,082,469, in 1842 to 35,295,957, in 1857 to Vienna the average annual temperature is 50°, the highest 37,339,012, and in 1869 to 35,634,858. Between the two temperature being 94°, the lowest 2° Fahr. In general the last dates'it had lost its Lombardo-Venetian territories, eastern part of the country receives less rain than the with more than 5,000,000 inhabitants. In Austria Proper western. In the south the rains prevail chiefly in spring the number of births in 1869 was 812,474, of which 419,374 and autumn, and in the north and central parts during were males and 393,100 females; 699,047 were legitimate, summer. Storms are frequent in the region of the South and 113,427 illegitimate, and 17,114 were still-born. The Alps and along the coast. In some parts in the vicinity number of deaths among children up to 5 years of age was of the Alps the rainfall is excessive, sometimes exceeding 281,643—152,294 being males, and 129,349 females. The 60 inches. It is less among the Carpathians, where it number of marriages that took place during that year was usually varies from 30 to 40 inches. In other parts the 208,787, of which 164,018 were between parties neither of rainfall usually averages from 20 to 24 inches, but in the whom had been previously married ; 8670 between parties plains of Hungary it is as low as 16.

both of whom had been previously married; 23,533 be From the varied character of its climate and tween widowers and unmarried females, and 12,566 be Flora.

soil the vegetable productions of Austria are tween widows and unmarried males. The total number very various.

It has floras of the plains, the hills, and of deaths during 1869 was 583,995, of which 302,104 were the mountains; an alpine flora, and an arctic flora; a flora males and 281,891 females. Of these the ages of 28 males of marshes, and a flora of steppes; floras peculiar to the and 40 females are given as over 100 years. Violent deaths clay, the chalk, the sandstone, and the slate formations. carried off 5988 males and 1939 females, of whom 1110 The number of different species is estimated at 12,000, of males and 265 females had committed suicide, 244 males which one-third are phanerogamous, or flowering plants, and 82 females were murdered, and 4 males executed. In and two-thirds cryptogamous, or flowerless. The crown- Austria Proper there were 738 cities and large towns, 1270 land of Lower Austria far surpasses in this respect the other market-towns, 52,919 villages, and 2,766,314 inhabited and divisions of the country, having about four-ninths of the 121,045 uninhabited houses.' In Hungary there were 189 whole, and not less than 1700 species of flowering plants. cities and large towns, 769 market-towns, 16,373 villages, Hungary, Bohemia, Moravia, and Galicia are the princi- and 2,450,213 houses. The cities containing more than pal corn-growing regions of the country; and Tyrol, Salz- 100,000 inhabitants in 1869 were Vienna (833,855), Pesth burg, and Upper Styria are the principal pastoral regions. (201,911), and Prague (157,275). Seven cities contained Animals.

The animal kingdom embraces, besides the between 50,000 and 100,000 inhabitants; 42 between 20,000

usual domestic animals (as horses, cattle, sheep, and 50,000; and 90 between 10,000 and 20,000. swine, goats, asses, &c.), wild boars, deer, wild goats, hares,

The population of Austria is made up of a &c.; also bears, wolves, lynxes, foxes, wild cats, jackals, number of distinct races, differing from each Races. otters, beavers, polecats, martens, weasels, and the like. other in manners, customs, language, and religion, and Eagles and hawks are common, and many kinds of sing- united together only by living under the same governing birds. The rivers and lakes abound in different kinds ment. The most numerous race is the German, amounting of fish, which are also plentiful on the sea-coast. Among to 9,000,000, and forming 25 per cent of the entire popuinsects the bee and the silkworm are the most useful. The lation. They are found more or less in all the crownleech forms an article of trade. In all there are 90 differ-lands, but are most numerous in Lower and Upper Austria, ent species of mammals, 248 species of birds, 377 of fishes, Salzburg, Styria, Carinthia, and Northern Tyrol. The and more than 13,000 of insects.

different Slavonic races number together 16,540,000, or 46 Divisions.

Austria comprises five countries, each bearing per cent. The principal Slavonic races are—in the north,

the name of kingdom-viz., Hungary, Bohemia, the Czechs and Moravians (4,480,000), who, together with Galicia, Ilyria, and Dalmatia; one archduchy, Austria; the Slovacks in the Western Carpathians (1,940,000), form one principality, Transylvania; one duchy, Styria; one

18 per cent. of the entire population, and the Poles margraviate, Moravia ; and one county, Tyrol. These are (2,370,000) and the Ruthens (3,360,000) occupying Ganow divided into provinces, which are called croum-lands, licia; and in the south, the Slovens (1,220,000), the Croats and of which at present there are 18, 14 being in Austria (1,520,000), and the Serbians (1,651,000). The northern Proper, and 4 in Hungary. The following table gives the Slavonians are found chiefly in Bohemia, Moravia, Galicia, area and civil population of the different crown-lands in and the north of Hungary; the southern in Carniola, Dal1857 and at 31st December, 1869. The first 14 crown-lands matia, Croatia, Slavonia, and the Military Frontier. The constitute Austria Proper, and the remaining 4 form the Magyars or Hungarians occupy chiedy Hungary and kingdom of Hungary. Görtz, Istria, and Trieste are also Transylvania, and number 5,590,000, or 16 per cent of known as the Maritime District.

the whole population. The Rumäni or Wallachians number 2,940,000, or over 8 per cent.; the Jews, 1,105,000, or 3 per cent.; the Italians, 515,000, or 1:4 per cento; and the gipsies, 140,000. The rest consist of Armenians, Bulga

rians, Albanians, Greeks, &c. Lower Austria..... 7,630 1,681,697

987,164 1,954,251 Austria has always remained strongly atUpper Austria..... 4,617 707,400

tached to the Roman Catholic Church, Her Religion. Salzburg..

2,757 Styria.....

8,642 1,056,773 555,289 576,020 1,131,309 sovereigns, however, have in general resisted the temporal Carinthia

3,992 332,456 161,519 174,881 336,400 pretensions of the popes, and reserved to themselves cer

3,844 451,941 220,009 213,264 463,273 tain important rights, such as the imposing of taxes on Görtz, Istria, & 3,074 520,978 288,293 293,786

582,079 church property, the nomination of bishops and archTyrol and Vorarlberg........ 11,287 851,016 429,241 449,666

bishops, and the option of restricting, or even prohibiting,

878,907 Bohemia, 19,997 4,706,525 2,433,629 2,672,440 5,106,069

the circulation of Papal bulls. About two-thirds of the Moravia....

1,049,691 1,997,497 people, or nearly 24,000,000, profess the Roman Catholie Silesia ..

511,581 religion. If, however, we deduct the kingdom of HunGalicia..

30,212 4,597,470 2,660,518 2,757,498 5,418,016 Buckowina.

and Galicia, where less than one-half of the people 456,920

511,964

gary Dalmatia ....

442,796

are Roman Catholics, the proportion in the rest of the Hungary.

82,605 9,900,785 5,499,462 5,618,161 11,117,623 country is much increased. "In some parts the proportion Transylvania 21,159 1,926,797 1,051,145 1,050,582 2,101,727 to the entire population is as high as 90 to 98 per cent. Croatia and Sla-} 7,421

876,009 495,962 501,644 997,606 The Greek Catholics number in Austria Proper 2,342,168 Military Frontier. 12,919 1,064,922 606,991 593,380 1,200,371 (almost all in Galicia), and in Hungary 1,599,628. The

Eastern Greek Church numbers 461,511 adherents in Aus Total....... 239,637| 31,992,954 | 17,467,598 18,167,260 (35,634.858 | tria, and 2,589,319 in Hungary. Of the Protestant de

Population in 1869.

Crown-lands.

Areas in
English
Miles.

Population
in 1857.

Males.

Females,

Total.

967,087
358,117
73,468

373.462
77,942

146,760

731,579
151,410

Carniola

Trieste

8,555 1,867,094

443,912

948,206
242,574

1,981

269,007

4,022
4,923

255,919
220,169

256,045
222,617

404,199

vonia....

nominations, the Lutherans are more numerous in the having in all 33,000 scholars. There are six universities in western half of the empire, the Calvinists in the eastern. Austria Proper (Vienna, Grätz, Innsbrück, Prague, Cracow, The numbers are-in Austria Proper, Lutherans, 252,327, Lemberg), and one in Hungary (Pestb), with, in all, 707 proand Calvinists, 111,935; in Hungary, Lutherans, 1,365,835, fessors and 10,900 students. Each university (except Lemberg, Calvinists, 2,143,178. The principal other religions are theology, law and political economy, medicine and surgery, and

which has no medical faculty) has faculties for Roman Catholio the Jewish, 1,375,861 (nearly half of them in Galicia); philosophy. The theological and law courses occupy four years Armenian, 10,133, Unitarian, 55,079. (nearly all in Tran- each, the medical five, and the philosophical three. Of the sylvania). The Catholic Church (including the Greek students, 40 per cent. were at the university of Vienna, 18 st and Armenian Catholics) has 11 archbishops, 24 suffragan Pesth, 16 at Prague, 10 at Lemberg, and 64 at Grätz. of the bishops, 2 vicariate bishops, and 1 military bishop, in 8532 students attending the six Austrian universities, 1888 were Austria Proper, and 5 archbishops and 23 bishops in receiving free instruction and 924 were stipendists, and in addiHungary. Altogether there are about 34,000 ecclesiastics, tion to this, 682 were paying only half fees. The techuical and 350 convents, with 8500 monks and 5700 nuns. The high schools or academies have for their object the imparting Oriental Greek Church has, in Austria Proper, 3 bishops of a high scientific education. The students generally enter (1 in Buckowina and 2 in Dalmatia), and in Hungary, the them from the upper real-schools, and the complete technical patriarch of Karlowitz , the archbishop of Herrmannstadt, tutions in Austria Proper, having in all 234 professors and

course extends over five years. There are eight of these instiand 8 bishops, with, in all, 4000 priests, and 40 convents, teachers, and 3179 scholars, of whom 1501 were receiving free with 300 monks.

instruction, and 231 were stipendists. The principal of these Previous to 1848 Austria was very far behind is the Polytechnic institution in Vienna, which has 79 profesEducation.

in the matter of education; but since that time sors and teachers, and 782 scholars. Among the special edugreat improveinents have been effected, and an entire cational institutions may be mentioned about soventy theologica change has taken place. This subject now receives the seminaries connected with the Catholic Church, and a number greatest attention; schools of all kinds have been estab- of similar institutions connected with the Eastern Greek and lished throughout the country, improved systems of teach- Protestant Churches; a rabbinical school (in Presburg); acading have been introduced, and instruction is open to all emies for law, mining, navigation, commerce, agriculture, and without regard to class or creed at a very small cost, or

the management of forests; normal and military schools; schools even gratuitously. It still continues, however, to be in also a number of private schools of various kinds, schools for

for surgery and midwifery; veterinary schools, &c. There are great measure under the control of the priests, and many the deaf and dumb and blind, orphan institutions, &c. In of the teachers are ecclesiastics. The Roman Catholic re- connection with the universities and many of the higher eduligion forms an essential part of the instruction in all cational institutions are to be found libraries, museums of schools, except those for special subjects. The Oriental natural history and antiquities, botanic gardens, observatories, Greek and Protestant Churches have, as a rule, their own chemical laboratorios, &c. There also exist numerous learned common schools, and where this is not the case, they have and scientific societies. The intellectual progress of Austria to send their children to the Catholic schools. The Jews is, of late years, particularly manifest in the departments also, in places where they have no special schools, are of law, medicine, natural science, history, and Oriental lanobliged to send their children to Christian schools.

guages.

The majority of the people of Austria are enThe various educational institutions may be arranged under gaged in agricultural pursuits or in connection Industries. four classes -(1.) The lower or common schools ; (2.) The with the forests, the proportion varying in different parts from higher or middle schools; (3.) The universities, academies, 50 to 80 per cent. of the entire population. The proportion of and technical schools; (4.) The special schools (for particular those engaged in trade or manufacture varies, amounting to 30 branches of science or art). All children from 6 to 12 years per cent. in Lower Austria, 24 in Bohemia, 22 in Moravia and of age are bound to attend the common schools. This law, Silesia, 19 in Upper Austria, 14 in Tyrol, 13 in Salzburg, 11 in however, would appear to be not very strictly carried out, for Carinthia, 9 in Carniola, 5 in Buckowina, and 4 in Galicia and of the number of 2,219,917 children who ought to have been Dalmatia. In Dalmatia about 8 per cent of the people are attending the common schools in Austria Proper in 1868, the employed in navigation and the fisheries. number given as actually at scbool is only 1,691,349, or about The productive land of Austria Proper is esti76 per cent. This percentage, moreover, varies greatly in dif- mated at 89.6 per cent of its superficial area, and Agriculferent parts of the country, being in some, as Tyrol, Salzburg, that of Hungary at 84-4-making 86.9 per cent. of Moravia, and Upper and Lower Austria, as high as 98 or 100, the whole country. Farther, the arable land in Austria forms and in Styria and Carinthia from 93 to 96; in others, as in 31.6 per cent., the vineyards 0·7, gardens and meadows 11.7, Cardiola, oply 56, in the Maritime District 47, Dalmatia 28, pasturage 14•7, and forests 30.9. In like manner, in Hungary Galicia 27, Buckowina 20. The proportion for the whole of the arable land forms 30.6 per cent., vineyards 1.2, gardens and Hungary is 88 per cent., and it is higher in the western than meadows 12.8, pasturage 13.2, and forests 26.6. The principal in the eastern half of the kingdom. The number of common product of the arable land is grain, of which the annual yield schools in Austria in 1868 was 15,054, with 32,137 male and is over 400,000,000 bushels. Of this about one-fifth is wheat, 2814 female teachers, 12,225 of the former being ecclesiastics, one-fourth rye, one-fourth oats, one-seventh maize, one-seventh and 1036 of the latter ouns; in Hungary the number of schools barley, and the rest buck-wheat and millet. The principal was over 16,000, and of teachers 28,000. In connection with grain-producing districts are Hungary, Bohemia, Galicia, Moramany of these schools there are training institutions for teach- via, and Lower and Upper Austria. In agriculture Austria is ers, industrial schools for girls, and trade and agricultural still behind many other countries, but great improvements have schools for boys. The middle schools are the gymnasia, real- of late years taken place. Flax, hemp, and beet are chiefly gympasia, and real-schools. A complete gymnasium provides found in Silesia, Moravia, Bohemia, and Hungary; hops in for a course of eight years' study, divided into two parts of Bohemia, and tobacco (which is a state monopoly) only in four years each. The lower course not only prepares for the Hungary, Galicia, and Tyrol. Among the other products may higher, but is also complete in itself for those who do not wish be mentioned pease, beans, potatoes, turnips, rape seed, cabbages, to advance farther. 'i' he branches of study include Latin, &c. Though the vineyards are not very extensive, a considerGreek, and modern languages, geography, history, religion, able quantity of wine is produced, and some of the Hungarian mathematics, natural history, physics, writing, drawing, sing wines, as Tokay, are justly celebrated. The annual yield of ing, and gymnastics. In passing from one class to another the wine is about 375,000,000 gallons, of which 72 per cent. is from scholars undergo a very searching examination. The real. Hungary and the neighboring districts, 64 from Lower Austria, schools, or middle industrial schools, have been established 5 from Southern Tyrol, 41 from Styria, 4 from Dalmatia, 31 since 1848, and are designed to impart technical knowledge, from Moravia, and 2 from the Maritime District. The princiand afford a suitable training to those intending to follow in- pal garden products are fruit and kitchen vegetables. The best dustrial pursuits. They are divided into two courses of three fruit districts are Moravia, Transylvania, Mungary, Bohemia, years each, a lower and an upper-the former serving not only Upper Austria, and Styria. Certain districts are distinguished as a preparation for the latter, but forming also an independent for particular kinds of fruit, as Tyrol for apples, Hungary for course, fitting for the lower kinds of industrial occupations. melons, Dalmatia for figs, pomegranates, olives, &c. In the The branches taught include geography, history, arithmetic, south of Dalmatia the palm grows in the open air, but bears mathematics, writing, book-keeping, exchange, natural history, no fruit. The chestnut, olive, and mulberry trees are common technology, drawing, &c. The real-gymnasia are a class of in the south-the olive chiefly in Dalmatia, the Maritime Disinstitutions intermediate between these two, partaking of the trict, and Southern Tyrol, the mulberry tree in Southern Tyrol, character of both. In Austria Proper there were, in 1871, 92 the south of Hungary, Slavonia, and Styria. The forests ocgymnasia, with 1647 teachers (518 being ecclesiastics) and cupy nearly one-third of the productive area of the country, 26,102 scholars; 31 real-gymnasia, with 375 teachers (66 eccle- and cover 66,600 English square miles. They are much more siastics) and 45,290 scholars; and 33 real-schools, with 777 | extensive in the eastern than in the western half of the country, teachers (91 ecclesiastics) and 15,622 scholars. In Hungary the relative proportions being 62 per cent. in the former, and 38 there were 142 gymnasia, 1 real-gymnasium, and 25 real-schools, I in the latter. They are found particularly in the region of the Carpathians, and especially in Galicia and Buckowina. The and precious stones. The crown-lands in which mining operaAlpine regions are generally well wooded, as is also the country tions are chiefly carried on are Styria (iron and coal), Carinthis of the Sudetes. The forests are chiefly of oak, pine, beech, (lead and iron), Carniola (quicksilver), Hungary (gold, silver, ash, elm, and the like, and are estimated to yield annually over copper, iron, and coal), Transylvania (gold and silver), Salz27,000,000 cords of building wood and firewood.

ture.

burg (iron), Bohemia (silver, lead, iron, and coal), Moravis Horses.

Austria is distinguished for the numbor and (iron and coal), Galicia (salt). The chief places where gold and

superiority of its horses, for the improvement of silver ores are found aro—(1.) at Zalathna in Transylvania, oa which numerous studs exist over the country. The breeding of the southern range of the Behar Mountains, where afluents of horses is more or less extensively carried on in all the crown- the Körös and Maros take their rise, in which, as well as in the lands, but more especially in Hungary, Transylvania, Bucko- Theiss and the Danube, gold is also found; (2.) The district of wina, Galicia, Styria, Bohemia, Moravia, and Upper and Lower Schemnitz and Kremnitz in Hungary; (3.) Pribram and Joa Austria. The total number of horses in the country in 1870 chimsthal in Bohemia. Nearly, 3,000,000 cwt. of gold and sil. was 3,525,842, of which 2,158,819 were in Hungary. All kinds ver ores is obtained annually, from which 64,298 oz. of gold and of horses are represented, from the heaviest to the lightest, 1,476,000 oz. of silver are extracted. Of the gold, 54 per cent. from the largest to the smallest. The most beautiful horses is obtained in Transylvania and 44 in Hungary; and of the are found in Transylvania and Buckowina, the largest and silver ore, 65 per cent. is raised in Hungary, 27 in Bohemia, strongest in Salzburg. The horses of Styria, Carinthia, North- and 54 in Transylvania. Iron is found more or less in all ern Tyrol, and Upper Austria are also famous. In Dalmatia, the crown-lands except Upper Austria, the Maritime District, the Maritime District, and Southern Tyrol, horses are less nu- and Dalmatia; but it is most plentiful and best in quality in merous, and mules and asses in a great measure take their place. Styria and Carinthia. The amount of raw and cast iron annuof the 13,891 mules in the country, 45 per cent. were in Dal-ally obtained from the ore raised in the country is 7,600,000 cwt., matia, and 30 per cent. in the Maritime District and Southern of which 28 per cent. is from Styria, 15 from Carinthia, 121 Tyrol; and of the 61,831 asses, 28 per cent. were in the former from Bohemia, 114 from Moravia, 16 from Upper Hungary, 64 and 21 in the latter. The Hungarian crown-lands contained from other parts of the kingdom of Hungary, and the remainder 2266 mules and 30,482 asses.

from the other crown-lands. The principal place where copper is Austria cannot be said to be remarkable as a Cattle.

obtained is the neighborhood of Schmölnitz in Hungary. The cattle-rearing country. Indeed, except in certain quantity for the whole country amounts to 1,500,000 wt. of ore, districts, particularly among the Alps, it must be considered to from which 65,000 cwt. of pure metal is obtained. Of this 80 be much behind in this branch of industry. The finest cattle per cent. is from Upper Hungary, 6 from Tyrol, and 4 from are to be found in the Alpine regions; in other parts the breeds Buckowina. Carinthia is particularly rich in lead, and from it are generally very inferior. The Hungarian crown-lands, how more than one-half (52 per cent.) of the entire quantity raised ever, have of late years been improving in this respect. The in the country is obtained. Bohemia yields 26 per cent., and country numbered 12,704,405 head of cattle in 1870, of which Ilungary 15. Altogether, 195,000 cwt. of ore, and 114,000 ewt, 5,279,193 were in Hungary, 2,070,572 in Galicia, and 1,602,015 of pure metal is obtained. Idria in Carniola has, after Alma. in Bohemia. The cattle of the eastern half of the country con- den in Spain, the richest quicksilver mine in Europe, producing siderably outnumbered those of the western; but in quality the 3900 owi. of pure metal. of the rest, Hungary produces 1120 latter were far superior to the former. In Hungary and Tran-cwt. and Transylvania 450. Tin is found only in Bohemia, sylvania there are about 72,000 buffaloes. The rearing of sheep which supplies 55,000 cwt. of ore, from which 450 cwt. of tin is receives a large share of attention, and is carried on to a con- obtained." Zino is found chiefly in the neighborhood of Cracow, siderable extent in all the crown-lands, and in some very exten- where 146,475 cwt. of ore is raised. Austria is particularly rich sively. Much has been done of late years in the way of im- in salt. In Galicia there exists a stratum of rock-salt many proving the breeds, more particularly in Moravia, Silesia, miles in extent, which is worked at Wieliczka and other places. Bohemia, Upper and Lower Austria, and Hungary. The Similar layers occur in Hungary (Marmaros) and Transylvania main object has been the improvement of the wool, and with (at Thorda). There also exist salt springs in Galicia, in Mar. this view the merino and other fine-woolled breeds have been maros, and in Transylvania, from which salt is largely extracted, introduced. Some attention, however, is also given to the fat- as it is also to a considerable extent from sea water on the coast. tening properties. For mutton, the best sheep are those of About 3,900,000 cwt. of rock-salt is annually obtained from the Lower Carinthia, the Maritime District, Dalmatia, and the mines (of which 22 per cent. is from Galicia, 24 from Marmaros, Military Frontier. The sheep are frequently driven from one 34 from Transylvania), from the various salt springs about part of the country to another for the sake of pasture, and even 2,800,000 cwt., and from the salt-works on the coast 1,400,000 into other countries, as Lombardy, Turkey, and the Danubian cwt Austria is possessed of almost inexhaustible stores of coal, Principalities. The number of sheep in the country in 1870 and the amount annually raised exceeds 6,000,000 tons, of which was 20,000,000, of which 15,000,000 were in the kingdom of 48 per cent. is in Bohemia, 12 in Hungary, 11 in Silesia, 10 in Hungary. The goat, which has been called the poor man's Styria, 6} in Moravia, 21 in Galicia, and 1} in Carniola. Peat cow, is also to be found in all parts of the country, but more and clay are abundant in certain parts of the country; poroeparticularly in the mountainous districts and among the poorer lain earth is found in Bohemia and Moravia ; white, red, black, peasantry. The total number in the country in 1870 was and variously-colored marbles exist in the Alps, particularly in 1,552,000, of which 573,000 were in Hungary. Dalmatia, how. Tyrol and Salzburg; quartz, felspar, heavy spar, rock-crystal, ever, is the great country of the goats, where they number asbestos, &c., are found in various parts; and among precious 280,656, after which follow Bohemia with 194,273, and Tyrol stones may be specially mentioned the Hungarian opals and with 137,698. The number of swine was 6,984,752, of which the Bohemian garnets. The number of persons employed in 4,443,279 were in Hungary. They are naturally most numer- the various mines in Austria Proper in 1870 was 75,451, and in ous in those crown-lands which contain extensive oak and beech the smelting and casting works, 13,857. In addition to these, forests, or which have many distilleries. Hence they are mostly 9818 persons were employed in the salt-mines and other saltfound in Hungary, Transylvania, the Military Frontier, Gali- works. In Hungary 50,143 persons were employed in mining cia, Styria, and Bohemia.

and smelting. The total annual value of the raw materials obBees are extensively kept, particularly in the crown-lands of tained from the mines is estimated at over £9,000,000, of which Lower Austria, Hungary, Galicia, and Transylvania. There nearly one-half is of coal, a fifth of iron, an eighth of gold and were in 1870 15,300,000 bee-hives in the country, yielding silver, and a tenth of rock-salt. 7,750,000 tb of honey and 340,000 ID of wax. The silk-worm The manufactures of Austria have made great

Manufacis cultivated in certain parts of the southern districts, particu- progress during the last twenty years, and now

tures. larly in Southern Tyrol, which yields 2,200,000 t of cocoons, some of them are extensively carried on. They inbeing nearly double that of all the rest of the country put clude cotton, flax, hemp, woollen and silk stuffs ; gold, silver, together. The rivers and lakes in general abound with fish, iron, lead, copper, tin, and zinc articles; leather, paper, beer, which are also plentiful along the coast. In Dalmatia, in par- brandy, and sugar; porcelain and earthenware; chemical stuffs; ticular, fishing constitutes an important branch of industry, scientific and musical instruments, &c. The manufactures are affording employment to many of the population. Leeches are principally carried on in the western crown-lands, and more pare. common in the swamps, and form a considerable article of ex- ticularly in Bohemia, Moravia, Silesia, and Lower Austria." In port. The average annual value of the produce of the land Galicia and the Hungarian crown-lands the manufactures are and forests, including the cattle, and hunting and fishing, is comparatively neglected. The principal seats of the cotton, estimated at £212,000,000. The value of the real property, woollen, and linen manufactures are in Moravia, Silesia, Boheincluding the cattle and agricultural implements, is given at mia, and Vienna; of iron and steel wares in Styria and Carin£782,000,000.

thia ; iron in Upper Austria; cast-iron goods in Moravia, StyMinerals.

In the extent and variety of its mineral resources ria, Carinthia, and Bohemia ; silk in Vienna; glass and porce

Austria ranks among the first countries of Europe. lain in Bohemia; beet-root sugar in Bohemia and Moravia; Besides the noble metals, gold and silver, it abounds in ores of leather in Bohemia, Moravia, Galicia, and Hungary; beer in more or less richness of iron, copper, lead, and tin; while in Bohemia and Lower Austria; brandy in Galicia, Moravia, and less abundance are found zino, antimony, arsenic, cobalt, nickel, Bohemia; cabinet wares and musical instruments in Vienna manganese, bismuth, chromium, uranium, tellurium, sulphur, and Prague; and scientific and surgical instruments in Vienna. graphite, asphalt, rock-salt, coal, and petroleum. There are The cotton manufacture has made very rapid progress, and is eleo marble, roofing-slate, gypsum, porcelain earth, potter's clay, I now one of the most extensive and flourishing in the country.

In 1831 the import of cotton was 101,000 cwt., and the export, in Northern and 85 in Southern Bohemia), but the waros aro 175; in 1850 the former had rison to 522,000, and the latter to also of very superior quality. Their annual value is about 1970; and in 1870 the former was 1,100,000, and the latter £1,000,000. Except in Styria and Moravia there is little glasu 36,000 owt. There are 172 spinning factories, with 1,750,000 made in other parts of the country, and that only of the comspindles, in the country, almost all situated in Lower Austria, moner sorts. The manufacture of mirrors is also extensively Bohemia, and Vorarlberg. There are 46 factories, with 550,000 carried on in Bohemia and some other parts. Bohemia and spindles, in Lower Austria, between the Vienna Forest and the Moravia are likewise distinguished for their earthen and porooLeitha, and beside them are 7 dyeing and printing works. A lain wares. The preparation of chemical stuffs bas been of lato principal seat of the cotton manufacture is in Northern Bohe- years greatly extended, and is now actively carried on. Salmia, from the Eger to Reichenberg, where there are no fewer phurio and muriatic acids are largely made in Bohemia, Lower than 80 spinning factories and 25 printing works. Besides Austria, and Silesia; pharmaceutical preparations and perfumes these, there are 7 factories at Prague and 1 in Southern Bohe- are made chiefly in Vienna, and dye-stuffs in Lower Austria and mia. In Vorarlberg there are 21 factories, with 200,000 spin- Bohemia. The manufacture of wooden articles is widespread dles; and in Upper Austria 7 factories and 6 printing works. over the country, and affords employment to a great number of

The flax and hemp manufacture is one of the oldest in the persons. The smaller articles, particularly children's toys, are country, and was long the most important. In consequence, largely made by the peasantry in the mountainous and rural however, of the rapid advancement of the cotton manufacture districts, particularly in Tyrol, Salzburg, Upper Austria, and it is no longer of the same importance as formerly; yet it still Bohemia. Furniture, wagons, and carriages are made in affords employment to a great number of persons, and is very Vienna and other large towns. There are also several estabgenerally extended over the country. It is principally carried lishments for the manufacture of railway carriages in Vienna on as a domestic branch of industry, and in country districts is and Prague. frequently engaged in as a secondary pursuit by those employed The manufacture of mathematical, optical, and surgical inin agricultural labors. The flax is mostly spun by hand, and struments, and of physical and chemical apparatus, has of late the weaving confined to the commoner kinds of linen, being years risen rapidly into importance, particularly in Vienna and chiefly intended for home use. In Bohemia, Moravia, Silesia, Prague, and now these are to be found among the exports to and Upper Austria, however, this manufactare is more exten- other countries. Austria is also distinguished for the manufacsively carried on than in other parts. There are here a num- ture of musical instruments, particularly pianos and organs, ber of factories for the spinning of lax, and the finer kinds of but also for other stringed and wind instruments. Clook or linen are manufactured.

watch making is not very extensively carried on. The woollen manufacture is also an old established branch of The leather manufacture forms an important branch of indusindustry, and is actively carried on. It is estimated that about try, the value of the goods annually produced being estimated 600,000 wt. of wool is annually spun; and there aro about 230 at not less than £10,000,000. It is principally carried on in spinning factories, with upwards of 700,000 spindles. The Lower Austria, Bohemia, Moravia, Galicia, Transylvania, and great seats of the woollen manufacture are in Bohemia, Mora- Hungary. Vienna and Prague are the great centres of the boot via, Silesia, and Upper Austria. In Bohemia its great seat is and shoo trade, and the gloves_made in these towns are considin and around Reichenberg, where the annual value of the cred little inferior to those of France. Saddlery is also largely goods produced is about £1,800,000. In Moravia the principal carried on in these towns, and in Pesth. seats are Brünn (for coarse, and also the finest sorts of cloth), Paper-making has of late made considerable progress in Namiescht, and Iglau. In these two crown-lands is made half Austria. There are 70 paper machines and 193 paper millo in of the entire quantity of woollen goods produced in the coun-operation, 20 of the former and 100 of the latter being in Bohotry. The principal of the other seats are the districts Bielitz in mia. The rest are mostly in Lower Austria, Styria, and Fiumo. Silesia, Vienna in Lower Austria, and Viktring in Carinthia Painting, lithographing, engraving, and map making, aro (for fine goods). Vienna is also distinguished for its manufao- actively carried on in Vienna and some of the other large towni. ture of shawls. The coarser kinds of woollen goods are gen. There are 44 printing and 78 lithographio establishments in erally manufactured over the country, and principally in the Vienna alone. people's houses, and for home use.

Austria is noted for its beer, partioularly that of Vienna and The manufacture of silk stuffs is principally carried on in Bohemia. There are about 3200 breweries in the country, of Vienna, and to a small extent in the north of Bohemia and in which more than 1000 are in Bohemia. The largest establishthe Maritime District. The spinning of silk has its principal ments, however, are in Lower Austria, in the neighborhood of beat in Southern Tyrol, where about 550,000 AD are spun annu. Vienna. The annual quantity of beer made is estimated at ally, besides which about 1,700,000 tb are annually brought about 186,000,000 gallons. Brandy is made largely in Hunfrom other countries.

gary, Galicia, and Buckowina, and to a less extent in Bohemia, The iron and steel manufactures form one of the most import- Moravia, and Lower Austria. Rosoglio, maraschino, and othor ant branches of industry, and afford employment to a great liqueurs, are made in Dalmatia and Moravia. Dumber of persons. They are more or less extensively carried The manufacture of sugar from beet-root is in a very flourish on in all the crown-lands, except the Maritime District, Dalma-ing state, and is rapidly extending. In 1857 there were in tia, Croatia, and Slavonia; but their principal seats are in Austria Proper 91 sugar-works, consuming 8,300,000 cwt. of Lower and Upper Austria, Bohemia, Moravia, Styria, and Ca- beet, which åmounts were in 1870 raised to 190 and 24,834,646 rinthia. One of the most important of these seats is Steier respectively. In Bohemia alone there were 126 works, consumand its neighborhood, in Upper Austria, where there are about ing 15,279,000 cwt. of beet. Of the other works, Moravia 700 establishments, producing goods-chiefly cutlery, scythes, possessed 45, Silesia 10, Lower Austria 6, Galicia 5. This sickles, firearms, &c.—to the value of £400,000 annually. In manufacture is also carried on to some extent in Hungary and Styria there are large ironworks at Maria-Zell and Neuberg; Transylvania. and in Carinthia, at Prevali, Buchscheiden, and Ferlach. There The manufacture as well as the growth of tobacco is a governare also large ironworks in Lower Austria, Carniola, Tyrol, Bo- ment monopoly. There are 22 establishments for the manufachemia, and Moravia. The making of steam engines and other ture of tobacco and cigars, employing about 20,000 workpeople. kinds of machinery is largely carried on in and about Vienna, Of these there are 5 in Lower Austria, 3 in Galicia, 2 in Mowhere there are 26 establishments for this purpose. There are ravia, 2 in Tyrol, and 4 in Hungary. The largest are those of similar establishments in other parts of Lower Austria, in Sty. Hainburg in Lower Austria (where about one-sixth of the wholo ria, Bohemia, Silesia, and Buckowina. The Lloyds' Company is manufactured), Fürstenfeld in Styria, and Sedler in Bohemia. has also large workshops at Trieste. About 1,100,000 cwt. of About 70,000,000 tb of tobacco are manufactured annually. iron are annually used in the making of machinery, and about The annual value of the industrial products of Austria is esti6,600,000 cwts. in the other iron and steel manufactures, among mated at not less than £130,000,000, of which 33 per cent. falls which may be mentioned cutlery, firearms, files, wire, nails, tin-to the eastern, and 67 per cent. to the western half of the counplate, steel pens, needles, &c.

try. Among the crown-lands, 18 per cent. belongs to Bohemia The principal copper-works are at Brixlegg and other places alone, 15 to Lower Austria, 15 to 'Hungary, 6 to Transylvania in Tyrol, and in Galicia, Buckowina, and Hungary. The quan- and the other Hungarian crown-lands, 11 to Galicia and Bucktity of metal employed is about 40,000 cwt., and the value of owina, 10 to Moravia, 6 to Tyrol, 4 to Styria, and 4 to Upper the articles annually produced is £250,000. In the lead-works Austria. the quantity of metal employed is 65,000 cwt., and the annual Austria is not favorably situated for commerce on

Commerce. value of the goods produced, £100,000. Tin is manufactured account of its inland position, its small extent of (principally in Bobemia) to the annual value of £50,000, and sea-coast, and the mountainous character of much of its surfaco. zine to that of £2500. The precious metals, gold and silver, Its trade was also formerly very much hampered by high duties, are principally worked in the larger towns, particularly Vienna and restrictions of various kinds. These, however, have now and Prague, and the value of the articles annually produced is been very much modified or removed, and its trade has in conabout £1,700,000. In addition to this a considerable amount sequence rapidly improved. Much has been done, too, in the of gold and silver is appually taken up by the mints. The way of making and improving the roads, opening mountain mixed metals are also made and manufactured to a considerable passes, constructing railways, and establishing lines of steamers. extent, as brass, bell metal, gun metal, pinchbeck, &c.

In 1874 there were 9530 miles of railway in operation, of which The glass manufacture has its greatest development in Bohe- 5755 were in Austria and 3775 in Hungary. Besides these there mie, where there are not only the greatest number of works (35 / were about 2000 miles in course of construction. There aro also 59,770 miles of highways, of which 70 per cent. are in Aus- As might be expected from its natural position, the overland tria and 30 in Hungary. Bohemia, in particular, is distin- foreign trade of Austria is more important than its sea traffic. guished for the number and excellence of its roads. The river While the latter amounted to £29,682,400, the former was no legg Danube is navigable for steamers for its entire length in the than £55,039,034 (imports, £27,890,181; exports, £27,148,853). country-from Passau to Orsova. Many of its afluents are also of the overland trade about 74 per cent. is with Germany, 14 navigable for a considerable length, particularly the Theiss, with Turkey, 63 with Italy, 5% with Russia, and rather more Drave, and Save. The Danube Steam Company possesses 155 than with Switzerland. It includes colonial goods, agriculsteamers, of 13,946 horse-power, and 495 towed boats. Tbere tural and garden produce, animals and animal produce, the proare also ste ers on a number of the larger lakes. Altogether, duce of the mines and manufactures, chemical products, maAustria possesses 4240 miles of navigable river and canal com- chines, scientific instruments, wine, beer, brandy, &c. Besides munication, of which the greater part (60 per cent.) is in Hun- these, there is a considerable transit trade through the country, gary

chiefly from the seaports and the eastern borders, towards the The principal seaports of Austria are Trieste and Fiume, at north and north-west. It is estimated at about £12,000,000. the head of the Adriatic, the former in the Maritime crown- The internal trade consists chiefly of the exchange of the proland, the latter in that of Croatia. The number of vessels that ducts of different parts of the country, more particularly of the entered the port of Trieste in 1870 was-sailing vessels, laden, agricultural products of the east with the industrial products of 5332; in ballast, 898; total tonnage, 407,606; value of imports, the west. Important markets are held at fixed times in the £4,673,170: steamers, laden, 924; in ballast, 900; total tonnage, principal towns for the different kinds of produce. Vienna, as 552,497 ; value of imports, £12,586,950. The number of vessels being the capital and the seat of so many different branches of that left was sailing vessels, laden, 4409; in ballast, 1794; industry, and as having ready means of communication with total tonnage, 441,601 ; value of exports, £3,325,400: steamers, all parts of the country, is the principal seat both of the home laden, 920, in ballast, 900; total tonnage, 571,175; value of and of the foreign trade, and the great resort of merchants and exports, £6,716,940. Trieste is the seat of the Austrian Lloyds' capitalists. Company, which trades principally with the eastern ports of Austria possesses a number of banks, the principal of which the Mediterranean, Galacz, Sinope, Smyrna, Beirout, Alexan- are—the National Bank, founded in 1816, and having an active driæ, &c. They own 68 steam vessels. The number of vessels capital of £9,000,000; the Austrian Land-Credit Institute, that entered the port of Fiume in 1870 was—sailing vessels, founded 1864, active capital, £960,000; the Austrian Trade and laden, 1530; in ballast, 270; total tonnage, 77,499; value of Manufactures Credit Institute, founded 1855, active capital, imports, £519,820 : steamers, laden, 229; in ballast, 17; total £4,000,000; the Anglo-Austrian Bank, founded 1863, aetire tonnage, 52,671; value of imports, £174,720. The number of capital, £1,704,500; the Union Bank, founded 1870, active vessels that left was-sailing vessels, laden, 1180; in ballast, capital, £1,200,000; the Franco-Austrian Bank, founded 1869, 622; total tonnage, 88,781 ; value of exports, £366,790: steam- active capital, £800,000; the Lower Austrian Discount Com. ers, laden, 245; in ballast, 1; total tonnage, 52,671; value of pany, founded 1853, active capital, £700,000. The National exports, £94,340.

Bank is the only company authorized to issue notes. There are The commercial navy of Austria in 1870 comprised 83 steam also a number of savings banks and loan institutions of various vessels, of 47,242 tons burden, having 2352 men; 566 large kinds, as well as numerous societies formed with a view of fur. sailing vessels, trading with foreign countries, of 255,930 tons thering in various ways industry and commerce. In 1871 there burden, having 5939 men ; and 2487 coasting vessels, of 555,318 were 3504 post-offices in Austria, and 1638 in Hungary; the numtops búrden, having 7588 men. Besides these, there were 4717 ber of private letters that passed through the former in that year smaller vessels, with 14,475 tons and 12,305 men, employed as was 125,614,538, and through the latter, 37,368,139; of newspalighters, in fishing, &c. The number of trading vessels that pers through the former, 51,780,909, and through the latter, entered and left the various ports in 1870 was-entered, sailing 22,303,771. There were also throughout the country 1081 vessels, Austrian, laden, 17,564 (tonnage, 486,745); in ballast, telegraph stations, and 22,536 miles of lines transmitting 9727 (tonnage, 270,887); foreign, laden, 4360 (tonnage, 263,942); upwards of 5,000,000 messages during that year. in ballast, 2793 (tonnage, 184,760): steamers, Austrian, laden, 4964 (tonnage, 1,676,095); in ballast, 2597 (tonnage, 409,480); The head of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy foreign, laden, 179 (tonnage, 138,032); in ballast, 12 (tonnage, is the emperor and king, who is also the head of

Govern7847). Left--sailing vessels, Austrian, laden, 17,204 (tonnage, the army and of the executive. The succession 468,093); in ballast, 10,308 (tonnage, 290,531); foreign, laden, is hereditary, in the order of primogeniture, in the male 5705 (tonnage, 384,019); in ballast, 1976 (tonnage, 103,995): line of the house of Hapsburg-Lothringen, or Lorraine; steamers, Austrian, laden, 4160 (tonnage, 1,403,865); in ballast, and failing this, in the female line. The monarchy com3397 (tonnage, 678,512); foreign, laden, 160 (tondage, 143,100); prises two distinct states-a German or Cisleithan, comin ballast, 32 (tonnage, 21,790). vessels, 34,852 (tonnage, 2,843,207); foreign, 7344 (tonnage, monly called Austria, and a Magyar or Transleithan, 594,581): left-Austrian, 35,069 (tonnage, 2,841,001); foreign, usually termed Hungary. Each of these has its own par7271 (tonnage, 652,904). The total value of the imports was liament, ministers, and government; while the army and £16,630,150; of the exports, £13,052,250— £7,098,180 of the navy and foreign relations are common. These are under former, and £3,578,810 of the latter, being in foreign vessels. the direction of a controlling body known as the DelegaThe principal foreign trade is carried on with Italy, Greece, tions, consisting of sixty members for each state, two-thirds Turkey, England, Holland, Norway and Sweden, North Ger- being elected by the Lower House, and one-third by the many, Denmark, and North America. The number of vessels Upper House of each of the parliamentary bodies. They belonging to the principal foreign states that entered and left usually sit and vote in two chambers--one for Austria, the the various ports in 1870, was as follows:

other for Hungary; but in the event of disagreement on any question, they meet together, and without further deliberation give their final votes, and the decision thus arrrived

at is binding on the whole empire. Their resolutions reTonnage. Cargoes. quire neither the approval nor the confirmation of the rep

resentative assemblies by which they are chosen, but only 185,142 1,623,730 301,781 1.539,910 imperial assent. The executive is vested in three depart31,511

ments—(1), A ministry of foreign affairs; (2), a ministry 13,367

132,510 of war; and (3), a ministry of finance. These are respon. 137,330 3,724,810

138,462 |1,337,380 sible to the Delegations. The Reichsrath, or Parliament 8,795 234,710

of Austria, consists of an Upper and a Lower House. The 7,471 264,870 Norwegian.

8,762 71,980

former, the House of Lords, is composed-(1), of princes

of the imperial house who are of age (14 in 1874); (2), The principal imports, with their values, were - coffee, of the heads of noble houses of high rank, in whom the £805,370 ; sugar, £218,950; tobacco, in leaf, £417,670; ditto, dignity is hereditary (56); (3), of the archbishops (10) and manufactured, £457,520 ; wheat, £311,500; maize, £331,060; of bishops with the rank of princes (7); and (4), of life four, £431,840; olive oil, £778,890; iron, raw and wrought, members nominated by the emperor on account of dis£1,210,570 ; raw cotton, £1,855,210 ; cotton yarn, £303,130; tinguished services (102). The Lower House, or House of cotton goods, £1,375,390; linen goods, £226,470; wool, Representatives, is composed of 353 members, elected to £266,270; woollen goods, £252,900 ; machines, £216,010. The manufactured tobacco, £370,610; wheat, £244,410; maize. The emperor annually convokes the Reichsrath, and nomiprincipal exports were --- coffee, £336,610 ; sugar, ' £381,090 ; represent the different crown-lands by all citizens who are

of age and possessed of a small property qualification. £434,980; flour, £938,730; olive oil, £614,640; spirits of wine, £334,620; barrel staves, £517,520; building stones, nates the presidents and vice-presidents of each division £307,040; raw cotton, £293,750; cotton goods, £2,030,060; out of the members. The business of the Reichsrath wool, £109,490 ; woollen goods, £249,738; articles of clothing, embraces all matters of legislation relating to laws, duties, £212,540; paper, £256,070.

and interests, except such as are specially excluded a

ment.

Entered.

Left.

Value of

Value of

Vessels.

Tonnage. Cargoes.

Vessels.

£

£

4508

313

303,260

3557
383
234
213
41

419,140
156,940

35,415
12,455

Italian.. Greek. Turkish.. British. Dutch Swedish and

126
175
35

30

23

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