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other regions of the globe, in the prevalence of non-placental mammals, besides the dingo, or wild dog—which, however, mammalia. The vast majority of the mammalia are pro- may have come from the islands north of this continentvided with an organ in the uterus, by which, before the are of the bat tribe and of the rodent or rat tribe. There are birth of their young, a vascular connection is maintained four species of large fruit-eating bats, called flying foxes, between the embryo and the parent animal. There are twenty of insect-eating bats, above twenty of land-rats, and two orders, the Marsupialia and the Monotremata, which do five of water-rats. The sea produces three different seals, not possess this organ. Both these are found in Australia, which often ascend rivers from the coast, and can live in to which region indeed they are not absolutely confined ; lagoons of fresh water; many cetaceans, besides the "right but the marsupials alone constitute two-thirds of all the whale" and sperm whale; and the dugong, found on the Australian species of mammals. It is the well-known northern shores, which yields a valuable medicinal oil. peculiarity of this order that the female has a pouch or The birds of Australia in their number and variety of fold of skin upon her abdomen, in which she can place the species (reckoned at 690) may be deemed some compensayoung for suckling within reach of her teats. The opossum tion for its poverty of mammals; yet it will not stand comof America is the only species out of Australasia which is parison in this respect with regions of Africa and South thus provided. Australia is inhabited by at least 110 dif- | America in the same latitudes. The black swan of West ferent species of marsupials, which have been arranged in Australia was thought remarkable when discovered as befive tribes, according to the food they eat, viz., the root- lying an old Latin proverb. There is also a white eagle. caters (wombats), the fruit-eaters (phalangers), the grass- The vulture is wanting. Sixty species of parrots, some of eaters kangaroos), the insect-eaters (bandicoots), and the them very handsome, are found in Australia. The emu, a flesh-eaters (native cats and rats). Of these tribes the large bird of the order Cursores, or runners, corresponds wombats are closely allied to the phalangers, represented with the African and Arabian ostrich, the rhea of South by the opossums and flying-squirrels, with the native bear, America, and the_cassowary of the Moluccas and New while fossil remains of twenty extinct species have also been Guinea. In New Zealand this order is represented by the found. Of wombats now existing there are four species, all apteryx, as it formerly was by the gigantic moa, the remains of nearly the same size, seldom exceeding 100 fb in weight. of which have been found likewise in Queensland. Of the They all burrow in the ground, and their habitat is in same species as the birds of paradise is the graceful Mænura New South Wales, Tasmania, and South Australia. There superba, or lyre bird, with its tail feathers spread in the is but one species of the singular animal miscalled the shape of a lyre. The mound-raising megapodes, the bowernative bear, which is more like a sloth in its habits. Three building satin-birds, and several others, display peculiar varieties of brush-tailed opossum are found, but one of habits. The honey-eaters present a great diversity of them exists only in Tasmania; and there are three ring- plumage. There are also many kinds of game birds, tailed varieties in almost every part of Australia. The pigeons, ducks, geese, plovers, and quails. great flying phalanger (Petaurista) is nearly allied to the The ornithology New South Wales and Queensland last-mentioned genus; it exists only in East Australja; as is more varied and interesting than that of the other does the small fying phalanger (Belideus), which is re- provinces. stricted to mountain districts. The interior of Australia As for reptiles, Australia has a few tortoises, all of one and the west coast are wanting in these species, but two family, and not of great size. The “leathery turtle," or three of them occur on the north coast. The smallest which is herbivorous, and yields abundance of oil, has been phalanger (Acrobata pygmæa) is less than a mouse, and caught at sea off the Illawarra coast so large as 9 feet in has a feathery tail. The little Tarsipes rostratus is almost length. The saurians or lizards are numerous, chiefly on toothless, but has a long hairy tongue, which it thrusts dry sandy or rocky ground in the tropical region. The into flowers to suck their sweetness.

great crocodile of Queensland is 30 feet long; there is a The kangaroo (Macropus) and most of its congeners smaller one, 6 feet long, to be met with in the shallow show an extraordinary disproportion of the hind limbs to lagoons of the interior. The monitor, or fork-tongued the fore part of the body. The rock wallabies again have lizard, which burrows in the earth, climbs, and swims, is short tarsi of the hind legs, with a long pliable tail for said to grow to a length of 8 or 9 feet. This species, and dimbing, like that of the tree kangaroo of New Guinea, or many others, do not extend to Tasmania. There are about that of the jerboa. Of the larger kangaroos, which attain twenty kinds of night-lizards, and many which hibernate. a weight of 200 lb and more, eight species are named, only One species can utter a cry when pained or alarmed, and one of which is found in West Australia. There are some the tall-standing frilled lizard can lift its forelegs, and twenty smaller species in Australia and Tasmania, besides squat or hop like a kangaroo. There is also the Moloch the rock wallabies and the hair kangaroos; these last are horridus of South and West Australia, covered with tuberwonderfully swift, making clear jumps eight or ten feet high. cles bearing large spines, which give it a very strange To this agility they owe their preservation from the prairie aspect. This and some other lizards have power to change fires, which are so destructive in the interior during seasons their color, not only from light to dark, but in some parts of drought. In the rat kangaroo there is not the same from yellow to grey or red. Dr. Gray, of the British disproportion of the limbs; it approaches more nearly Museum, has described fifty species of Australian lizard. to the bandicoot, of which seven species exist, from the The snakes are reckoned at sixty-three species, of which size of a rat to that of a rabbit. The carnivorous tribe of forty-two are venomous, but only' five dangerous. North marsupials, the larger species at any rate, belong more to Queensland has many harmless pythons. There are forty Tasmania, which has its "tiger" and its "devil.” But or fifty, different sorts of frogs; the commonest is distinthe native cat, or dasyurus, is common to every part of guished by its blue legs and 'bronze or gold back; the Australia. Several different species of pouched rats and largest is bright green; while the tree-frog has a loud shrill mice, one or two living in trees, are reckoned among the voice, always heard during rain. flesh-eaters. Fossil bones of extinct kangaroo species are The Australian seas and rivers are inhabited by many met with, which must have been of enormous size, twice fishes of the same genera as exist in the southern parts or thrice that of any species now living.

of Asia and Africa. Of those peculiar to Australian waters We pass on to the other curious order of non-placental may be mentioned the arripis, represented by what is called mammals, that of the Monotremata, so called from the among the colonists a salmon trout. A very fine freshstructure of their organs of evacuation with a single orifice, water fish is the Murray cod, which sometimes weighs 100 * in birds. Their abdominal bones are like those of the Ib; and the golden perch, found in the same river, has rare narsupials; and they are furnished with pouches for their beauty of color. Among the sea fish, the snapper is of young, but have no teats, the milk being distilled into great value as an article of food, and its weight comes up their pouches from the mammary glands. Australia and to 50 lb. This is the Pagrus unicolor, of the family of Tasmania possess two animals of this order,—the echidna, Sparidæ, which includes also the bream. Its colors are * spiny ant-eater (hairy in Tasmania), and the Platypus beautiful, pink and red with a silvery gloss; but the male anatinus, the duck-billed water-mole, otherwise named the as it grows old takes on a singular deformity of the head, Ornithorhynchus paradoxus. This odd animal is provided with a swelling in the shape of a monstrous human-like with a bill or beak, which is not, like that of a bird, affixed nose. These fish are caught in numbers outside Port to the skeleton, but is merely attached to the skin and Jackson for the Sydney market. Two species of inackerel, muscles.

differing somewhat from the European species, are also Australia has no apes, monkeys, or baboons, and no rumi- caught on the coasts. The so-called red garnet, a pretty mat beasts. The comparatively few indigenous placental fish, with hues of carmine and blue stripes on its head, is

Vol. III.-103

much esteemed for the table. The Trigla polyommata, or adolescence, that seems to mark the common descent of Aying garnet, is a greater beauty, with its body of crimson tribes, now' widely distant in location, which appear to and silver, and its large pectoral fins, spread like wings, of have belonged to one of the supposed main streams of a rich green, bordered with purple, and relieved by a black population. The discontinuance of such customs among and white spot. Whiting, mullet, gar-fish, rock cod, and the tribes of the other main divisions is plausibly ascribed to many others known by local names, are in the lists of local influences. From a comparison of their languages

, edible fishes belonging to New South Wales and Victoria. the diversities of which have been already referred to, it Much interesting and valuable information upon Australian ( appears that little aid is to be expected from them in ethzoology will be found in a recent essay by Mr. Gerard Krefft,nological grouping. curator and secretary of the museum at Sydney, and in the The natives of the north-eastern quarter-a tropical Count de Castelnau's report on the fishes of Victoria at the region of diversified surface, with many rivers and thick International Exhibition of 1873.

forests, as well as open highlands-are far superior in body, Aborigines.-The Papuan, Melanesian, or Australasian mind, and social habits to those of the rest of Australia

. aborigines exhibit certain peculiarities which are not found They bear, in fact, most resemblance to their neighbors in the African negro, to which race they otherwise present and kindred in the island of New Guinea, but are still some similarity. In the Australasian the forehead is below these in many important respects. higher, the under jaw less projecting, the nose, though fat If a general view be taken of the tribes of Australia, and and extended compared with that of the European, is less the state in which they existed independently of recent Eurodepressed than in the African. His lips are thick, but not pean intercourse, two or three extraordinary defects exhibit protuberant, and the eyes are sunken, large, and black. themselves. They never, in any situation, cultivated the The color of his skin is lighter-of a dusky hue—than soil for any kind of food-crop. They never reared any that of the Negro. In stature he equals the average Euro- kind of cattle, or kept any domesticated animal except the pean, but tall men are rare, except in North Queensland; dog, which probably came over with them in their canoes

. his body and limbs are well shaped, strongly jointed, and They have nowhere built permanent dwellings, but con highly muscular. The hind parts are not, as in the Afri- tented themselves with mere hovels for temporary shelter. can, excessively raised; and while the calf of the leg is They have neither manufactured nor possessed any chattels deficient, the heel is straight. The natives of Papua have beyond such articles of clothing, weapons, ornaments

, and woolly spirally-twisted hair. Those of Tasmania, now ex- utensils as they might carry on their persons, or in the terminated, had the same peculiarity. But the natives of family store-bag for daily use. Their want of ingenuity the Australian continent have straight or curly black hair. and contrivance has, however, undoubtedly been promoted The men wear short beards and whiskers.

by the natural poverty of the land in which the race settled. Their mental faculties, though probably inferior to those The sole dress of both sexes in their aboriginal state is of the Polynesian copper-colored race, are not contemptible. a cloak of skin or matting, fastened with a skewer, but They have much acuteness of perception for the relations open on the right-hand side. No headgear is worn, except of individual objects, but little power of generalization. sometimes a net to confine the hair, a bunch of feathers, or No word exists in their language for the general terms the tails of small animals. The bosom or back is usually tree, bird, or fish; yet they have invented a name for tattoed, or rather scored with rows of hideous raised scars, every species of vegetable and animal they know. The produced by deep gashes at the age when youth comes to grammatical structure of some North Australian languages manhood or womanhood. Their dwellings, for the most has a considerable degree of refinement. The verb presents part, are either bowers, formed of the branches of trees, a variety of conjugations, expressing nearly all the moods or hovels of piled logs, loosely covered with grass or bark, and tenses of the Greek. There is a dual, as well as a which they can erect in an hour, wherever they encamp. plural form in the declension of verbs, nouns, pronouns, But some huts of a more commodious and substantial form and adjectives. The distinction of genders is not marked, were seen by Flinders on the south-east coast in 1799, except in proper names of men and women. All parts of and by Captain King and Sir J. Mitchell on the north-east, speech, except adverbs, are declined by terminational inflec- where they no longer appear. The ingenuity of the race tions. There are words for the elementary numbers, one, is mostly to be recognized in the manufacture of their two, three; but "four" is usually expressed by "two- weapons of warfare and the chase. While the use of the two;" then “five” by, "two-three,” and so on. They bow and arrow does not seem to have occurred to them, have no idea of decimals. The number and diversity the spear and axe are in general use, commonly made of of separate languages, not mere dialects, is truly bewilder- hard-wood; the hatchets of stone, and the javelins pointed ing. Tribes of a few hundred people, living within a few with stone or bone. The peculiar weapon of the Australian miles of each other, have often scarcely a phrase in com- is the boomerang, a curved blade of wood, of such remarkmon. This is more especially observed in New South able construction, that it swerves from its direct course, Wales, a country much intersected by dividing mountain sometimes returning so as to hit an object behind the ranges. But one language is spoken all along the Rivers thrower. Their nets, made by women, either of the tenMurray and Darling, while the next neighbors of the dons of animals or the fibres of plants, will catch and hold Murray tribes, on both sides, are unable to converse with the strong kangaroo or the emu, or the very large fish of them.

Australian rivers. Canoes of bent bark, for the inland It is, nevertheless, tolerably certain that all the natives waters, are hastily prepared at need; but the inlets and of Australia belong to one stock. There appears reason straits of the north-eastern sea-coast are navigated by larger to believe that their progenitors originally landed on canoes and rafts of a better construction. the north-west coast, that of Cambridge Gulf or Arnhem Without claiming permanent ownership of the land, each Land, in canoes drifting from the island of Timor. They native tribe was accustomed, till the English squatter came, seem then to have advanced over the continent in three to enjoy the recognized manorial dominion of its owo separate directions. By one route they moved, in the hunting-ground, perhaps ten or twelve miles square. This course of ages, directly across to the south coast, near the was subdivided between the chief heads of families. The head of the Great Bight, Spencer Gulf, and the Gulf of affairs of a tribe are ruled by a council of the men past St. Vincent. Another division followed the west coast to middle age who are still in full vigor of mind and body. Swan River, and round by King George's Sound. The One may be their president, but they have no hereditary third and most important body, turning eastward, crossed prince. Their most solemn assemblies take place when the the head of the Gulf of Carpentaria, then split and sub- youth undergo one or other of the painful ceremonies of inidivided itself amidst the rivers and highland ranges of tiation into manhood. In every case of death from disease Queensland, while some of its tribes crossing the Upper or unknown causes the sorcerers hold a public inquest, and Darling occupied New South Wales, overspread the pretend to ask the corpse how it was killed. Such deaths are Riverina, and peopled the south-eastern quarter of Aus- invariably inscribed to witchcraft practised by a hostile tralia. The proofs and arguments upon which this hypo- or envious neighboring tribe. The bodies of the slain in thetical distribution is based are set forth by Mr. Eyre in battle are sometimes eaten, or the fat of the kidneys at his interesting essay on the Australian aborigines (Dis- least, is extracted for a feast of victory. But cannibalism coveries in Central Australia, &c., by E. J. Eyre, resident in Australia is not confined to the flesh of enemies, nor is magistrate, Murray River, vol. ii.). It is chiefly the prev- it generally associated with an insulting triumph. It is alence of some peculiar customs, such as circumcision, or rather, like that reported of the ancient Scythians, a rite the removal of two upper-jaw teeth at a stated age of of funeral observance, in honor of deceased kindred and friends. The reality of this custom is proved by the testi- | liberal administration proved most beneficial. New South mony of trustworthy English witnesses, who have watched Wales became prosperous and attractive to emigrants with the revolting act. The only idea of a god known to be enter capital. Its enterprising ambition was encouraged by tained by these people is that of Buddai, a gigantic old man taking fresh country north and south. In the latter direo lying asleep for ages, with his head resting upon his arm, tion, explored by Mitchell in 1834 and 1836, lay Australia which is deep in the sand. He is expected one day to Felix, now Victoria, including the well-watered, thickly. awake and eat up the world. They have no religion beyond wooded country of Gipps' Land. these gloomy dreams. Their notions of duty relate mostly This district, then called Port Phillip, in the time of to neighborly service and social interest; and they are not Governor Sir George Gipps, 1838 to 1846, was growing fast all thieves or liars, but are capable of many good deeds. into a position claiming independence. Melbourne, which The marriage bond is observed by the wife or wives, the began with a few huts on the banks of the Yarra-Yarra penalty of its violation being death. But chastity upon any in 1835, was in 1840 a busy town of 6000 inhabitants, other account is a virtue beyond the native conception, the population of the whole district, with the towns of though a certain delicacy of feeling in matters of sex is not Geelong and Portland, reaching 12,850; while its import unknown. The deplorable lack of moral restraint has in- trade amounted to £204,000, and its exports to £138,000. volved this unhappy race in sufferings which may be easily Such was the growth of infant Victoria in five years; that understood, from their contact with the more reckless and of Adelaide or South Australia, in the same period, was vicious representatives of foreign nations.

nearly equal to it. At Melbourne there was a deputy The numbers of the native Australians are steadily governor, Mr. Latrobe, under Sir George Gipps at Sydney. diminishing. A remnant of the race exists in each of the Adelaide had its own governors, first Captain Hindmarsh, provinces, while a few tribes still wander over the interior. next Colonel Gawler, and then Captain George Grey. Altogether it is computed that not more than about 80,000 Western Australia progressed but slowly, with less than aborigines remain on the continent.

4000 inhabitants altogether, under Governors Stirling and Perhaps the most complete and trustworthy informa- Hutt. tion on the Australian race is to be found in works pub- The general advancement of Australia, to the era of the lished some twenty or thirty years ago, before the country gold-mining, had been satisfactory, in spite of a severe was occupied as it now is by the European settler. Mr. commercial crisis, from 1841 to 1843, caused by extravaEyre's work above referred to, and Captain (afterwards Sir gant land speculations and inflated prices. Victoria proGeorge) Grey's Discoveries in North-West and Western duced already, more wool than New South Wales, the Australia, are authorities that may be relied upon. aggregate produce of Australia in 1852 being 45,000,000

Colonial History.–Of the five Australian provinces, that Ib; and South Australia, between 1842 and this date, had of New South Wales may be reckoned the oldest. It was opened most valuable mines of copper. The population of in 1788, eighteen years after Captain Cook explored the New South Wales in 1851 was 190,000; that of Victoria, east coast, that Port Jackson was founded as a penal station 77,000; and that of South Australia about the same. for criminals from England; and the settlement retained At Summerhill Creek, 20 miles north of Bathurst, in that character, more or less, during the subsequent fifty the Macquarie plains, gold was discovered, in February, years, transportation being virtually suspended in 1839. 1851, by Mr. E. Hargraves,' a gold-miner from California. The colony, however, from 1821 had made a fair start in The intelligence was made known in April or May; and free industrial progress.

then began a rush of thousands ---men leaving their former By this time, too, several of the other provinces had employments in the bush or in the towns to search for the come into existence. Van Diemen's Land, now called ore so greatly coveted in all ages. In August it was found Tasmania, had been occupied as early as 1803. It was an at Anderson's Creek, near Melbourne; a few weeks later auxiliary penal station under New South Wales, till in the great Ballarat gold-field, 80 miles west of that city, 1825 it became a separate province. From this island, ten was opened; and after that, Bendigo, now called Sandyears later, parties crossed Bass's Straits to Port Phillip, hurst, to the north. Not only in these lucky provinces, where a new settlement was shortly established, forming New South Wales and Victoria, where the auriferous detill 1851 a part of New South Wales, but now the richer posits were revealed, but in every British colony of Ausand more populous colony of Victoria. In 1827 and 1829, tralasia, all ordinary industry was left for the one exciting an English company endeavored to plant a settlement at pursuit. The copper mines of South Australia were for the Swan River, and this, added to a small convict station the time deserted, while Tasmania and New Zealand lost established in 1825 at King George's Sound, constituted many inhabitants, who emigrated to the more promising Western Australia. On the shores of the Gulf St. Vincent, country. The disturbance of social, industrial, and comagain, from 1835 to 1837, South Australia was created by mercial affairs, during the first two or three years of the another joint stock company, as an experiment in the Wake- gold era, was very great. Immigrants from Europe, and field scheme of colonization.

to some extent from North America and China, poured Such were the political component parts of British Aus-into Melbourne, where the arrivals in 1852 averaged 2009 tralia up to 1839. The earlier history, therefore, of New persons in a week. The population of Victoria was doubled South Wales is peculiar to itself. Unlike the other main- in the first twelvemonth of the gold fever, and the value of land provinces, it was at first held and used chiefly for imports and exports was multiplied tenfold between 1851 the reception of British convicts. When that system was and 1853. abolished, the social conditions of New South Wales, Vic- The colony of Victoria was constituted a separate prov toria, and South Australia became more equal. Previous ince in July, 1851, Mr. Latrobe being appointed governor, to the gold discoveries of 1851 they may be included, from followed by Sir Charles Hotham and Sir Henry Barkly 1839, in a general summary view.

in succession. The more rapid increase of Victoria since The first British governors at Sydney, from 1788, ruled that time, in wealth and number of inhabitants, has gained with despotic power. They were naval or military officers it a pre-eminence in the esteem of emigrants; but the in command of the garrison, the convicts, and the few free varied resources of New South Wales, and its greater exBettlers. The duty was performed by such men as Captain tent of territory, may in some degree tend to redress the Arthur Phillip, Captain Hunter, and others. In the balance, if not to restore the character of superior importtwelve years' rule of General Macquarie, closing with 1821, ance to the older colony. the colony made a substantial advance. By means of con- The separation of the northern part of eastern Australia, vict labor roads and bridges were constructed, and a route under the name of Queensland, from the original province opened into the interior beyond the Blue Mountains. A of New South Wales, took place in 1859. At that time the population of 30,000, three-fourths of them convicts, formed district contained about 25,000 inhabitants; and in the the infant commonwealth, whose attention was soon directed first six years (as Sir George Bowen, the first governor, to the profitable trade of rearing fine wool sheep, first com- observed in 1865) its population was quadrupled and its menced by Mr. John M'Arthur in 1803.

trade trebled. During the next ten years, 1821-31, Sir Thomas Bris- It appears, from a general view of Australian progress in bane and Sir Ralph Darling, two generals of the army, the last twenty years, that the provinces less rich in gold being successively governors, the colony increased, and than Victoria have been enabled to advance in prosperity eventually succeeded in obtaining the advantages of a by other means. Wool continues the great staple of Ausrepresentative institution, by means of a legislative council. tralia. But New South Wales, possessing both coal and Then came General Sir Richard Bourke, whose wise and iron, is becoming a seat of manufactures ; while Queens

1 (Edmund H., born in England about 1816. besame an Australian stock-raiser, received $50,000 from New South Wales for his gold discovery, settled in England in 1854.-AM. ED.

Name of Colony.


tion at
Close of

of 1879.

Publio Debt
on Dec. 81,


Value of
for 1873.

Value of
for 1873.

Victoria ...
New Bouth Wales.
South Australia

Western Australis
Total for Australian


790, 492

2 3,943,691 3,324,713

937.648 1,120,034 293,753 134,832

10,842, 415


16,533,856 15,302,454
11,088,388 11,815,829
8,829,830 4.587.859
2,881,726 8,542,513
1,107,167 893,556



35,738,295 38,407,428

land is also favored with much mineral wealth, including to a great elevation. At the base are found vines and maize; tin. The semi-tropical climate of the latter colony is suit on the lower slopes are green pastures, or wheat, barley, able for the culture of particular crops, needing only a and other kinds of corn; above are often forests of oak, suprly of other than European labor. Meantime South ash, elm, &c.; and still higher the yew and the fir may bo Australia, besides its production of copper and a fair share seen braving the fury of the tempest. Corn grows to be of wool, has become the great wheat-growing province of tween 3400 and 4500 feet above the level of the sea, the the continent.

forests extend to 5600 or 6400 feet, and the line of perThe separate colonies of Australia are still in a some petual snow is from 7800 to 8200 feet. In some parts, what transitional state, emigration being so continuous, however, particularly in Tyrol, Styria, Carinthia, and.Car; and the country to be yet occupied so extensive. For niola, the mountains appear in wild confusion, with rugged this and for other reasons, therefore, it may be more fitting peaks and bare precipitous sides, forcibly reminding the to describe the several colonies, with respect to their indus- traveller of Switzerland. Tyrol in particular has, like that trial and social conditions, under their respective names. country, its cascades, its glaciers, its perpetual snows, and To enable the reader, however, to judge of the general posi- its avalanches. tion of the provinces at a recent date, the following statis- The Alps occupy the south-west portion of the country, tics are appended :

and form its highest lands. They are distinguished by various names, as the Rhætian, Noric, Carnic, Julian, and Dinaric Alps. The Rhætian or Tyrolese Alps enter Tyrol from the Swiss canton of the Grisons, and are the loftiest range in the country, a number of the summits rising to the height of 12,000 feet, and highest, the Orteler Spitze, attaining a height of 12,814 feet above the level of the sea. They divide into three principal chains, the most southern of which occupies the southern portion of Tyrol,

and contains the Orteler Spitze, and others of the loftiest 285,217 points in the country. The middle or principal chain ex.

tends in an easterly direction to the borders of Salzburg

and Carinthia, and has many of its peaks covered with (R. A.)

perpetual snow. The northern chain is inferior in eleva

tion to the others, and few of its most elevated points reach Plate III.

AUSTRIA, or more strictly AUSTRIA-Hun- the snow-line. The Noric Alps are a continuation of the

GARY (Ger. Oesterreich and Oesterreich-Ungarn), Rhætian eastward, passing through Salzburg, Styria, Cais an extensive country in the southern portion of Central rinthia north of the Drave, Lower and Upper Austria, to Europe, lying between long. 9° and 260 E., and lat. 42° Hungary, where they gradually sink into the plains. They and 51° Ñ. It thus extends through 17 degrees of longi- comprise three chains, a main chain and two lesser chains tude, and 9 degrees of latitude, and has an area of about proceeding northward—the one the Salzburg, the other the 240,000 English square miles. With the exception of the Styria-Austrian Alps. The main chain, the Noric Alps in islands in the Adriatic, and the narrow projecting tract of a stricter sense, traverses Salzburg, Carinthia, and Styria, Dalmatia, it forms a compact region of country, but of an and has a length of about 170 miles, some of its peaks rising irregular shape. It is surrounded on all sides by other to the height of 12,000 feet. The Carnic or Carinthian countries, except where it borders upon the Adriatic, Alps are also an offshoot of the Rhætian Alps eastward, which is about one-fifth of the entire extent of its bound- occupying the south-east of Tyrol, Carinthia, and the north aries. Of the rest, about one-third on the W. and N. is of Carniola. They form several branches, and some of the formed by the German empire (Bavaria, Saxony, and summits are over 9000 feet high. The Julian or Carniolan

Alps extend in a south-easterly direction through Car70


niola and Croatia. They présent little of an Alpine POLAJN DRU

character, and with one or two exceptions nowhere rise to the height of 5000 feet. They are for the most part bare and rugged. The Dinaric Alps are a continua. tion of the preceding, extending through Croatia and Dalmatia, and resemble them in character. The highest point, Mount Dinara, from which they take their name, is 5956 feet above the level of the sea.

After the Alps, the most important mountain system of Austria is the Carpathians, which occupy its eastern and north-eastern portions, and stretch in the

form of Tulsa

an arch through Silesia, Moravia, Galicia, Hungary, and Transylvania. They have an extent of about 650

miles, and are divided into three principal groups—the SERVIA

Hungarian Carpathians, the Carpathian Waldgebirge or

Forest Mountains, and the Transylvanian Highlands. T U R K E Y

The Hungarian Carpathians stretch from west to east, through Hungary, Moravia, Silesia, and Galicia for

about 200 miles, and comprise various smaller groups, 15 20 25

among which are the Beskides, the Little Carpathians, Sketch-Map of Austria.

and the Central Carpathians or the Tatra Mountains.

This last group constitutes the highest portion of the Prussia), a third on the S. and E. by the Turkish empire Carpathians, having an average elevation of over 6000 feet, and the Danubian Principalities, and the remaining third and its two principal summits, the Eisthaler Thurm and the by Russia on the N.E. and Switzerland and Italy on the Lomnitzer Spitze, having a height of 8378 and 8222 feet to S.W. The boundaries are formed in some parts by river spectively. In character it resembles the Alps more than courses, in others by mountain ranges, and sometimes they the Carpathians, having rugged precipitous sides, deep extend' through an open country: As compared with chasms, snows, glaciers, cascades, &c. The Waldgebirge, or France, Austria has a form nearly as compact, but its Forest Mountains, are a series of moderate elevations, for frontiers are by no means so well defined or so strongly the most part wooded, and stretching for about 160 miles protected by natural barriers. It ranks third in extent through Hungary, Galicia, and Buckowina, with an average among the countries of Europe (after Russia and Sweden), breadth of about 45 miles. They are in general from 3000 and fourth in point of population (after Russia, the German to 6000 feet in elevation, the highest point, Pietrozza, ris empire, and France).

ing to 7086 feet. The Transylvanian Highlands extend Mountains. Austria is, after Switzerland, the most moun- over Transylvania, a part of Hungary, and the Military

tainous country of Europe, and about four-fifths Frontier, into Moldavia and Wallachia. They have a of its entire area is more than 600 feet above the level of the length of about 350 miles, and breadth of from 30 to 90. sea. The mountains are frequently covered with vegetation Several of the summits rise to the height of 8000 feet. The

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sides of the Carpathian mountains are generally covered on either side. The principal of these are the Linz and with forests to a considerable height.

Krems basins, the Vienna basin, and the little and great The Hercynian mountain system spreads itself over Hungarian basins. Between this last and the plains of Bohemia, Silesia, Moravia, and the middle and northern Wallachia, it passes through the narrow rocky channels of portions of Upper and Lower Austria. It includes the Islach, Kasan, and the Iron Door, where the fall is about lesser systems of the Bohemian Forest, the Erzgebirge, the 41 feet in less than half a mile. The Dniester, which, like Riesengebirge, and the Sudetes. The Bohemian Forest is the Danube, flows into the Black Sea, has its source in the a series of wooded heights on the confines of Bohemia and Carpathians in Eastern Galicia, and pursues a very wind. Bavaria, and extending south from the Eger to the Danube. ing course towards the south-east. It receives its principal Its highest point is 4610 feet above the sea. The Erzge affluents from the Carpathians, and drains in Austria a birge, or Ore Mountains, commence on the left bank of territory of upwards of 12,000 English square miles. It the Elbe, run eastward between Bohemia and Saxony, and is navigable for about 300 miles. The Vistula and the Oder terminate near the sources of the White Elster. None of both fall into the Baltic. The former rises in Moravia, the summits rise to the height of 4000 feet. The Riesenge- flows first north through Austrian Silesia, then takes an birge or Giant Mountains are on the confines of Bohenia easterly direction along the borders of Prussian Silesia, towards Prussian Silesia, and have their highest point, and afterwards a north-easterly, separating Galicia from Schneekoppe or Riesenkoppe, 5330 feet above the sea. Russian Poland, and leaving Austria not far from SandoThe Sudetes is a name sometimes given to all the moun- mir. Its course in Austria is 240 miles, draining an area tains of Northern Bohemia, but it more properly belongs of 15,500 square miles. It is navigable for nearly 200 to that range which runs between Moravia and Prussian miles, and its principal affluents are the Save and the Bug. Silesia, from the March to the Oder. The highest summit, The Oder has also its source in Moravia, flows first east, the Spieglitzer Schneeberg, is 4774 feet high.

and then north-east through Austrian Silesia into Prussia. Geology.

The great central chain of the Alps consists Its length within the Austrian territory is only about 55

of primitive rocks, principally gneiss, mica slate, miles, no part of which is navigable. The only river of and granite. Occasionally clay-slate, greywacke, and lime this country which flows into the North Sea is the Elbe. stone overlie these rocks. Iron ore is very abundant here, It has its source in the Riesengebirge, not far from the and gold and copper are found. The northern and south- Schneekoppe, flows first south, then east, and afterwards ern ranges of the Alps are composed of limestone. In the north-east through Bohemia, and then enters Saxony. Its southern range the limestone rests upon gneiss, which crops principal affluents are the Adler, Iser, and Eger, and, most out in some parts. Iron, copper, lead, and zinc ores, and important of all, the Moldau. The last, from the length quicksilver are found in some parts to a large extent. In of its course, and the quantity of water which it brings the northern range the limestone is in some places covered down, is entitled to be considered the main stream. It has with clay-slate, greywacke, and transition limestone. In a course of 260 miles, and is navigable for 190. The Elbe the north the limestone is covered with sandstone, which itself has a course within the Austrian dominions of 185 extends in an almost continuous line from the Lake of miles, for about 65 of which it is navigable. It drains an Constance to the neighborhood of Vienna. In this dis- area of upwards of 21,000 square miles. The Rhine, trict a number of beds of coal are found. The central though scarcely to be reckoned a river of the country, range of the Carpathians is formed chiefly of gneiss, granite, flows for about 25 miles of its course between it and clay-slate, greywacke, and transition limestone, frequently Switzerland. The principal river of Austria which falls covered with extensive patches of Tertiary formations. into the Adriatic is the Adige. It rises in the mountains North and south of this are ranges of sandstone mountains, of Tyrol, flows south, then east, and afterwards south, into on which diluvial and alluvial deposits are also found the plains of Lombardy. Its principal affluent is the The northern sandstone range is rich in salt; the central Eisack. Of the streams which have their course entirely chain abounds in iron and copper ore; and the gneiss and within the country, and which fall into the Adriatic, the granitic mountains of Hungary and Transylvania are rich principal is the Isonzo, 75 miles in length, but navigable in ores of gold and silver. Numerous beds of coal are only for a short distance from its mouth. also found in the later formations. The Bohemian and The lakes and marshes of Austria are very

Lakes. Moravian Mountain system is composed chiefly of gneiss numerous, and some of them are of great exand granite. Basalt, clinkstone, greenstone, and red sand- tent. The lakes lie principally in the valleys among the stone are also common. Silver and lead mines are exten- Alps, and the marshes are frequent along the courses of sively worked, also mines of zinc and iron. Coal is abun- | the rivers. The largest lake of Austria is the Balaton, dant here. The plain and hilly parts of the country belong in Hungary, which is about 46 miles in length by 18 in chiefly to the middle or Miocene period of the Tertiary breadth, and, including the swamps in connection with it, formation, and comprise sand, gravel

, clay-marl, &c. covers an area of 500 square miles. The Neusiedler, also Rivers.

As the highlands of Austria form part of the in Hungary, is 18 miles in length, by from 4 to 7 in breadth,

great water-shed of Europe which divides the and covers an area of 106 square miles. Among the many waters flowing northward into the North Sea or the Baltic, smaller ones the principal are the Traunsee, Attersee, from those flowing southward or eastward into the Mediter- Wörthersee, Mondsee, &c. No other European country ranean or the Black Sea, its rivers flow in three different equals Austria in the number and value of its mineral directions — northward, southward, and eastward. With springs. No fewer than 1500 of these are reckoned, and the exception of the small streams belonging to it they occur principally in Bohemia and Hungary. In the which fall into the Adriatic, all its rivers have their former are Karlsbad, Marienbad, Franzensbad, Teplita, mouths in other countries, and its principal river, the Püllna, and Seidlitz. Danube, has also its source in another country. This, The climate of Austria, in consequence of its

Climate. which after the Volga is the largest river of Europe, rises great extent, and the great differences in the in the grand duchy of Baden, flows through Würtemberg elevation of its surface, is very various. It is usual to and Bavaria, and is already navigable when it enters divide it into three distinct zones. The most southern Austria, on the borders of which it receives the Inn, a extends to 46° N. lat., and includes Dalmatia and the river which has as large a body of water as itself. It has country along the coast, together with the southern pora course of about 820 miles within the country, which is tions of Tyrol and Carinthia, Croatia, Slavonia, and the about 48 per cent. of its entire length. Where it enters it most southern part of Hungary. Here the seasons are is 898 feet above the level of the sea, and where it leaves mild and equable, the winters are short (snow seldom only 132 feet. It has thus a fall within the country of 766 falling), and the summers last for five months. The vine feet, and is at first a very rapid stream, but latterly a very and maize are everywhere cultivated, as well as olives and slow one. Its affluents, after the Inn, are at first generally other southern products. In the south of Dalmatia tropismall, the principal being the Traun, the Enns, and the cal plants flourish in the open air. The central zone lies March. In Hungary it receives from the Carpathians the between 46° and 49° N. lat., and includes Lower and Waag, Neutra, Gran, and Eipel; and from the Alps the Upper Austria, Salzburg, Styria, Carinthia, Carniola, CenDrave, the Mur, and the Save. But the principal affluent tral and Northern Tyrol, Southern Moravia, a part of of the Dannbe is the Theiss, which rises in the Carpa- Bohemia, the main portion of Hungary, and Transylvania. thians, and drains nearly the whole of the eastern half of The seasons are more marked here than in the preceding. Hungary. The country drained by the Danube is formed The winters are longer and more severe, and the summers into several basins by the mountains approaching its banks are hotter. The vine and maize are cultivated in favorable

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