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the author at that time inculcated in the treatment of diseases of a particular type and character, may be found in the Institutions of Medicine now before us, and the grounds upon which he adventures to justify so heroic a practice, are set forth in these pages, in a diction often novel in terms and in manner, and not unfrequently so in the facts which he records. Dr. Gallup has been a laborious cultivator of the science of healing. As a close clinical observer he commands the consideration of all who appreciate the value of experimental knowledge, and as a teacher of practical medicine for many years, he now offers his opinions in a form of a still more enduring character.

In the several divisions of his work, the author evinces a copiousness of reading and illustration that can be possessed by those only who, to the exercise of their own cogitative faculties, superadd a wide acquaintance with the researches of eminent writers ; and we accordingly find, throughout his work, references to the soundest and latest authors on physical investigation. We think, nevertheless, that he could have advantageously referred to additional American authorities in corroboration of many of his doctrines. In the physiological portion of his work there seems to be occasional deficiencies in modern illustration. In his second division, entitled pathological notices, or a consideration of the etiology and character of disordered action generally, Dr. Gallup considers the solids as most to be regarded in disease, though he observes, it is quite immaterial in a practical point of view, whether noxious impressions directly affect the susceptible tissues, or whether they are admitted by absorption into the circulation, and affect the blood, and the same tissues, by their internal stimulations.

“ Very similar phenomena," says he, “ will arise, indicating the most suitable treatment, in the one instance as in the other, and all manifesting lesions done to the vital economy. Neither can the phenomena be very dissimilar; for an injury is experienced in both solids and fluids very soon alike The morbid condition of the fluids,” adds he, " is in an exact ratio to that of the solids, for they suffer changes directly if not primarily."

These positions of our author are doubtless receiving, daily, new advocates ; with him we believe them to be acceded to, not only from their intrinsic truth, but also because they enable him, with a more justifiable credence, to become the supporter of what has sometimes been denominated the unitarian theory in pathology, that disease is a unit.

Though these inferences be justly drawn from Dr. Gallup's pathological outlines, he has given us a synopsis of general nosography, embracing many pages in his second volume, and hence it may be presumed that at the bed-side he, like every other clinical prescriber, is necessarily led to recognise those fundamental and distinctive features of disordered action, which every

physician is bound to observe when called to the practical exercise of his vocation. We need give no opinion of the peculiar merits or defects of his classification; such an undertaking would lead us beyond our prescribed limits, and is better fitted for a more appropriate journal. Our author's last division is entitled outlines of therapeutics; in which he, within the compass of 280 pages, endeavors to set forth his clinical precepts in the management of certain febrile, inflammatory, and other disorders. The limits to which Dr. Gallup has restricted himself in this important portion of his work, are the more to be regretted, as he here gives abundant proofs of his mind, discriminating the phases of abnormal action, and enforces an energy in practice which the disciples of the expectant school of physic, and the abettors of Homeopathy, would pronounce heretical.

9. The Characters of Schiller. By Mrs. ElLET. Boston: 1839.

Otis, Broaders, and Company. Svo. pp. 296.

German literature must be rapidly increasing in favor with us, to judge by the recent publications of our press, from which, within a very short time, have been issued four considerable works exclusively devoted to it. One of these was noticed somewhat at length in the last number of our journal, and we would now gladly bestow a like attention upon the others, if we had room for that purpose, but as we have not, we must restrict ourselves to a brief account of them. The first in the order of publication, is the one whose title we have given above. It certainly evinces no ordinary courage in the fair author of this volume, to venture upon the ground, on which one of the first critics of the age has won his proudest laurels, although we doubt not that those even, who have admired the sublime genius of Schiller as depicted in Carlyle's masterly sketch of his life and writings, will take great pleasure in seeing such another transcript of the lofty conceptions of his mind as “the characters” by Mrs. Ellet present. We would not be understood as intending to compare her as an artist with Carlyle; we are well aware of the great difference in their powers, and we mean only to say that they are proportionately successful. Still less would we refer one, who wished to form a just conception of Schiller's genius, to this work of Mrs. Ellet; in the very nature of things such a work never can do justice to the mind of a great writer, any more than a few broken fragments can give a true idea of the sumptuousness of the banquet from which they were gathered. At best, it can serve only to excite a desire to know more

of the productions of that mind, of which it exhibits a few imperfect specimens, and such a purpose, we think, the work in question is well calculated to answer. It is impossible that any one who sees as much of Schiller's mind, as is to be seen in these characters, should rest satisfied, until he knows all that such a mind has produced, and Mrs. Ellet has thus rendered a valuable service to the cause of letters, in extending the knowledge of a writer who is destined to exercise a mighty influence upon the intellectual world. Although her work can make little claim to originality, as the substance of it is to be found in the biography before referred to, it has the merit of giving a fuller development of the dramatic characters, and a greater number of scenes translated from the author; many of his finest passages are beautifully translated, and faithfully too, as far as we have been able to compare them with the German ; in some few instances she has availed herself of a previous version, but by far the greater part are her own.

10. Conversations with Goethe, in the last years of his life. Trans

lated from the German of Eckerman. By S. M. Fuller. Boston : 1839. Hilliard, Gray, and Company. 12mo. pp. 414.

This volume would furnish materials for an elaborate and highly interesting article, but in spite of appearances, we are not sufficiently German mad to appropriate at present many additional pages to its fascinating literature. The original, from which this translation is made, bears the marks of being a faithful record of the conversations held with Goethe, during the last years of his life, by one who enjoyed the privilege of a closer intimacy with him, than he then allowed to any other person. And if we find that it savors strongly of man-worship, as the translator justly observes it does, we shall hardly be disposed to complain, when we consider the mysterious influence of the personal presence of a truly great man, and that this influence was rarely, if ever, exercised inore powerfully by any one than by Goethe. There was something, or rather every thing about him, was truly olympic-his form, stature, brow, air, movement, all confessed him the intellectual god, and secured for him an involuntary reverence, which reverence Mr. Eckerman felt in no higher degree than would probably have been felt by any other person in his situation. However that may be, we are indebted to his admiration for a very delightful book, one of that interesting class of books which impart to us the unwritten thoughts of a great mind, and which for some reason or other all delight in, whether it is that they flatter our vanity with a feeling of - VOL. V.



personal acquaintance with the hero, whose conversations they report, or gratify our curiosity by making known opinions he never intended to publish to the world, we do not undertake to decide. It may be a question how far it is honest to strike off these permanent impressions of a man's unpremeditated thoughts, without his express consent; but there can be none as to the charm we find in them, they delight us in every form, whether it be that of a servant's report of his master's table talk, or the more careful record of some satellite revolving round a luminary like Johnson or Goethe. Without recurring to this principle, it would be difficult to explain the universal interest which the volume now before us has excited in Germany; it is not the book, but the echo of the voice there long held oracular that is heard in it, to which it must be attributed. This echo the faithful although not literal version of Miss Fuller now transmits to us, and we are sure that it will be listened to with delight by every one in the land, who loves letters and reveres genius. The translator has omitted a few pages of the original, which would not have added to the value of the work here, as they treated of topics of minor interest, and she has moreover made ample compensation for the omission by an admirably written preface, in which there are many fine thoughts upon the moral and intellectual character of Goethe.

11. Sclections from German Literature. By B. B. EDWARDS AND

E. A. PARK, Professors in the Theological Seminary, Andover. Andover and New-York: 1839. Gould, Newman, and Saxton. 8vo. pp. 472.

This work should be greeted with a cordial welcome throughout our land; it will do much to disabuse the public mind of the gross error, under which it has long been laboring, that German theology is but another name for infidelity. Ignorance and prejudice have cast upon the whole profession a reproach, without discrimination, which justly attaches only to a portion, and by no means the larger portion, and however well this may be already understood by the scholars of this country, who have made a study of the German language and literature, they form so small an exception, that the impression may still be considered as almost universal. The translators of the volume we are now noticing have entered upon the proper course to set this matter in its true light, by enabling these much wronged theologians to speak for themselves in our own language. The contents of this volume, are altogether theological, with the exception of Tennemann's life of

Plato, to which they have subjoined a sketch of the philosopher's, biographers and commentators, from the manuscript notes of Professor Augustus Boeck's lectures npon the same subject. We have not at hand the original works from which these translations are made, and therefore do not venture to pronounce upon their fidelity, except as far as we are warranted in doing so, by the acknowledged learning and high character of the translators, which will be a sufficient guaranty for them, wherever they are known.

To prevent any wrong inferences from being made with respect to their own opinions, they are careful to state, that they are not to be understood as adopting in all cases those of the authors whom they present to the public. An admirable introduction precedes the translations, which furnishes a most satisfactory refutation of the charge above alluded to; it is full of sound sense and sound philosophy, and had we room, we would favor our readers with copious extracts from it, but we can go no farther than will suffice to show its spirit. In speaking of the characteristic distinctions between the thoughts, opinions, and actions of men in England and in Germany, it remarks:

"Men were not made merely for action or speculation. In following either course exclusively, they sin against the nature which God has given then. We have no cause to laugh at the airy course of the spiritual philosopher. We need not shrug our shoulders in proud self-complacency when we talk of German mysticism. We are not called upon to identify every form of nonsense which appears among us, with the name of transcendentalism. We are not authorized io ierm every outbreak of error in Saxony or Switzerland with the imposing title of the newest fashion in German theology. We may well spare such demonstrations of our ignorance and self-conceit. On the other hand, the Germans might well copy our excellent practical habits. An infusion into the German mind of the old, sound, substantial English sense, would be of inestimable worth. They ought to read Dr. Dwight's Sermons, and the works of Dr. Paley. They should become familiar with such men as Thomas Scott and Claudius Buchanan. John Newton's Letters and Cowper's poetry would do good service among the followers of Fichte and Hegel. They say that we are incapable of understanding their writings, that we scorn that which we have not mind enough to understand. With equal truth, we might affirm that they do not understand us. They have cultivated one tendency to such an extent, that they cannot see the substantial excellencies of a writer like Dr. Paley. If we have neglected the reason and the imagination, they have undervalued the sense and the practical understanding."

Among the reasons assigned for publishing this volume, the following are given :

“ The well known tendency of acquaintance with foreign authors to enlarge and liberalize the mind. The man who never travelled out of his native county, is apt to be a man of prejudices. A new language is to the inward being whaia new eye is to the outward; one sees with it what he could not have seen without it; and by examining such developments of humanity as are not found among his own kindred, he learns to value substance more, and form less. Creatures of custom as we are, we are prone to look upon every thing habitual as right of course, and every thing uncommon as wrong. Unfashionable is another name for monstrous. When a blind adherence to the standard of present fashion is limited to matters of secular concern, it narrows the mind; but when it extends to theology, it cripples the very sentiments which should be most expanded. It

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