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ment. I propose no less than this attempt, presumptuous though it may seem, yet honest, and made for truth's sake. Truth is greater and more venerable than the names of great and venerable men, or of great and venerable sects; and I cannot believe that I seek truth with a proper love and veneration, unless I seek her, confiding in herself alone, neither asking the authority of men in her support, nor fearing a collision with them, however great their authority may be. It is my interest to think and believe aright, no less than to act aright; and as right action is meritorious not when compelled and accidental, but when free and made under the perception and conviction of right principles; so also right thinking and believing are meritorious, either in an intellectual or moral point of view, when thinking and believing are something more than gulping down dogmas because Austin, or Calvin, or Arminius, presents the cup.
Facts of history or of description are legitimately received on testimony, but truths of our moral and spiritual being can be received only on the evidence of consciousness, unless the testimony be from God himself; and even in this case we expect that the testimony, although it may transcend consciousness, shall not contradict it. The internal evidence of the Bible, under the highest point of view, lies in this: that although there be revelations of that which transcends consciousness, yet wherever the truths come within the sphere of consciousness, there is a perfect harmony between the decisions of developed reason and the revelation. Now in the application of these principles, if Edwards have given us a true psychology in relation to the will, we have the means of knowing it. In the consciousness, and in the consciousness alone, can a doctrine of the will be ultimately and adequately tested. Nor must we be intimidated from making this test by the assumption that the theory of Edwards alone sustains moral responsibility and evangelical religion. Moral responsibility and evangelical religion, if sustained and illustrated by philosophy, must take a philosophy which has already on its own grounds proved itself a true philosophy. Moral responsibility and evangelical religion can derive no support from a philosophy which they are taken first to prove.
But although I intend to conduct my argument rigidly on psychological principles, I shall endeavour in the end to show that moral responsibility is really sustained by this exposition of the will; and that I have not, to say the least, weakened one of the supports of evangelical religion, nor shorn it of one of its glories.
The plan of my undertaking embraces the following particulars:
I. A statement of Edwards's system.
II. The legitimate consequences of this system.
III. An examination of the arguments against a self-determining will.
This doctrine viewed in connexion with the truths and precepts of the
The first three complete the review of Edwards, and make up the present volume. Another volume is in the course of preparation."
4. Means and Ends, or Self Training.
By the Author of
Redwood," &c. Boston: 1839. Marsh, Capen, Lyon, and Webb. pp. 278.
ANOTHER little book from the author of the "Rich Poor Man and Poor Rich Man." Like all the later productions of this estimable writer, a tinge of Radicalism runs through the book; or
rather, and which we dislike still more, an appearance of quiet taking-for-granted that ultra-democratic sentiments are the only philanthropic ones, as if a man that did not hold them could not hold his fellow-men in true love and respect. This we dislike, and dislike it in this book; but in spite of this, we cannot but like the book. It is more didactic in its form, and with less of dramatic and narrative interest than the little works that preceded it; yet the simple grace and beauty of the style, and the kindly spirit in which it is written, make it almost equally agreeable to read. It is dedicated to the writer's " young countrywomen," and "intended for girls from ten to sixteen years of age;" and it abounds with all sorts of good advice, respecting health and education, manners and morals, uttered with so much mingled wisdom and love, as cannot fail to attract and instruct every class of readers.
5. Elements of Civil Engineering. By JOHN MILLINGTON, Civil Engineer, etc. etc. Philadelphia: 1839. J. Dobson. Richmond, Va. Smith and Palmer. 8vo. pp. 726.
THIS work is intended to supply a want which has long existed among elementary works, and will supply it well. The author has collected, in a single volume, all the different elementary branches of knowledge, and the principles of many of the most important of their applications, which are of value to the profession of the Civil Engineer. The work will therefore be of great use to the student of this branch of applied science.
While, however, we mention with praise the general plan of Professor Millington, and have to speak, generally, in favorable terms of its execution, we should fail in our duty were we not to point out defects that have struck us even in a cursory perusal, and which, we hope, may be amended in any future edition.
In his treatise on land surveying he has made no mention of the very beautiful application of the calculus of probabilities which our American surveyors employ habitually, namely, the correction of the errors of a survey by the method of Latitude and Departure.
He has, throughout the work, employed the ancient notation of fluxions, instead of that which has superseded it, not only on the continent of Europe and in this country, but in England itself, where the force of national prejudice has at last yielded before the advantages of the differential method.
We find in the description of the Y level, directions for no more than two of the three adjustments which that instrument requires,
and the mode of adjustment in the field, which all American engineers now prefer, is not even hinted at.
In the instructions for surveying with the plane table, no notice is taken of the adaptation of telescopic sights to that instrument, as it is now used on the continent of Europe, and in the survey of the coast of the United States, and hence this mode of surveying, which is in many respects the very best, appears imperfect and inferior to that with the theodolite.
The theodolite itself, although elevated by this omission to an importance it no longer possesses, is figured and described by him. in an antiquated and imperfect form. It would appear that the author had been ignorant of the great improvements made in this instrument by Reichenbach and Gamby, and was even unaware that his own countrymen were copying these improvements. Long residence, and eminent services, entitle us to claim Mr. Millington almost as an American, but we should have been better pleased had he shaken off the prejudices of an Englishman in favor of the arts, artists, and methods of that country.
6. America and the American Church. By the Rev. HENRY CASWALL, M. A., Rector of Christ Church, Madison, Indiana; and late professor in the Theological Seminary of the Diocese of Kentucky. Ten years resident in the United States. London: 1839. J. G. and F. Rivington.
THIS book we suppose to have been prepared for the English public rather than for the American. It contains nothing with which the Episcopalians of the United States are not, for the most part, familiar; certainly nothing but what may be derived from Convention Journals, Episcopal newspapers, and other equally common sources of information.
As a history of the American Episcopal Church it is of no value; though it does contain, within a small compass, much information that is doubtless new to the clergy and laity of the established Church of England. The volume will afford to them knowledge on a subject concerning which, we are aware, they are in general ignorant. There are, however, some mistakes in the book, arising, probably, from the fact that the author, who is himself an Englishman, had not the opportunity of accurate information enjoyed by those who had grown up within the communion of the Episcopalian Church of the United States, and have carefully marked the events of her history as they passed in rapid succession.
In the close of his preface, the author speaks of his effort as a
novel attempt. It is not so! and we are the more surprised at the remark, inasmuch as the book is evidently indebted to the "Memoirs" of Bishop White, and to the history of the Virginia Church by Dr. Hawks. Indeed the very language of the last named writer is used by Mr. Caswall. The General Convention have requested Dr. Hawks to proceed in preparing the history of the several dioceses from the very ample original materials now in his possession; he is engaged in the work, and it is from his pen the Episcopal Church, in the United States, both desires and expects her history.
7. Contributions to the Ecclesiastical History of the United States. By FRANCIS L. HAWKS, D. D. Vol. II. Being a Narrative of Events connected with the Rise and Progress of the Protestant Episcopal Church in Maryland. New York: 1839. John S. Taylor. 8vo. pp. 523.
THIS highly interesting volume first makes its appearance at the very close of the current quarter, which must be our apology to the learned author, and to our readers, for bestowing upon it so slight a notice as that which we now give. It presents itself to us with such strong claims to our attention, both on account of the importance of its subject, and of the learning, talent, and fidelity displayed in treating it, that we shall be compelled to acknowledge a neglect of duty, if we do not, in due time, again call it up in a manner more suited to its merits. At present we can do nothing more than give a brief outline of its character and contents. It is entirely a documentary history; the facts which it embodies are all derived from original authorities, and it will be seen by the references made to these authorities, that it must have cost the author a great deal of time and labor to look them up. This gives to it the stamp of undoubted authenticity. Another prominent character of the work is its uniform impartiality, which is the more noticeable, as the ecclesiastical history of Maryland presents an unusual number of conflicts in the Church, not only with the Roman Catholics and other denominations, but also between the different parties within its own bosom. The story of all these conflicts is related with perfect fairness; the facts are neither suppressed nor colored to favor the side of the writer; they are given just as he found them. The reader has the whole case spread out before him, and is left free to judge and decide for himself; but still the author shows no indifference to the truth, and no uncertainty in his own opinions. The whole volume might be appealed
to in proof of the correctness of this assertion, but for the sake of greater distinctness we will refer especially to the accounts of Dr. Bray's administration, of the proceedings in Dr. Dashiell's case, and of the more recent controversies in the diocese between the parties of high and low church. Fidelity and impartiality are the highest requisites of a good historian, and as these two traits are pre-eminent in the work of Dr. Hawks, now before us, it is but simple justice to him to present them among its most prominent merits. In speaking of a writer of his acknowledged excellence, it would be superfluous to commend him for mere literary beauties; still we cannot omit to mention that the style of this volume is the true style of history, dignified, chaste, precise, simple, formed, it would seem, upon the classic model of Hume, with an added grace derived from his profession and his subject. But it is not always faultless; there is now and then a mannerism, such, however, as no writer of an original mind is ever entirely free from.
The particular object of the work, as its title denotes, is the history of the Episcopal Church in Maryland, which it presents with great distinctness, from its feeble beginning in 1676, to the present time, but it is not exclusively ecclesiastical; it throws new light on the peculiar character of that colony in its first settlement, and brings out many new facts in its after civil history, and is in every respect a most valuable addition to the historical literature of our country.
As a specimen of typography, and in its whole mechanical execution, the volume deserves the highest praise; the paper is beautiful, the type clear and distinct, the space between the words regular and uniform, and in every respect it does great credit to the press from which it issued; and we have the more pleasure in taking note of this circumstance, as it indicates a great improvement in the typographical art in our city, of which there was no small need.
8. Outlines of the Institutes of Medicine: founded on the Philosophy of the Human Economy, in Health and in Disease. In three Parts. By JOSEPH A. GALLUP, M. D., late Professor of the Theory and Practice in the Vermont Academy of Medicine, and in the Clinical School of Medicine, etc. etc. Boston: 1839. 2 vols. 8vo. pp. 416, 470.
THESE well executed volumes are the production of one who has long been favorably known to professional readers by his interesting book on Epidemical Diseases in the State of Vermont, published some twenty years ago. The bold and intrepid principles which