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that decreed by the Council of Trent, professed in the creed of pope Pius IV., and disseminated by the propagandas of Rome and Lyons. other words, it much more resembled New Testament Christianity than modern Romanism. Patrick found a number of churches and bishops in Ireland. He himself formed three hundred and sixty-five churches, and ordained over them an equal number of bishops, and three thousand presbyters ; but he subjected none of them to the Roman see. The worship of the Virgin, transubstantiation, the adoration of images, restricting the reading of the sacred Scripture, and many other things now insisted upon as parts of the gospel, were not then recognised even by the church at Rome. In the Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy is published a translation, by Dr. Petrie, of a hymn composed by St. Patrick when he was about to visit Temur, or Tarah, and preach the gospel to Leogaire, the monarch of all Ireland. The visit was critical to Patrick himself, and to the cause he was embarked in. The adherents of the old paganism were prepared to withstand, as best they could, the assault he was about to make upon it in its highest places. Though it be not connected with Dublin in particular, yet, as throwing light on the doctrine which Patrick taught there, this " Hymn" will be interesting to the reader, and he shall have the translation of it before him entire :
“ At Temur,” [that is, Tarah, the court of the king,] "to-day I invoke the mighty power of the Trinity. I believe in the Trinity under the God of the elements.
“At Temur to-day (I place) the virtue of the birth of Christ with his baptism, the virtue of his crucifixion with his burial, the virtue of his resurrection with his ascension, the virtue of his coming to the eternal judgment.
“At Temur to-day (I place) the virtue of the love of Seraphim ; (the virtue which exists) in the obedience of angels, in the hope of the resurrection to eternal reward, in the prayers of the noble fathers, in the predictions of the prophets, in the preaching of the apostles, in the faith of the confession, in the purity of the holy virgins, in the deeds of just men.
"At Temur to-day (I place) the strength of heaven, the light of the sun, the rapidity of lightning, the swiftness of the wind, the depth of the sea, the stability of the earth, the hardness of rocks (between me and the powers
of paganism and demons.)
" At Temur to-day may the strength of God pilot me, may the power of God preserve me, may the wisdom of God instruct me, may the eye of God view me, may the ear of God hear me, may the word of God render me eloquent, may the hand of God protect me, may the mercy of God direct me, may the shield of God defend me, may the host of God guard me, against the snares of demons, the temptations of vices, the inclinations of the mind, against every man who meditates evil to me, far or near, alone or in company
“I place all these powers between me and every evil unmerciful power directed against my body (as a protection) against the incantations of false prophets ; against the black laws of gentilism ; against the false laws of heresy; against the treachery of idolatry ; against the spells of women, snaiths, and Druids; against every knowledge which blinds the soul of man. May Christ to-day protect me against poison, against burning, against drowning, against wounding, until I deserve much reward.
" Christ be with me, Christ before me, Christ after
Christ over me, Christ at my right, Christ at my left, Christ at this side, Christ at that side, Christ at
" Christ be in the heart of each person
whom I speak to ; Christ in the mouth of each person who speaks to me ; Christ in each eye that sees me; Christ in each ear which hears me.
"At Temur to-day I invoke the almighty power of the Trinity. I believe in the Trinity under the unity of the God of the elements.
“Salvation is the Lord's, salvation is the Lord's, salvation is Christ's. May thy salvation, O Lord, be always with me."
The above document, of the genuineness of which no doubt appears to exist, may not present the trust of Christian piety in the clear and strong light of New Testament instruction. It corresponds rather with the mysticism which had begun to creep over the church about the time of Jerome. But it shows a heart that looked for help to Christ alone as God our Saviour. It gives no token of the “ever Blessed and Immaculate Virgin," the “never-failing Star of Hope," the “Help of Christians," the “most Holy Mother," being “constantly and fervently invoked," " as the general patroness of all Ireland," as the synod at Thurles, in the year 1850, prescribed she should be; although, if at any time that zealous and devout man, St. Patrick, had judged it right and useful to seek her aid, he surely would have implored it under the circumstances which led him to compose the “Hymn" given above.
The notices which we have of Dublin previous to the arrival of the Danes, an event which is believed to have occurred towards the close of the fifth century, are extremely meagre and uncertain. Almost the only item of information beyond what has been stated, is that about the beginning of the third century a division was made of the country into two portions, by a line running direct across it from Dublin on the east coast to Galway on the west. The northern portion or kingdom was called Leath Quinn, or the Half of Quinn or Conn, and the southern was called Leath Mogha, or the Half of Eoghan, or Mogha, king of Munster. The termination of the separation line eastward is said to have been where High-street now stands.
The Danes were usually called “Ostmen,". or men from the east, in Ireland, as in England and France they were called “Northmen," or Normans, men from the north--the name being given in each case according to the relative position of the country whence they came. It is not unlikely that their first landing at Dublin was for trade rather than for war or plunder. The place of their settlement was styled “Ostmantown, now changed into “ Oxmantown,” a district on the north side of the Liffey, at present partly occupied by the Royal Barracks, and perhaps nearly answering to Arran Quay Ward in the municipal divisions of the city. Some respectable authorities maintain that the Danes were unknown in Ireland till near the middle of the ninth century.
Dr. Lanigan, in his Ecclesiastical History of Ireland, not only rejects the story of the inhabitants of Dublin and their king having been converted by the preaching of St. Patrick, but states that the city had no bishop till the eleventh century. In the latter particular he is in error, unless by a “bishop” he intends a prelate of the Romish church.
The names of seven persons who were bishops of Dublin during the seventh and eighth centuries, are given by Ware. There were also monastic establishments formed at Kilmainham, Clondalkin, Tallaght, and a few other places in the vicinity. In those times, Ireland was eminent for her schools of learning, and for the piety and zeal of her monks. About the year 564, St. Columba and twelve companions left the country and settled in Iona.* Other monks from Ireland
* For information on this point, the reader is referred to Dr. Alexander's yolu ne on Iona, in this series.