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public service. Thus provisions were obtained when the treasury was exhausted, and when the magistrates of the city could not or would not advance money to the government.

Dublin was saved and became tranquil. Not so the country. In the course of the ensuing winter, horrors were perpetrated the accounts of which make the blood run cold as we read them in our

own day. “Forty thousand persons, and by some computations," writes Godwin, “five times that number, are said to have perished in this undistinguishing massacre."

Charles, unable to adjust matters with the Parliament, appealed to arms in support of his prerogative. In August, 1642, he unfurled his standard at Nottingham. “A high wind beat down the flag, an evil omen, as it was deemed by some who saw it, and a symbol as it proved of the result of that unnatural conflict." At length, Ireland became the dernier resort of the royal cause.

Ormond was made lord deputy and commander of the army. He soon found himself in a position of difficulty between two antagonists—the friends of Protestantism, and the Roman Catholic federates-neither of whom now cared much for his sovereign, but against both of whom, though hostile the one to the other, he felt it impossible to maintain his ground. The month of February, 1647, found him yet in Dublin, but under the necessity of deciding to which party he would yield. His choice was in


favour of the English parliament. In April, several of their regiments arrived, and in June came their commissioners with more troops. To these Ormond formally surrendered Dublin, Drogheda, then called Tredagh, and other garrisons; and in July he delivered up into their hands the insignia of his authority, and went to England. One of the three persons given by Ormond as hostages for this capitulation, was the eminent sir James Ware, “the Camden of Ireland.”

Thus anded the reign of Charles over Dublin. The city was in a most wretched and dilapidated state. By returns dated August, 1644, its inhabitants numbered-Protestants, 2,565 men, and 2,986 women ; Roman Catholics, 1,202 men, and 1,406 women ; total 8,159. But perhaps this census embraced only adults; or, which is more probable, it did not include the suburbs; otherwise the population had decreased three-fifths during the preceding thirty-four years—a diminution incredible, even with every allowance for havoc made by war, pestilence, and famine.




On the surrender of Dublin to the parliamentary commissioners, they appointed colonel Michael Jones to be its governor with the command of the troops. His first care was to repair the walls and otherwise to prepare the city for defence against the army of the confederates which threatened it. Within a fortnight after Ormond had left, Jones marched forth and attacked them at Duggan's Hill, gaining a complete victory. They are said to have had between five and six thousand slain in the engagement; fifteen of their fieldofficers, and eighty-four other commissioned officers were among the prisoners; while Jones lost only twenty men. Besides artillery and other spoil, sixty-four "fair oxen" fell into his hands, and proved a most seasonable supply. A person giving an account of the battle, wrote, “ All their colours we have, which colonel Jones would not be persuaded to have brought into Dublin with triumph, as savouring (said he) of ostentation, and attributing to man the glory of this great work due to the Lord alone.” By November, however, the rebel leader, Owen Roe O'Neil, was committing such devastations in the neighbourhood of Dublin, that not fewer than two hundred fires were visible at the same time from one of the church steeples.

Ormond, still attached to Charles, and thinking it possible even yet to retrieve his royal master's affairs, returned to Ireland. In January, 1648-9, he concluded a peace with the confederates, in the king's name and behalf. Charles, or Glamorgan whom he accredited for the purpose, had often negotiated and made peace with them before, and as often had the terms agreed on been disallowed or broken through. Lord Inchiquin also now made common cause with the Irish ; the Scots of Ulster, too, ranged themselves against the parliament and the “sectaries." Early in 1649, Oliver Cromwell was appointed by the parliament their lord lieutenant for Ireland. He invited the eminent Dr. John Owen, whose " Exposition of the Hebrews" and other works are yet well known and valued, to accompany him as chaplain and to regulate the affairs of Trinity College. To this, after much difficulty, Owen acceded. The army for Ireland, under Cromwell's command, assembled at Milford Haven in August, and the day before embarking was spent by them in fasting and prayer.

About this juncture, Dublin was in deep “ Bagot

distress. Jones, its governor, was closely pressed by Ormond and the confederates who had encamped at Finglass, but on July the 25th hąd removed to Rathmines, on the opposite side of the city. There Jones attacked them with success. The parliament ordered his dispatch to be printed for the information of the English public. Some extracts from this small old pamphlet may interest the reader. The battle is sometimes mentioned as fought at "Bagotrath,” a place between Donnybrook and Beggar's Bush, now occupied by Upper Baggot-street, taking its name from a " rath” or fort there, which in the 13th century came into the possession of the family. The conflict probably waxed strongest over the lands extending from that place to Rathmines. Rathmines was then 66 compassed by a wall about sixteen feet high, and inclosing ten acres of ground.”

The pamphlet has for its title_"LieutenantGeneral Jones's Letter to the Council of State, of à Great Victory which it hath pleased God to give the forces in the City of Dublin under his command on the Second of this instant August, against the Earl of Ormond's and the Lord Inchiquin's Forces before the City." Jones's letter begins:-_Right Honourable; the Lord hath blessed this your army with good success against Ormond and his, for which God's most holy name be glorified.” After giving the particulars of the engagement he proceeds: T The whole work is the Lord's doing, and it

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