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must also of necessity be the death are by the law purged with blood; 17. of the testator. For a testament and without shedding of blood is
is of force after men are dead: no remission. It was therefore
otherwise it is of no strength at all necessary that the patterns (y) of 18. while the testator liveth. Where- things in the heavens should be upon
neither the first testament purified with (-) these ; but the was dedicated without blood.
heavenly (a) things themselves 19. For when (x) Moses had spoken | with better sacrifices than these.
every precept to all the people For Christ is not entered into the according to the law, he took the holy places made (6) with hands, blood of calves and of
with which are the figures of the true; water, and scarlet wool, and hys- || but into heaven itself, now to ap
sop, and sprinkled both the book pear in the presence of God for 20. and all the people, saying, “ This us: Nor yet that
that he should offer « is the blood of the testament himself often, as the high priest enss which God hath enjoined unto tereth (c) into the holy place every
you.” Moreover, he sprinkled year with blood of others; (for likewise with blood both the ta- then must he often have suffered
bernacle and all the vessels of the since the foundation of the world:) 22. ministry. And almost all things but now once, in the end of the
“ ing all these words." Exod. xxiv. 3 to 8.
(y) “ Patterns of things in the heavens,"
." i. e. the tabernacle, &c. which Moses made according to the pattern of what God shewed him in the Mount, (Exod. xxv. 9:—Heb. viii. 5.), and which were considered as corresponding with what was in heaven. “ The holy places “ made with hands," in verse 24. are called “ the figures of the true.”
(z) “ These," i.e. the blood of bulls vs
men are dead,” is in the original
676 vixgois ;” and ózı, with a dative case after it, may signify on account of; so that the translation will be, “ on account “ of the deaths, or the dead bodies.” In Ps. 1. 5. mention is made of those who had made a covenant with God, “ with “ sacrifice,” Eu Juginis.
(x) “ When Moses," &c. After Moses had received from God the ten command. ments, and divers other laws, he “ told “ the people all the words of the Lord, " and all the judgments: and all the “ people answered with one voice, and
said, All the words which the Lord u hath said will we do. And Moses 6 wrote all the words of the Lord, and “ built an altar, and twelve pillars, ac“ cording to the twelve tribes of Israel. “ And he sent young men of the Children
of Israel, which offered burnt-offerings, “ and sacrificed peace-offerings of oxen « unto the Lord. And Moses took half “ of the blood, and put it in basons : " and half of the blood he sprinkled on “ the altar. And he took the Book of « the Covenant, and read in the audience “ of the people : and they said, All that « the Lord hath said will we do, and be “ obedient. And Moses took the people, « and sprinkled it on the people, and said, “ Behold the blood of the covenant which “ the Lord hath made with you concern
(a) “The heavenly things themselves," i. e. heaven itself. The meaning of the verse seems to be this; that it was neces. sary the blood of bulls and of goats should be shed to purify those who should enter into the tabernacle, and that to purify for an entrance into heaven itself, much more valuable blood, even that of Christ him. self, was shed. (6) "
“ Made with hands," i.e. of human workmanship,
here on earth, which are only the figures or representations of what is in heaven.
(c) “Entereth," &c. Once every year, w on the tenth day of the seventh month, the high priest was to make an atonement in the holy place for the sanctuary, for the tabernacle of the congregation, for the altar, for the priests, and for all the congregation. See Lev. xvi. 11 to 34.
world hath he appeared, to put him unto them in the absence of
away sin by the sacrifice of him- the multitude. Then came the 7. 27. self. And as it is appointed unto day(b) of unleavened bread, when
men once to die, but after this the passover must be killed. And 8. 28. the judgement; so (d) Christ was he sent Peter and John, saying,
once offered to bear the sins of " Go and prepare us the pass. many (e); and unto them that
over, that we may eat.” And 9. look for him shall he appear the they said unto him, “ Where wilt second time, without (f) sin, unto “ thou that we prepare ?” And 10. salvation.
he said unto them, “ Behold,
“ when ye are entered into the The Gospel. Luke xxii. 1.
city, there shall a (i) man meet Now the feast (g) of unleavened you, bearing a pitcher of water:
bread drew nigh, which is called 6 follow him into the house where 2. “ The Passover." And the chief 66 he entereth in. And
And ye shall 11. priests and scribes sought how say unto the good man of the
they might kill him ; for they “ house, “ The Master saith un3. feared the people. Then entered " to thee, Where is the guest
Satan into Judas surnamed Isca- “ chamber, where I shall eat the
passover with my disciples ?” 4. twelve. And he went his way, “ And he shall shew you a large 12. and communed with the chief
upper room furnished : there priests and captains, how he might “ make ready.” And they went, 13. 5. betray him unto them. And they and found as he had said unto
were glad, and covenanted to give them: and they made ready the 6. him money. And he promised, passover.
And when the hour 14. and sought opportunity to betray was come, he (k) sat down, and
(d).“ So Christ,” &c. The meaning is, as it is with man, that he dieth once only, and after that comes judgment, so is it with Christ ; he was to be offered once only, and his second appearance will be to judge the world. The literal, and perhaps the better translation of this verse seems to be, “So Christ, having “ been once offered to bear the sins of
many, shall the second time be seen “ without sin to those who look to him “ for salvacion.”
(e) “ Of many,” not indiscriminately of all; but of such as feel their own insufficiency, and the advantages of the atonement he has made, and humbly look up to him, and endeavour to walk'in his commandments.
(5) “ Without sin," i.e. probably, in a far different state from that in which he was, when he was taking upon himself the sins of the world ; not in a state of humility, as one who had sins upon him, but in a state of glory, as one who was
without sin, as the great Judge, to give
(s) “ The feast,” &c, “the passover.” v. r. See note on Mark xiv. 1. ante 99.
(b) “ The day,” &c. i.e. the evening v.7. which began that day at the end of which the paschal lamb was to be slain : they reckoned their days from evening to evening: according to Gen. i. 5. the evening and the morning were the first day; and according to Gen. xii. 18. on the fourteenth day of the first month, at even, they were to eat unleavened bread, until the one and twentieth day of the month, at even.
(i) “ A man meet you," &c. See v. 10. note on Mark xiv. 13. ante 100.
(6) “ He sat down,” &c. Q. To what? v. 14. He was crucified on the day of the preparation ; the day before the Sabbath ; the day before the passover was to be eaten. St. Mark xv. 42. says it was the preparation, the “ day before the Sab.
the twelve apostles with him. “ This cup is the new ( ) testa15. And he said unto them, “ With “ ment in my blood, which is desire I have desired to eat this " shed for you. But, behold, you before I suf
" the hand of him that (P) be16. “ fer : for I say unto you, I will “ trayeth me is with me on the
not any more eat thereof, un- “ table. And truly the Son of
“ til (1) it be fulfilled in the king- man goeth as it was (9) deter17.
dom of God.” And he took “ mined: but (r) woe unto that the cup, and gave thanks, and “ man by whom he is betrayed!"
said, “ Take this, and divide it And they began to inquire among 18.•“ among yourselves : for I say themselves, which of them it was
“ unto you, I will not drink of that should do this thing: (s)And " the (m) fruit of the vine, until there was also a strife among
" the kingdom of God shall them, which of them should be 19. “ come.”
And he took bread, accounted the greatest. And he and gave thanks, and brake it, said unto them, “ The kings of and gave unto them, saying, of the Gentiles exercise lordship “ This () is my body which is “ over them; and they that ex
given for you: this do in re- “ ercise authority upon them are 20.
“ membrance of me." Likewise « called Benefactors. But(t)ye : also the cup after supper, saying, 66 shall not be so: but he that is
« bath ;” Matt. xxvii. 62. implies the
on the Sabbath day, for that Sabbath
over,” which implies that it was not then eaten. And according to John xix. 14. whilst Jesus was before Pilate, “ it “ was the preparation of the passover, and 6 about the sixth hour.” The paschal lamb was to be eaten on the fourteenth day of the first month at even, and nothing was to remain of it unto the morning. Exod. xii. 6. 10.
Lev. xxiii. 5. Numb. ix. 3. And see verse 12. v.16.
(1) “ Until it be fulfilled,” &c. May not this mean, until that great sacrifice in God's dispensation as to the Messiah, of which this is a figure, until that true Paschal Lamb, shall be offered up?
(m) “ The fruit." In Matt. xxvi. 29. it is “ this fruit,” which might mean this cup
(n) ” c
“ This,” &c. See note on Mark « xiv. 22. ante 101. (0) “ Testament,'
« covenant." o See ante 107, note on Heb. ix. 16.
(p)“ Betrayeth me." See note on !'. Mark xiv. 18. ante 1oo.
(9) “ Determined,” i. e. in God's s. counsels. His sufferings and death were fully foretold in that remarkable chapter
, Isaiah liji. The seventh verse is," he
was oppressed, and he was afflicted, “ yet he opened not his mouth : he is
brought as a lamb to the slaughter," &c.
(r) “Woe.” According to Matt. xxvii. 4, 5. he“ repented, when he saw what
was done, and went and hanged him. “ self.”
This prophetic declaration, therefore, of our Saviour, had so far a very speedy accomplishment.
(s) “And,” &c. According to Matt. ?. xx. 25. 29. and Mark x. 42. 46. this happened at an earlier period : before they reached Jericho, on their way to Jerusalem. (t) “ Ye shall not be so,'
» i.e. you v shall exercise no lordship shall have no temporal power : he shall be greatest among you who has the most complete controul over himself; who subdues his own pride, his own appetites and passions, and makes the greatest sacrifices for the benefit of others.
of the passover.
ye may eat and
greatest among you, let him be said unto them,
said unto them, “ When I sent
- and shoes, lacked ye any 27.
« For whether is greater, he that “ thing ?” And they said, “ No-
“ hath a purse, let him take it, 28.“ he (u) that serveth.
" and likewise his scrip: and he “ they which have continued with " that hath no sword, let him 29. “ me in my temptations : And I " sell his garment and buy one.
“ appoint unto you a kingdom, “ For I say unto you, That this 37.
" as my Father hath appointed " that is (z) written must yet be 30. unto me; that
accomplished in me, “ And he “ drink at my table in my king- was reckoned among the transs dom, and sit on thrones, judg- gressors :” for the things con
“ ing the twelve tribes of Israel." cerning me have an end.” And 38. 31. And the Lord said, “ Simon, Si- they said, “ Lord, behold, here
mon, behold, Satan hath de- are two swords.” And he said “ sired to have you, that he may
unto them, “It is enough.” And 39. 32. “ sift you as wheat: but I have he came out, and went, as he was “ prayed for thee, that thy faith wont, to the mount of Olives; fail not: and when thou art and his disciples also followed
And when he was at the 40. 33. “ brethren." And he said unto place, he said unto them, “ Pray
him, “ Lord, I am ready to go “ that (a) ye enter not into
And he was 41. 34. to death.” And he said, “I withdrawn from them about a
“ tell thee, Peter, the cock shall stone's cast, and kneeled down,
" thou shalt thrice deny that “ thou be willing, remove this 35. “ thou knowest me.” And he cup (6) from me: nevertheless
es converted,(x), strengthen thy him,
0.27 (u) “ As he that serveth.” Not in
worldly pomp, but benefiting mankind :
not courting homage, but doing good. 8.32. (*) “ Converted.” May not this mean,
when thou shalt turn again, after having
denied me, as I know thou wilt.
bably to forewarn them that they would
fore provide for all emergencies. 9.37
(2) “ Written.” This passage is in Isaiah liïi. 12. “ He was numbered with “ the transgressors, and he bare the sin « of many, and made intercession with
(or for) the transgressors. See note on Mark xv. 28. ante 106.
(a) “ Pray that," &c. This may v. 40. either mean that they were to pray against temptation, that this was to be the subject of their prayer, or generally, that they were to pray, leaving the subject to them, and that strength against tempta. tion would be the consequence.
(6) “ Cup,” i. e. of affliction, the suf- w.42. ferings I am about to undergo. In Mark *. 38. our Saviour said to James and John, “ Can ye drink of the cup that “ I drink of, and be baptized with the
baptism that I am baptized with?” meaning to put the question, whether they could bear whatever he could. And when he checked Peter for having smitten
“ not my will, but thine, be " the sword?” And (d) one of 5 43: “ done.” And there appeared | them smote the servant of the
an angel unto him from heaven, || high priest, and cut off his right 44. strenghtening him.
him. And being ear. And Jesus answered and said, 5 in an agony, he (c) prayed more “ Suffer ye thus far.” And he earnestly: and his sweat was as touched his ear, and healed him. it were great drops of blood fall- Then Jesus said unto the chief
5 45. ing down to the ground. And priests, and captains of the temple, when he rose up from prayer,
and the elders, which were come and was come to his disciples, he to him, “ Be ye come out, as
found them sleeping for sorrow, “ against a thief, with swords 46. and said unto them, “Why sleep
16 and staves ? When I was daily 5 yei rise and pray, lest ye enter
you in (e) the temple ye 47 “ into temptation.” And while “ stretched forth no hands against
he yet spake, behold a multitude, " me: but this is your hour, and and he that was called Judas, one “ the power of darkness.” Then 5 of the twelve, went before them, took they him, and led him, and
and drew near unto Jesus to kiss || brought him into the high priest's 48. him. But Jesus said unto him, house. And Peter followed afar
Judas, “ Betrayest thou the Son off. And when they had kindled 5. 49.
" of man with a kiss?” When a fire in the midst of the hall, and they which were about him saw were set down together, Peter sat what would follow, they said unto down among them. But a cer- 54 him, “Lord, shall we smite with tain maid beheld him as he sat
- O time was,
the high priest's servant, he said, (John
(c) “ Prayed,” &c. It is to this, pro-
prayers and supplications, with strong
crying and tears, unto him that was “ able to save him from death.” According to Matt. xxvi. 42. his prayer the second
Father, if this cup “ may not pass away from me, except “ I drink it, thy will be done.” The greatness of our Saviour's sufferings shews the greatness of God's abhorrence of sin, (for otherwise he might have dispensed with the sacrifice), and the greatness of our obligation to Jesus Christ. As our Saviour was to take
him. self the sins of the whole world, and by his sufferings to make an atonement for them, his sufferings might at this time be so great, as to be almost more than could, in a state of human nature, be born : and the fact may be recorded to
shew that God's abhorrence of sin was 80 great, that it was as much as his own Son could do to bear the punishment. Should not man's thankfulness to our Saviour be in proportion to his sufferings?
(d) “ One of them," i. e. Peter. See v.} note on Mark xiv. 47. ante 102.
(e) “ In the temple.” He might pos- v. sibly wish to bring to their recollection the prophecies that the Messiah should come to that temple. In Hag. ii. 7. 9. as an encouragement to go on with the temple they were then building, God said unto them, “ The desire of all na“ tions shall come, and I will fill this “ house with glory, saith the Lord of “ hosts : the glory of this latter house “ shall be greater than of the former," (i. e. Solomon's, which had been de. stroyed), " saith the Lord of hosts : « and in this house will I give peace, 6 saith the Lord of hosts."
And in Mal. iii. 1. is this prophecy : “ The Lord “ whom ye seek, shall suddenly come “ to his temple; even the Messenger of “ the Covenant, whom ye delight