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kind of capricious analogy, like many of the reasoning's of ddwyers *.bre ,visamut 2006 9itu grisudorit * To carry the matter farther, we may observe, that it is impossible for men so much as to murder each other without statutes, and maxims, and an idea of justice and honour. War has its laws as well as peace; and eveti that sportive kind of war, carried on among wrestlers, boxers, cudgel-players, gladiators, is regulated by fixed principles. Common interest and utility beget infalli. bly a standard of right and wrong among the parties con cerned 9. f Vs Bsauti godt, Toten voimakkale tru. . 1.1.29. 19: 27telooring TUIVOX" II qrr v trgovina, ?120 2rO'Fİ 4'T

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It seems so natural a thought to ascribe to their utility the praise which we bestow on the social virtues, that one would expect to meet with this principle every where in moral writers, as the chief foundation of their reasoning and inquiry. In common life, we may observe, that the circumstance of utility is always appealed to; nor is it supposed, that a greater eulogy can be given to any man, than to display his usefulness to the public, and enumerate his services, which he has performed to mankind and society. What praise, even of an inani. mate form, if the regularity and elegance of its parts destroy not its fitness for any useful purpose ! And how satisfactory an apology for any disproportion or seeming deformity, if we can show the necessity of that particular construction for the use intended ! A ship appears more beautiful to an artist, or one moderately skilled in navi. gation, where its prow is wide and swelling beyond its poop, than if it were framed with a precise geometrical regularity, in contradiction to all the laws of mechanics. A building, whose doors and windows were exact squares, would hurt the eye by that very proportion; as ill adapted to the figure of a human creature, for whose service the fabrie was intended. What wonder then that'a man, whose habits and conduct are hurtful to som cietyşland dangerous or pernicious to Wevery one who has an intercourse with him, should on that account, be an object of disapprobation, and communicate to every spectator the strongest sentiment of disgust and hatred *. bis Buts perhaps the difficulty of accounting for these effects of usefulness, or its contrary, has kept philosoa phers from admitting them into their systems of ethics, and has induced them rather to employ any other prificiple, in explaining the origin of moral good and evil. But it is no just reason for rejecting any principle, confirttied by experience, that we cannot give a satisfactory account of its origin, nor are able to resolve it into other more general principles. And if we would employ a

little thought on the present subject, we need be at no Ploss to account for the influence of utility, and to deduce it from principles, the most known and avowed in hu

man nature: : 2 1 to dit ICIỆU:fts addle From the 'apparent usefulness of the social virtues, it has readily been inferred by sceptics, both ancient and modern, that all moral distinctions arise from education, and were, at first, invented, and afterwards encouraged; by the art of politicians, in order to render men trac

table, and subdue their natural ferocity and selfishness, * which incapacitated them for society. This principle,

indeed, of précept and education, must so far be bwried Is to have a powerful influence, that it mag frequently insecrease or diminish, beyond their natural standard, the Prisentimetits of approbation of dislike yo ana may even in Sparticular instarices, create, without any natural principle, $250 mewsentiment bms kiba as is evident in anulés od vinnud bain poitcoi to 95119:10 ont busiqq. 9w

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stitious practices and observances: But that all moral affection::or dislike arises from this origin, will never surely be allowed by any judicious Had nature made no such distinction, founded on the original constitution of the mind, the words honourable and shamefuló lovely and odious, noble and despicable, had neyer had place in any language; nor could politicians, had they invented these terms, ever have been able to render them intelligible, or make them convey any idea to the audience So that nothing can be more superficial than this paradox of the sceptics ; and it were well, if, in the abstruser, studies of logic and metaphysics, we could as easily obviate the cavils of that sect, as in the practical and more intelligible sciences of politics and & The social virtues must, therefore, be allowed to have of natural beauty and amiableness, which, at first, antescedent to all precept or education, recommends them to the esteem of uninstructed mankind, and engages their

affections. And as the public utility of these virtues is s the chief circumstance, whence they derive their merit, best follows that the end, which they have a tendency to

promote, must be some way agreeable to us, and take bold of some, natural affection.svIt must. please, either

from considerations of self-interest, of from, more gene259Hs motives and regardsorok midi subdue bois elds alg It has often been asserted, that, as, every man has a b strong connection with society, and perceives the impos

sibility of his solitary subsistence, he becomes, on that account, favourable to all those habits, or principles, which promote order in society, and insure to him the

quiet possession of so inestimable, a blessing. As much as - zwe yalue our own happiness and welfare, as much, must

we applaud the practice of justice and humanity, by which alone the social confederacy can be maintained,

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