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merely because they are unlawful. The notion of duty, when opposite to the passions, is not always able to overcome them; and when it fails of that effect, is apt rather to increase and irritate them, by producing an opposition in our motives and principles.

4. The same effect follows, whether the opposition arise from internal motives or external obstacles. The passion commonly acquires new force in both cases. The efforts, which the mind makes to surmount the obstacle, excite the spirits, and enliven the passion.

5. Uncertainty has the same effect as opposition. The agitation of the thought, the quick turns which it makes from one view to another, the variety of passions which succeed each other, according to the different views: All these produce an emotion in the mind; and this emotión transfuses itself into the predominant passion.

Security, on the contrary, diminishes the passions, The mind, when left to itself, immediately languishes; and in order to preserve its ardour, must be every moment supported by a new flow of passion. For the same reason, despair, though contrary to, security, has a like influence. « 3:,

6. Nothing more powerfully excites any affection than' to conceal some part of its object, by throwing it into a kind of shade, which, at the same time that it shows enough to prepossess us in favour of the object, leaves still some work for the imagination. Besides, that obscu. rity is always attended with a kind of uncertainty; the effort, which the fancy makes to complete the idea, rouzes the spirits, and gives an additional force to the passion.

7. As despair and security, though contrary, produce the same effects; so absence is observed to have contrary effects, and in different circumstances, either increases or diminishes our affection. ROUCHEFOUCAULT has very

VOL. II.

wellremarked, that absence destroy's weak passions, But increases strong as the wiñaréxtinguishestareahidle, but blows up a fire. Long absence naturalis weakens our idea, and diminishes the passion': But where the affection is so strong and lively as to support itself, the unea! siness arising from absence increases the passion, and gives it new force and influence.10* UIT ?I on 918.? When the soul applies itself to the performance of any action, or the conception of any object, to which it is not accustomed, there is a certain unpliableness in the faculties, and a difficulty of the spirits moving in their new direction. As this difficulty excites the spirits, it is the source of wonder, surprise, and of all the emotions which arise from?novelty and is, in itself, agreeable, like every thing which enlivenis the mind to å modérate degree. . But though surprise be agreeable in itself, yet, as it puts the spirits ini agitation, it not only augments our agreeable affections, but also our painful, according to the foregoing principle. Hence every thing that is new is most'affecting, and gives us either more pleasure or pain, than what, strictly speaking, should naturally follow from it. When it often returns upon us, the novelty wears off, the passions subside; the hurryof the spirits is over'; and we survey the object with greater tranquillity: 9:10" ! 11. ^ ! stb) I'. 704 5.1:

9. The imagination and affections have a close unfah together. The vivacity of the former gives force to the latter. Hence the prospect of any pleasure, with which we are acquainted, affects us more than any other plea, sure, which we may own superior, but of whose nature we are wholly ignorant. Of the one we can form a particular and determinate idea : The other we conceive under the general notion of pleasure.

Any satisfaction, which we lately enjoyed, and of

which the memory is fresh and recents operates on the will with more violencey than another of which the traces are decayed and almost obliterated. I gutta flickold

A pleasure which is suitable to the way of life, in which we are engaged, excites more our desire and appetite than another, which is foreign to it. rie i 20e

Nothing is more capable of infusing any passion into the, mind, than eloquence, by which objects are represented in the strongest and most lively, colours. The bare opinion of another, especially when enforced with passion, will cause an idea to have an influence upon us, though that idea might otherwise have been entirely ne glected.. tis ., 1.7713 CH 10 metais ..?

It is remarkable, that lively passions commonly attend a lively imagination. In this respect, as well as in others, the force of the passion depends as much on the temper of the person, as, on the nature and situation of the object,o uris tud , pot.c;}} Id233T; & 1110 ,569

What is distant, either in place or time, has not equal influence with what is near and contiguous. 1357.; if 884 blisode **sud viinitt, ****y urft eftir ***31054"key Toqus amk 14? Dit fr :* foto] Brotty'!;!

I pretend not to have here exhausted this subject. It is sufficient for my purpose, if I have made it appear, that, in the production and conduct of the passions, there is a certain regular mechanism, which is susceptible of as accurate a disquisition, as the laws of motion, optics, hydrostatics, or any part of natural philosophy rivoel .$919 19dito yas alert 3) eisitinis bei sollys ?**?!! 9713sa odw to tou, 701737 pis 1!750 VS S'N Brost!!,

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