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his mane, and Britain be called upon to sustain, by her arms, the rank she holds in the eyes of nations, the bonnet and the plaid shall again ware victorious over the fields of the dead, and prove the folly of resistance, to the mistress of the ocean, when supported by Clann nan gael a gualibh a chiele.*
* The children of the Gael—shoulder to shoulder.
There's not a flower that blooms around, but I see wither and die, and yet men will continue to call me, —me alone—the "light, the delicate, the quicklyfading Rose." Ungrateful men! my short existence do I not devote entirely to your gratification, and, when I fade and wither, do I not, even in death, afford to you a supply of the sweetest perfumes, and give to your cordials and your balsams their most refreshing odour and most healing virtue? and yet ye will continue to exclaim—" Ah! the light, the frail, the delicate and quickly-fading Rose 1"
So, from her highly perfumed throne, sighed the queen of flowers, already, perhaps, feeling the first slight warnings of incipient decay.
A maiden, who was standing nigh, overheard the complaint and thus she made reply. Nay, little sweet one, fret not thus, and term not ingratitude that, which is but the expression of the warmest love, the most endearing affection. There's not a flower that blooms around us but we are doomed to behold wither and fade away, and yet we murmur not; for we know that 'tis but the fate that nature hath decreed: but to thee, the queen of them all, to thee alone, we wish and we hope immortality; when, therefore, we see our wishes wither, and our hopes decay, O, then, suffer us to lament the fate which we would, but which, alas! we cannot avert. All the beauty, the youth, the pleasure of our own existence, we compare to thee, and when these, as thou dost, fade, and fade for ever, O, then, deeply do we mourn and sadly do we sing—" Ah I the light and graceful, but frail and fading Rose!"
British America.—By John Macgreoor. 2 Vols.
Edinburgh, 1832. We have had many books, lately, written on British America, but we are inclined to say that this work contains a great fund of most useful information, connected with our Northern possessions, in the Western world. Mr. M'Gregor is no idolater of the Yankees, and, perhaps, although he occasionally looks at men and things, through the medium of Highland prejudices, yet, upon the whole, his opinions are well entitled to the consideration of all, who wish to obtain an accurate knowledge, especially of the Canadas, and Nova Scotia. In the preface to this work, Mr. MacGregor gives a graphic sketch of the general state of our transatlantic possessions, of their value, of the treatment which they have received at the hands of the mother country, and of the connexion which they hold with neighbouring states. As an instance of the great importance to Great Britain, of our American Colonies, the author states that "the province of Nova Scotia alone, if possessed by the United States, would render that republic independent of all Europe; and, in the event of another war, when steam-ships will become terrible to all others, the Americans would be enabled, by possessing the exhaustless coal and iron mines of Nova Scotia and Cape Breton, to defy the united naval force of all Europe on the shores of the western world. At present the Americans have no coal within themselves that we know of, except the
I remarkably slow kindling anthracite, which is useless for the immediate fire required in the furnaces of steam-engines, while Great Britain now possesses the most valuable treasures of the most useful of all minerals, coal and iron, in the parts most convenient for immediate use, both in her home and colonial dominions."
Throughout the work there is much useful information conveyed to the reader with regard to the subject of emigration, much to shew that it is no "common-day business, but a most serious consideration for a man with his family to remove from the place in which he was born and brought up, and from' occupations to which he has been trained and habituated from his childhood, to a country far distant, and in many respects different from his own, and in which he must assume pursuits and acquire ideas to which he is a perfect stranger."
We have, also, an excellent account of the Fisheries in Newfoundland, with some most interesting sketches of the Red Indians. Some of these we had marked for extract, but we prefer presenting our readers with the following amusing account of the
STATE OF SOCIETY AT HALIFAX. "The state of society in Halifax is highly respectable. The officers of the civil government, and of the army and navy, mix very generally with the merchants and gentlemen of the learned professions; and most of the leading residents, whether engaged in commercial or other pursuits, are men of genteel education and intelligence. These circumstances impart to the first class of society in Halifax, more refinement, more elegance and fashion, than is to be met with probably in any town in America. I will not except even Quebec and Montreal: certainly no town in the United States.
"The style of living, hours of entertainment, fashions, manners, dress, are all English. Dress is fully as much attended to as in London; and many of the fashionable sprigs who exhibit themselves in the streets and lounging-places of Halifax, and indeed in lesser towns in British America, might even in Regent Street be said to have attained the ne plus ultra of ' dandyism.'
"The amusements of Halifax are principally such as are usual in the other North American provinces; in all of which, assemblies, pic-nic parties, and amateur theatricals, form leading sources of pleasure. Annual horse races, on a respectable scale, have for some time been established; and it is remarkable, that all over America there is a general passion for this kind of diversion or amusement. Regattas, for which Halifax harbour is one of the finest in the world, have been conducted with great spirit and splendour, annually, for a few years past. Riding, fishing, and shooting in summer, skating and driving about cabriolets or sledges in winter, are other pleasures which are delighted in; and, when the streets are covered with ice, there is not a small share of exulting pride enjoyed by him who can drive with the greatest impetuosity round a corner.
"The troops, generally once a-year, afford the inhabitants the imposing spectacle of a sham battle.
"Excursions are also frequently made during summer, by those who can afford the time and expense, to different parts of the country.
"The balls, soirees, and dinners at Government House, aod the assemblies, are conducted in the same manner and style as English etiquette and fashion have established. Those who are admitted to these, (for although private feeling may sometimes be unavoidably and unintentionally lacerated, it is necessary to mark a line of demarcation somewhere,) are the officers of the civil government, those of three regiments, artillery and staff, and gentlemen of respectability and education from among the merchants and resident inhabitants. Fancy balls, but confined to the same circles, have also been introduced
"Those delightful sources of social pleasure—small evening parties at the houses of private families—which we enjoy in England with probably much greater satisfaction and happiness than any of our various public amusements, are, as respects America, more perfectly the property of Halifax. I believe there are few, who, having visited Halifax, and who have been at these small parties, but will say that they have insensibly forgot that they were not in England,—the language, the manners of the ladies and gentlemen, the style of dress, the dancing, the entregtnt or small talk, the apartments, the furniture, the refreshments, are all so truly alike, so much akin to England.
"It would be ungallant to take leave of Halifax without mentioning what none but those whose hearts are indeed cold, if they have visited the place, can forget—I mean the ladies. Along with my own admiration of their beauty, accomplishments, amiability, and excellence of character, I must add, that several English gentlemen, who were at Halifax while I was there, have frequently remarked to me their admiration of the beauty, genteel manners, and intelligence of the ladies. These gentlemen, I may also observe, were men of liberal education, well acquainted with the world, and in the habit of mixing with fashionable society in Europe. It may appear presumptuous to add farther, that in the small but neat theatre at Halifax, more genteel and beautiful ladies may be seen, than among the same number in the boxes of any of the London or provincial theatres. We may account for it from their being in reality ll greater number of respectable inhabitants in Halifax, according to its population, than in the towns of this country. In Halifax there are few labourers or manufacturers, and even the labouring people, by having greater means, are always better dressed than in England. In regard to the gentlemen of Halifax, and particularly those who have been born and educated in the province, I only record the opinion of other travellers, as well as my own, when I state, that, at the bar and in the pulpit, as merchants and as private gentlemen, we discover the natives of Nova Scotia, with few exceptions, to be men of superior attainments; and we must ascribe this principally to the careful provision that has been long made for the education of youth. Many circumstances also cherish and maintain among them endearments and associations connected with the mother country. The anniversaries of the titular saints of each of the three kingdoms are also celebrated at Halifax, with much spirit and cordiality; and, let indifferent spirits or cold hearts say what they may, there are but few indeed of those born in the British Isles, or of their offspring, who, when abroad, forget the associations and warm feelings of the heart, which filial regard and a lingering fondness for the United Kingdom, in spite of circumstances, inevitably nourish and preserve.
"The officers of his Majesty's civil list, and those of the army and navy, prefer Halifax, I believe, to any other town in America. They soon find themselves at home among the kind and hospitable inhabitants of the place; and I have never met an officer elsewhere, who was at Halifax for any time, who did not speak with enthusiasm of the place. The excellent library established by the Earl of Dalhousie, affords also to the military a variety of standard and popular works, which, at such a distance from England, to gentlemen whose profession can barely allow them to carry along their necessary luggage when travelling, must be considered a great advantage.
"There are six or seven weekly papers and a monthly magazine, and one or two circulating libraries; and also one or two booksellers, the principal one of whom imports from England and the United States the most approved new publications. There is also a livery-stable or two, the best of which is kept by a negro.
"It is in the streets of Halifax that we most forcibly feel that we are not in Europe. In place of the huge horses and carts and frocked carters of England, we observe a thing, convenient enough in its way, called a truck, which forms a kind of inclined plane to roll puncheons of rum and molasses on it, with a half-starved horse, and generally a negro driver. We see few four-wheeled carriages—no hackney coaches; but many drive their own gigs in summer, and almost every one has a horse and sledge, or cabriolet, for winter amusement j waggons coming in with hay from the country, driven by the tall lank sons of the farmers, clad in short light-blue jackets, grey or blue trowsers, and straw hats ; a parcel of lazy, miserable negroes, with some wild fruits or brooms to sell, from Hammond's plains; the proud strut of the well-fed and well-dressed negro servant; a group of Micmac Indians, probably drunk, with their squaws and children; here and there an Acadian Frenchman and his wife, decently and simply dressed, the latter much in the same fashion as that of her ancestors a century and a half past; all these, in contrast with brilliantly dressed
military officers, on horseback or on foot, the golden epaulets, cocked hats, and blue uniform of the navy, and fashionably dressed resident gentlemen and strangers, the exquisite dandy, groups of soldiers, and sailors belonging to the men-of-war, or to the merchant ships, may give some idea of the population that animate the streets of Halifax."
In conclusion, we have only room to say, that whoever wishes to obtain information about, North America, cannot do better than study Mr. M'Gregor's couple of volumes.
To the Editor of Tns Day. Sir,—As in The Day of this morning you state that the French ladies "assist the poor occasionally by lotteries," I am of opinion that the models borne in the Glasgow Reform Processions might, at the present moment, be disposed of for the purpose of benefitting the Royal Infirmary or some of the other Charitable Institutions. Those of the cabinet-makers as well as some others were particularly beautiful; and, when every class of society is doing so much to alleviate the distress of the poor, the miserable, and the diseased, it is certainly not an unreasonable matter, to call on the trades people to assist in the good work, and as to the models they could never be applied to a better use.—I am, &c. J. G. P. Glasyoio, Uth March, 1832.
APOSTROPHE TO A B1RIX
Fledged minstrel of the greenwood, stay—
Oh, stay! while to thy dim retreat,
Unmeet, if thou shouldst startled be
With thee! oh! in the wild-wood green
Unseen! but not unheard, my voice
Rejoice !—the sound unechoed falls
And palls! Be mine the sear leaf wan,
That weepeth them, in Autumn free,
Thine, man! who but to come the way,
Soke ladies of our acquaintance, have, lately, been listening to a call of charity from Fife and engaging their fair fingers in framing little pieces of handiwork for a Bazaar in that quarter. It is now a considerable time since any public sale of ladies' work has taken place in this city. Might not our beautiful citoyennes, instead of bestowing their labours upon other places, form another combination for the benefit of the suffering poor, similar to that which was attended with so much success in the year 1829. Judging from the proceeds of a Bazaar which was got up lately in Greenock, and which realized £5X0, we think such a thing might be productive of much advantage amongst ourselves. We would offer our congratulations to the ladies of Greenock on such unprecedented success attending their exertions in the cause of charity. The result is equally creditable to their good taste and industry, and to the liberality of so small a community, which was never known to resist a fair appeal to their sympathies or their purses.
The following is a correct copy of a Glasgow Assembly Advertisement of January 1779: —
There is to be a dancing assembly on Tuesday first, the second of February, to begin at six o'clock. Tickets for ladies and gentlemen to be had at Mr. Aird's music shop, King Street.
That the gentlemen, in those days, differed but little from those of the present, may be learnt from another advertisement which appeared in the Glasgow Mercury in March following, viz. :—
The assemblies, of late, have been so little frequented, that it begins to be doubted, whether that kind of diversion is agreeable to the public, or whether the gentlemen, by too intense an application to their glass, may not have impaired their locomotive /acuities.
There is, however, to be a Dancing Assembly upon Thursday the 1st of April. If it be well attended they will be continued as formerly.
There lived about fifty years ago, in the County of East-Lothian, a crazy fellow of the name of Alexander, or rather Sandy, Blackhall. He was possessed of some small share of that dry humour and roguery which are often found in natural idiots; but gluttony seems, from the stories told of him, to have been his chief characteristic.
Among the many houses which he used to visit, in his wanderings, was that of a gentleman, remarkable for his corpulence, a very portly individual indeed, well proportioned in all his limbs —his legs, arms, feet and hands, and above all his head, corresponding in magnitude to the hugeness of his trunk. Sandy Black' happening once to forgather with this man-mountain, was thus accosted by him, "Wecl, Sandy, whare's this ye're for?" In true Scotchman-like style, Sandy, without replying to the query, said to his interrogator: "I was just thinking" —and here he paused, casting a waggish look on his large friend. "What was ye thinkin', Sandy?"—" Eh! I was just thinkln', Mr. ——, what a fine patfu' o' kail your head wad mak'!"
At another time, an honest housewife, on whom he had found some excuse for calling, set before him a goodly supply of cakes and cheese, with a large roll of butter, from one end of which but a very little portion had been sliced. The glutton commenced tooth and nail on this ample store of eatables; but, in the middle of his repast, the old lady discovered that he had committed the grievous offence of helping himself to butter from that end of the roll which had not been touched: "Sandy, man," she cried, "ye've begun at the wrong end o' the butter." "Ou, aye, guidwife, but I'll come in by the richt end."
THE LADIES—ADEPT FIBBERS!
KILLING NO MURDER.
A Certain cotemporary, in his anxiety to send forth a full list of victims to the Cholera, has, in his zeal, killed off poor Jamie Blue, alias the Glasgow Demosthenes. The following epistle addressed, however, to a celebrated Bibliopole shews that the killing here is no murder:
Sir,—I am happy to inform you that the above interesting personage is at present in the enjoyment of excellent health, at his country residence, Duke Street Lodge. As soon as Choleraphobia shall permit, he will have the honour of submitting to your notice a number of literary and scientific pamphlets. Yours, &a
LONDON THEATRICALS. From our London Correspondent.
There has been little novelty in the Theatrical world since I last addressed you. At the King's Theatre, the Opera of Pierro TEremita has been performed, with its usual success, and although the cast was by no means good, the music is always certain to secure approbation.
It is said, in the dramatic circles, that Miss F. Kemble has written another tragedy, besides " Francis the First," and, what is still more important to tell you, that rumour says, that it is much better in plot than her former work. Another attempt has been made to induce Mr. C. Young to return to the stage this season, but the attempt has failed.
It is said that the proprietors of Drury Lane and Covent Garden have in serious contemplation a very important change, by materially reducing the price of admission to all parts of the two houses, so as, in this respect, to compete with their smaller rivals. If the experiment be tried, and it fails, they will not find it a very easy task to raise the price again; but that it isat present too high, considering the difference in the value of money now and twenty years ago, can hardly admit of a doubt.
Poole has written a very amusing piece, in two acts, for Ma. dame Vestris, which is to be acted early next week. It is founded on a few of the many strange anecdotes of Frederick II. of Prussia.
Hunting.—The price of hounds is perhaps not generally known. Thirty years ago, Sir Richard Puleston sold his to the Duke of Bedford for seven hundred; and, fifteen years since, Mr. Cubit's were sold to Lord Middleton for twelve hundred guineas. A well-known good pack will, in these times, bad as they are, command a thousand guineas. Those of Mr. Warde, Lord Tavistock, Mr. Nicoils, and Sir Richard Sutton, have been sold for that sum within the last few years. But a very short time since Mr. Osbaldeston sold ten couples of hounds for the same sum to Lord Middleton, and we have reason to believe he has hounds in his kennel for which he would not take two hundred guineas a piece. Knowing all this, one can make every allowance for the angry feelings of their owners when they see the chance of their being ridden over and destroyed in the chace. Good hounds are not easily replaced, and it is on this account that in hard-riding counties, and where the covers are small, seldom
more than sixteen or seventeen couples form a pack Quarterly
NOTICES TO CORRESPONDENTS.
"Da. Chalmers and the Royal Commission,'' will appear tomorrow.
"Cupid's Register for March," early next week.
We have received "Cyrus's" communication. We prefer his former verses to those last sent: provided he will curtail them of their unreasonable length we will attend to his request.
"Bessy Bell and Mary Gray" will have an early answer to their letter.
Ijg" All communications for the Editor of " True Dat" are requested to be left with the Publisher, Mr. John FiNLAY,Aro. 9, Miller Street.
Published, every Morning, Sunday excepted, by John Finlay, at No. 9, Miller Street; and Sold by John Wylie, 97, Argyle Street; David Robertson, and W. R. M'phun, Glasgow Thomas Stevenson, and the other booksellers, Edinburgh: DaVid Dick, and A. Gardner, Booksellers, Paisley: A. Laing, Greenock; and J. Glass, Bookseller, JRothsay.
PRINTED BY JOHN GRAHAM, MELVILLE PLACE.
A MORNING JOURNAL OF LITERATURE, FINE ARTS, FASHION, &c.
GLASGOW, SATURDAY, MARCH 17, 1832.
DR. CHALMERS AND THE ROYAL COMMISSION."
The subject which we are about to introduce to the notice of our readers, is one of so much importance, in every point of view, that we must call upon them for a more than common share of attention.
In 1823, Dr. Chalmers, at that time minister of the parish of St. John's, in Glasgow, was appointed to the chair of Moral Philosophy in the University of St. Andrew's, and, in November of the same year, began his labours as Ethical Professor. The immediate duties of his office afforded no time for inquiry into existing abuses: nor is it probable, that any such were supposed by him to have being. His business, at St. Andrews, was to teach Moral Philosophy, not to enact the part of a reformer. The income annexed to the situation of what is called a foundation Professor in that University, independently of what is received from a class, is made up of the following items :—
Regular salary, payable half-yearly, £96 0 0
Diet money, or house rent, payable at Laminas, 15 0 0
Jeiii 0 0
But, in addition to this, it has, for many years, been the practice for the Principal and Professors to appropriate a certain sum, derived from the college revenues, which they divide amongst themselves at Candlemas, under the name of the Candlemas dividend. The amount of this dividend is variable. It would seem to average £150 for each Professor, "and one year it was so large as £220."—(p. 43.) The income of a Professor at St. Andrews, including the Candlemas dividend, but exclusive of what he may derive from his class, is, then, £261 a year. In 1717, when the two colleges of St. Salvator and St. Leonard were united by Act of Parliament, the salaries of the Professors were fixed at £160 for the Principal, and £80 for each of the foundation Professors; but, in 1769, or 22 years afterwards, £22 were added to the Principal's salary, and £16 to the salary of each of the other Professors, not by an Act of Parliament, but by an act of the Senate of the University, which consisted of the parties who were to be the recipients of this augmentation, and who were, moreover, those who deliberated over its propriety. It is to be remarked, that no power is vested in the Professors, as a body, which could have warranted this singular step; but, as it left an annual surplus, which might be made available for general College purposes, and as the sum appropriated was not great, it does not seem to have excited any remark. In 1793, however, the system of appropriation was farther extended, and the annual surplus, "including arrears," was reserved in the hands of the Factor, and ordered to be divided equally among the nine masters as additional diet money. This was the origin of the Candlemas dividend.
The above details are necessary for understanding what is to follow. It is obvious, then, that the salaries of the Professors were fixed by act of Parliament, in 1747, and that they were augmented by the Professors, themselves, first, in 1769, and, again, in 1793; and, the natural inference, in ordinary cases, would be,
* Letter to the Royal Commissioners for the Visitation of Colleges in Scotland, by Thomas Chalmms, D.D.P.T. Edinburgh.
that men of their respectability would not have done this without some legal warrant. The fact, however, is otherwise. The surplus revenue was set aside by an Act of the Supreme Legislature, for the purpose of repairing and upholding the buildings of the University ; but the Professors, in direct defiance of this Act, and in derision of every elementary principle of justice, set the Act of Parliament aside, by an Act, emanating from themselves, and very decently pocket the University funds, under the modest denomination of the Candlemas dividend. The annual surplus, " if, ununtouched, would have accumulated, now, to upwards of £64,000;" (p. 45,) and, notwithstanding the diminution in the revenues of the colleges, which has been considerable, £1600, over and above their original salaries, "are, yearly, appropriated by the Professors," (p. 44.) Now, it so happened, that, when Dr. Chalmers began to inquire into this matter, he found it to be impossible for him, as a conscientious man, to participate in this wholesale spoliation, and he steadily refused to do so. To his colleagues, he said, since you see no moral impropriety in applying, to your own uses,' what belongs to the funds of the united colleges, of which you are the custodiers, you may take the Candlemas dividend, if you will, but I cannot do so, because, it appears to me that an act of my predecessors is not of force sufficient to obliterate an Act of Parliament. I wish to be relieved from the degrading necessity of helping myself, to what does not belong to me; but, if you will obtain the authority of any competent power, external to the college, whether that be a new Act of Parliament, an Act of Privy Council, or the judgment of Parliamentary Commissioners, I will then be satisfied. None of these, however, were obtained, and, during the whole period of his abode at St. Andrews, he never received one penny of the Candlemas dividend. Not only so, but, in 1826, he submitted, to the Royal Commissioners, for visiting the Colleges, a memorial, containing his grounds of dissent, and explaining, in detail, the reasons which induced him to take the view of the matter which he was conscientiously compelled to take; and, when the queries of the Commissioners were answered, the following exculpatory minute was appended :—
"It is proper to mention here, that Dr. Chalmers, Professor of Moral Philosophy, has declined to accept the Candlemas dividend, for reasons stated in the paper, ordered to be kept in retentis, by a minute of the 10th December, 1825. In the meantime, they are set aside by the society, in a situation of security, and bearing interest for his use."—(p. 11.)
When the returns were made to the Commissioners, Dr. Chalmers stood fairly absolved from all participation in that transaction, which, afterwards, called forth their condemnation; but the most singular part of this most singular story remains to be told. The book, containing the answers, and the above note, after remaining in Edinburgh for about a week, re-appeared at St. Andrews,—(how, is not stated) a meeting of the Professors was convened, and, in despite of the most strenuous exertions, to the contrary, on the part of Dr. Chalmers, the obnoxious explanation was expunged, and the document thus amended, was returned to the Commissioners. All this while, let it be remembered, Dr. Chalmers was no participator in the abuse of the college funds, yet he was made to appear so, by withholding the explanation—by placing the money in a bank, for his use—and, by including his name in the college accounts, as a receiver of the Candlemas dividend, though he had never fingered one copper of it. There remained, however, an awkward ness, which it was very desirable to have removed. It was this. The Commissioners had resolved on condemning the practice which had so long obtained at St. Andrews, of applying the public funds of the University to private uses; but they seem to have been unwilling that the conduct of his colleagues should contrast, so unpleasantly, with that of Dr. Chalmers, as it must do, if he was either allowed to have his case fairly stated, or to remain free from the pollution of accepting the money. The first part of the difficulty they got over, by expunging the note containing an acknowledgment of his non-participation; the second, they obviated in a manner equally novel, and equally just. Six months after he had taken up his residence at Edinburgh, and, without any application on his part, they ordered the following official communication to be forwarded to him :—
"Edinburgh, May 19,1829. "Reverend Sir,—In pursuance of instructions from his Majesty's Commissioners, for visiting the Universities and Colleges of Scotland, I transmit the enclosed Resolution to which they have this day come.—I have the honour to be, Reverend Sir, your most obedient servant,
(Signed)—" Jamks Aitekk, Sec."
"Reverend Thomas Chalmers, D. D. T late Professor of Moral Philosophy In > the United College, St Andrews." J
"College of Edinburgh, May 19, 1829. "The Commissioners took into consideration the state of the question brought before them by the Memorial, and other communications of the Reverend Dr. Chalmers, relative to the application of the surplus funds of the University of St. Andrews; and, understanding that, under feelings of scruple and delicacy, Dr. Chalmers had declined to receive for the period which he held the office of Professor of Moral Philosophy, the proportion of the sums allotted by the previous Resolutions of the College to that Professorship, and that a large sum remained due to him on that account, are of opinion, and hereby resolve, that, under all the circumstances, there is no good reason why Dr. Chalmers, who has now ceased to be a Professor, should not receive and accept of the sums so due to him; and they therefore instruct the Secretary to communicate a copy of this Minute and Resolution, to the Principal of the United College, and to Dr. Chalmers.
"An accurate copy.
(Signed)—"james Aitken, Secretary.'
Acting on this communication, "as the award of a competent authority," (p. 20,) he received the money, £745—in due time the commissioners make up their report—in due time it is laid on the table of the House of Commons—and, in due time, it finds its way amongst thousands of the community, containing, amid other matters, a just condemnation of the practice of misappropriation which had prevailed at St. Andrews; but carefully abstaining from any notice of the part which the Professor of Moral Philosophy had taken. In the list of defaulters Dr. Chalmers's name is to be found, and that after explanations had been given and memorials written. The ingenious piece of strategy, which had been adopted by these honourable persons, had reduced the Doctor to the rank of his fellows; and, though it be true that this was accomplished by an act of the Commissioners themselves, it seems that this was no justification whatever of his conduct.
It is against this glaring act of injustice that Dr. Chalmers has appealed in the pamphlet before us, and we cannot imagine a more triumphant vindication of his conduct than that which it contains. It is not the petulant production of an angry and turbulent polemic, but the calm, firm, and energetic defence of a high-minded gentleman, and a Christian minister, who feels that, in both capacities, he has been most disengeniously dealt by; and yet it is a production which it is impossible to peruse without feelings of regret and surprise. In the exercise of his Royal preroga
tive, and with the advice of his Parliament, the King selects, from the body of the Scotch nation, a limited number of noblemen and gentlemen, whose rank and attainments might justly place them above all suspicion of subserviency to vulgar prejudices, or to party malevolence, and to them he entrusts the delicate task of inquiring into the state of the Scotch Universities, expecting, no doubt, that the documents submitted by them to Government would bear the impress of truth and impartiality. What, then, must be the disappointment of every man of common honesty, whatever be his rank, when it is found that the statements of these distinguished persons have called forth, from his retreat, one of the most eminent members of the national church, in the novel aspect of a defender of his moral character, and of his personal consistency? and how melancholy is it to reflect, that such a man should, by the suppression of documentary testimony, be held up to the world in the light of a pretender to scruples of which he never actually felt the force? We know not where the blame lies; for we are extremely unwilling to believe that the deliberate purpose was formed, of destroying the fair name of an innocent individual, by men, who, individually, must be esteemed incapable of an act of such atrocious baseness; but, of this, we are certain, that, until some satisfactory explanation of this dark and ambiguous transaction is laid before the public, the conduct of the Commissioners will appear, to every unprejudiced mind, utterly inexplicable. Meanwhile, the pamphlet of Dr. Chalmers has gone forth to the four ends of the earth, as a corrective of the aspersions which have been cast upon him, and, so long as this pamphlet, containing, as it does, the subdued expression of a spirit which has been wantonly wounded, remains unanswered, the doers of this work must not expect that they will be allowed to shield themselves with an official panoply of proof. Achilles's armour would not protect them—they must explain—or abide by the consequences.
The question of chapel attendance, and the reply of the Professors, we will, perhaps, consider on some future occasion
THE CHRISTIAN TRAVELLER No. I.
This world is inconsistent in the award of its approbations, its honours, and its fame. Would not applause, the most gratifying, await the philanthropist who, informed of disease and distress in a distant clime, should leave all the endearments of home, the protection of mild and equitable laws, the comforts of civilization, the friends and associations of youth, and the land of his sires, to wander amid savage and uncultivated wilds, that he might alleviate the sorrows of suffering humanity? Would not persons, of all opinions, consider mankind as illustrated and adorned by a character so noble? Would not the storied urn, and animated bust, rise in commemoration of his worth, and his example be held forth as a model for the imitation of the world?
Now, all this has been done, and more, and yet the world has not only refused its approbation, but has also attributed false motives to the philanthropist, and scorned and despised all his exertions. Evidence of the benefit of these exertions, has, in a thousand different ways, been offered, and rejected. The world has even refused to examine it, as if to remain in igrance of a fact were to refute it. Surely, surely, if the interest, which the simple narrative of some of our christian travellers contains were their only recommendation, many who now remain in ignorant hostility would confess that, at least, selfish motives could not be ascribed to the narrators. The first traveller's memoir we shall introduce is that of the Judsons.
On the 19th of February, 1812, Mr. and Mrs. Judson sailed from Salem, in the Brig Caravan, for