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“missionaries” as well. What are these lay preachers but missionaries? They are home missionaries detailed to operate upon the "tender minds" which Girard desired should be kept free from their influence until those minds could adopt “such religious tenets as their matured reason might prefer.” Possibly if left alone their matured reason might reject the doctrines of the trinity, blood atonement of Christ, hell fire, etc., and they might by the light of history look upon Thomas Paine as a man as worthy of respect as Moody or Sankey.

The orthodox protestants congratulate themselves upon having outwitted Girard. One of the lay preachers, in his opening remarks, unwittingly admitted, that “the founder of the College never contemplated or intended such a service as then and there engaged their attention.” In explanation of the manner in which it had been brought about to the glory of God, hè quoted several times the lines:

“God moves in a mysterious way

His wonders to perform." Never was there so shameless a perversion of a great trust. If the American people, outside of Philadelphia, have any sense of honor and propriety, they will in some way combine to cause the City of Brotherly Love to be cited before the courts, to show cause why it should not be required to carry out in good faith the trust confided to it by Stephen Girard.

Those who may have an inclination to examine this matter further, are recommended to procure a small volume, written by Richard B. Westbrook, D.D., LL.D., and published by the author at 1707 Oxford St., Philadelphia, in which will be found these and other facts, and the whole subject fully and ably discussed.


PARIS-BJÖRNSTJERNE BJÖRNSON. On the 7th of October, 1884, in Paris, I first met Bjornson. He had just returned from Tyrol where he had been spending a couple of months. He received me very cordially, and invited me to dine with him next day. After dinner, we took a walk in the Bois de Bologne. We had been corresponding for some months, and the obnversation turned very naturally upon the political affairs of Norway, which had been discussed in the letters.

He is a large, broad chested man, with dark, bushy hair. He was then 53 years of age. Had a wife and five children. He has a frank, open countenance—is very interesting in conversation-at times becomes very brilliant.

During the two months that I now spent in Paris, I had frequent opportunities of seeing and studying this distinguished man, than whom probably no one, since the death of Victor Hugo, stands higher in continental literature. Besides meeting him often on other occasions, I was a regular attendant at his Sunday evening receptions, where a brillant coterie of personal friends held conversation in four languages; French, German, Norwegian and English; and not a few of his guests could converse in either of the four.

One evening, I found him engaged in replying to a letter which he had received from Ingersoll; of whom he was a great admirer. The same evening he read to me.his new poem, "Bonder de Kommer.” “The Peasants are coming."

Bjornson prefers to reside in Paris, on account of its literary advantages, but he is a constant power in Norwegian politics. He represents the radical element-being in favor of bringing his native country as fast as possible to a itpublican form of government.

One of Bjornson's characteristics is, the remarkable versatility of his genius. He is at the same time great as a novelist, a poet, an essayist, a dramatist, an orator, and a philosopher. One of his earlier writings, "The Republic," is pervaded by a deep and profound political philosophy.

One day Bjornson asked me if I had heard the music at the Theatre du Chateau d'Eau, near the Place de la Republique. I said I had not and asked him if it was good. He replied “I suppose it is the best in the world.” When I reflected that this had not come from a Frenchman, I resolved to go. If it was not the best, it would be difficult to say where it could be excelled. The music was entirely instrumental. There were 100 instruments, one of which was played by a lady.

The first piece was the Symphonie en la majeur, by Beethoven. It lasted 'three-fourths of an hour. Before the first part was finished, many of the audience were in tears.

I do not purpose to describe any of the sights of Paris—its public buildings—its parks—its fountains—its churches—its cemeteries—its museums and collections of paintings, statuary and antiquities—its many and varied places of entertainment and amusement-its theaters or the grand opera. This I attended with Strakosch and the American singer, Miss Thursby, who had just returned from an engagement in the Scandinavian countries. There she had been accompanied by Wolff, the violinist, under the management of the son of the famous Ole Bull.

The American minister, Mr. Morton, was absent from Paris, but from the accomplished and gentlemanly Secretary of Legation, Mr. Henry Vignaud, of Louisiana, I obtained a ticket to attend the opening of the Chamber of Deputies, on the 14th of October. There was nothing on this occasion to particularly distinguish it from other legislative bodies.

On the evening of October 21, in company with Fernando Jones, of Chicago, I attended the “Ramblers' Club.” It was composed of American travelers and sojourners in Paris, and part of the exercises consisted in the relation by the members, of their experiences and adventures in traveling. Some of these were very amusing. One of the members had invented a new balloon, for taking observations in time of war, and this invention he elaborated at considerable length. It was connected with a new system of explosive projectiles.

When an American has become adjusted to his surroundings, he may feel almost as much at home here, as in New York or Chicago. When one contemplates the quiet, orderly and industrious inhabitants of the Paris of

to-day, he wonders where the excited people came from who have repeatedly carried destruction through the City.

The first week in November was an exciting one to Americans in Paris, who were eagerly watching the returns of the presidential election. It was not until Saturday, the 8th, that the matter was looked upon as decided.

Perhaps the most interesting thing I saw in Paris was the Hotel and Museum de Cluny, especially the great hall and roof of the ancient castle of Therme. This hall must be from 60 to 70 feet across, each way, and about the same in height, with a self-supporting roof of solid masonry. The roof appears to have stood in its present condition 1500 years. According to the chroniclers, it was here that Julian the Apostate was proclaimed Emperor, in the year 360. It appears to be as old as the reign of Constance Chlore. When one observes the signs of the great antiquity of this stone, and reflects upon the distance across, and the quantity of stone overhead, it is impossible not to have a feeling of danger; especially when the eye is directed to some ominous fissures.

Having seen something of Paris, but having a vivid consciousness of how much there was that I had not seen, I took the cars, on the Sth of December, for Berlin.

C. B. W.


A TREATISE ON PRIVATE CORPORATIONS. The effect of the clause of the Constitution of the United States that forbids a State to pass a “Law impairing the obligation of Contracts," upon the police control of a State over Private Corporations. BY WM. WHARTON SMITH. PHILADELPHIA BAR. PHILADELPHIA: REES, WELSH & Co., LAW PUBLISHERS, 19 SOUTH NINTH STREET, 1889.

This book comes recommended by its size, provided the subject is properly handled and judiciously condensed, for in that case it must be “multum in parvo," consisting as it does, of only about 50 octavo pages.

That this method has been pursued soon becomes evident from an examination of the contents.

The titles of the chapters will give an outline of the work:
Ch. I. General nature of Police Power.

II. Article 1, Section 10, of the Constitution of the United States, the decision in the Dartmouth College case, and the questions following that decision.

III. Principle of Providence Bank v. Billings.

IV. The remedy exercised by, or against a corporation is no part of its franchise, and is within legislative control.

V. Police control over railroad companies.
VI. Control of charges of corporations other than railroads.
VII. Regulations over corporations not demanded by public safety.
VIII. A State cannot violate an express provision contained in the char-
ter of a corporation, provided same be constitutional.

IX. Cases illustrating the extreme exercise of Police Power.
X. Limitation on Police Power, even in these cases.

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